Organ Culture Studies of Human Prostatic Adenocarcinomas

Organ Culture Studies of Human Prostatic Adenocarcinomas

1018 ONCOLOGY AND CHEMOTHERAPY cence was found in human and rat prostates at high 17-{3 fluoresceinated dihydrotestosterone derivative concentration...

41KB Sizes 2 Downloads 18 Views

1018

ONCOLOGY AND CHEMOTHERAPY

cence was found in human and rat prostates at high 17-{3 fluoresceinated dihydrotestosterone derivative concentrations. This fluorescence could be blocked by unlabeled dihydrotestosterone in 11 and 75 per cent of human and rat prostatic tissue, respectively. Control studies of receptor and organ specificity showed that preheated slices from rat prostates showed no decrease of fluorescent staining. No difference in fluorescence intensity could be seen between prostates from castrated and uncastrated rats. Unstained tissue slices showed frequently a considerable intensity of autofluorescence. An appreciable amount of fluorescence in rat liver and spleen was found. From these results and various general methodical problems inherent in fluorescent receptor assays, the authors concluded that the fluorescence techniques described are inappropriate for demonstration of androgen receptors. W. W. K. 5 figures, 50 references

Plasma Estradiol, Free Testosterone, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Binding Capacity, and Prolactin in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Cancer

S.

RANNIKKO AND H. ADLERCREUTZ, Second Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital and Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Prostate, 4: 223-229, 1983 The incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer increases with age. Concomitant with increasing age, an increase in plasma estrogen level and a decrease in androgen level have been reported. An increase in sex hormone binding globulin binding capacity is correlated with a changed ratio of estrogen to androgen in older men. The data concerning differences in blood hormone levels between normal men and patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatic cancer are controversial and, therefore, no typical hormone pattern for benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatic cancer has been described. The authors document the results of their well structured and controlled study. The nature of hormonal changes with age and the possible role of these changes in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer were studied by assay of testosterone, estradiol, prolactin and sex hormone binding globulin binding capacity in 20 normal men between 40 and 59 years old, 30 with benign prostatic hyperplasia between 63 and 79 years old and 30 with prostatic cancer of similar height, weight and age as those with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mean estradiol was significantly lower in the prostatic cancer patients and in the young controls than in the benign prostatic hyperplasia patients (p <0.0005). The mean free testosterone was significantly higher in the young controls than in the patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer. The prostatic cancer patients had a slightly lower mean free testosterone and mean estradiol/free testosterone ratio than those with benign prostatic hyperplasia, while this ratio was significantly higher in the patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer than in the young controls. It seems possible that the observed age-dependent significant increase in plasma estrogen concentration in the benign prostatic hyperplasia patients may act as a protective factor against prostatic cancer. W. W. H. 1 table, 44 references

Cell-Mediated Immunity in Prostatic Cancer and its Diagnostic Relevancy R. J. ABLIN, P. D. GUINAN AND R. A. BHATTI, Divisions of Immunology and Urology, Cook County Hospital and the Hektoen Institute for Medical Research, Chicago, Illinois

Eur. J. Cancer Clin. Oncol., 19: 467-471 (Apr.) 1983 These investigators have studied cell-mediated immunity in 504 patients with or without prostatic cancer. The focus has been on presumptively identified prostatic tumor-associated antigen using a tube leukocyte adherence test. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 210 of 312 patients (67 per cent) with prostatic cancer showed reactivity to extracts of malignant prostatic tissue. Of interest was a significant reactivity observed in 89 of 192 control patients (46 per cent) including other cancer. These authors have indicated that what are called prostatic tumorassociated antigens should be separated from possible concomitant sensitization to prostatic tissue and species-specific antigens. N. J. 3 tables, 13 references

Organ Culture Studies of Human Prostatic Adenocarcinomas D. MISTRY, J. P. WEAVER AND A. RICHES, Department of Anatomy and Experimental Pathology, University of St. Andrews, and Department of Urology, Dundee Royal Infirmary, Scotland Prostate, 4: 307-314, 1983 Several in vitro and in vivo models have been used to study the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, etiology and the chemosensitivity of human prostatic adenocarcinomas. Since human prostatic cancer presents a variety of histological types, rates of growth, hormone dependency and tendency to metastasize, it is unrealistic to look for a single model that would parallel the clinical situation. The in vitro models used by various investigators include organ and cell culture systems. The main limitation of cell culture systems is that there often is a possibility of enrichment of specific subpopulations within tumors. This technique can include cells from nonmalignant peripheral tissue and none of the models can provide information about the behavior of each individual tumor. However, the technique of organ culture offers this advantage. The main limitation of this technique is that it cannot be used successfully for those studies designed to test the sensitivity of drugs that may require prior metabolic conversion in vivo to an active form. The authors studied the proliferative responses of human prostatic carcinoma in organ culture using 125iodine (125 1) iododeoxyuridine to monitor deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. The morphological preservation was not influenced by the addition of fetal calf serum or insulin, transferrin and thyrotropin releasing hormone to the active medium. Testosterone stimulated 1251 iododeoxyuridine uptake, whereas diethylstilbestrol had no direct effect. Estramustine phosphate and estradiol inhibited uptake in a similar manner. Thus, while explants of human prostatic carcinoma derived from transurethrally resected specimens can be maintained well in organ culture for a few days, proliferative responses are small and difficult to measure for individual patients. W. W. K. 6 tables, 24 references