Organic micropollutants in drinking water and health

Organic micropollutants in drinking water and health

trendsin analyticalchemistry, vol. 5, no. 8,1986 XXII books Recent advances in capillary GC and SFC Advances in Capillary Chromatography, edited by ...

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trendsin analyticalchemistry, vol. 5, no. 8,1986

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books Recent advances in capillary GC and SFC Advances in Capillary Chromatography, edited by J. G. Nikely, Hiithig Veriag, 1986, DM 56.00 (xi + 138pages) ISBN3-7785-1143-2 This book contains seven papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the Subdivision of Chromatography and Separation Chemistry (Division of Analytical Chemistry) of the American Chemical Society, held in Philadelphia in 1984. It is part of Htithig’s Chromatographic Methods Series. It is well produced, clearly printed and contains an excellent index. Chapter 1, by Walter Jennings, gives an overview of the state of the art of capillary gas chromatography. Injection techniques, chemically bonded stationary phases, and the influence of the column diameter on the separation performance are described. The author discusses pros and cons of micro-bore and megabore columns. The mega-bore column is essentially capable of replacing the packed columns. The microbore column has a (very) few highly specialized applications. Chapter 2 is written by Milton Lee and Karin Markides, and entitled ‘Recent advances in capillary supercritical fluid chromatography’. From my own experience and reading the chapter, it is clear to me that the method ‘works’ and shall have a prosperous future. Equipment, column type. and dimensions, stationary and mobile phases are discussed. Chapter 3, written by Sharon Smith describes the problems and possibilities of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled to capillary GC. Most hyphenated techniques suffer from imperfect interfaces. Improvements therein are expected to continue. As the technique develops and the libraries become more extensive, capillary

GC-FTIR should become a valuable independent technique. Chapter 4 is written by Dick Smith and co-workers. Apart from the overlap with Milton Lee’s chapter, the authors provide much detail on the coupling of the mass spectrometer to the capillary supercritical fluid chromatograph. This article is written by the ‘experts’ in the field. Examples show the importance of the technique. Chapter 5 shows how capillary GC operates in an industrial environment. Standardization is a key issue. A set of standardized columns have been proposed for use. in a pharmaceutical industry. Chapter 6 ‘is very short and does not fit so well in the book. It is mainly concerned with the use of capillary GC in combination with a triple sector mass spectrometer. Specially, economic aspects of this still young and expensive technique are highlighted over technical aspects. - In the last chapter, by Przybyciel, Santangelo and Walla, a description

of a ‘selective stationary phase for capillary GC: the development of crosslinked Superox-4’ is given. In the summary of their article, the authors state exactly what a crosslinked Superox- phase can do for the chromatographer: high upper temperature limit, good efficiency, polar nature and inertness toward water make such capillary columns useful for a wide range of analytical applications. This article is short and well written and contributes very much to the title. In conclusion, the book is excellent value for those who want to have a quick overview on the recent advances made in capillary GC and supercritical fluid chromatography. H. A. H. BILLIET .

H. A.

H. Billiet is at the Laboratorium voor Analytiwhe Chemie, Gebouw van

Algemene en Analytische Vries van Heijstplantsoen De& The Netherlands.

Chemie, De 2, 2628 RZ

Recommended reading for all who are involved in water treatment Organic Micropollutants in Drinking Water and Health, edited by H. A. M. de Kruijf and H. J. Kool, Elsevier, 1985, Dfl. 36O.OOlUS$l33.25 (xx + 508pages) ISBN O-444-42583-7 This volume shows that there are large numbers of persons actively carrying out research on organic micropollutants in drinking water and emphasises the complexity of treatments and analytical problems involved .

An excellent paper by Toft discusses the legislative problems involved and compares enforcement regulations in Canada and the U.S.A. The Environmental Protection Agency currently enforces regulations for 10 organic chemicals in the U.S.A., while Canada has regulations for 21. Toft also quotes Packham (1984) who estimates that there are 2000 organic chemicals in drinking water supplies. Cotruvo deals briefly with natural products and concentrates mainly on

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trend in analyticalchemistry, vol. 5, no. 8,1986

treatment by-products. However his overview on potential pollutants and the problems that can occur with groundwater is excellent. Lewis discusses the impossible task of setting water quality standards worldwide and concludes that only recommendations or guidelines be provided. His is the only paper in this large volume with no references. Whilst on the subject of references, I feel that in a volume such as this all the references should be in a set standard form; this is not the case. Also, the paper by Sontheimer, Brauch & Kiihn which contains a great deal of information and experience was spoilt by having key concepts labelled as figures (1, 2, 7, 13, 20 and 21) while figures 3, 4, 12, 18 and i9 are actually tables which are mentioned as such in the text. All these mistakes should have been corrected before this volume went to press. The problems and treatment evolved in Holland are discussed in great detail in papers by van DijkLooijaard and de Kruijf, Van Der Gaag ef al., Kool et al., Noqfvj er al. and De Leer and Erkeletis. Alth?ugh 66% of the drinking water consumed in Holland originates from groundwater, the remaining 34% is frqrn surface water, mostly taken from the Rhine and Meuse rivers which requires specialist treatment. The vital importance of international co-operation is stressed and the effects of airborne pollutants are discussed. Noordsij ef al. found 600 organic compounds from 18 sites of the Rhine delfa and only one third of this number has been identified. In their pH 2 fraction it was not clear whether the mutagenicity that was found originates directly from the Rhine water or if it is introduced by transforming processes in the ground. Baxter’s paper on the effect of a hazardous and a domestic waste landfill on trace organic quality of chalk groundwater was a disappointment as the results and discussion are rather sparse. Fawell and Fielding give an excellent review of hazardous compounds in drinking water but again no results from the U.K. Van Der Gaag and Van De Ker-

koff have progressed some way towards a mutagenicity testing of water by the use of fish but their results show there are still many problems to be solved before it becomes a routine method. Tables 1 and 2 in the paper by Bull are an excellent reference starting point for information on the toxicological problems that are involved in drinking water. While Taylor et al. showed that trichloroethylene at relatively high concentrations had a long term effect on the behaviour of rats, Villeneuve et al. showed that the ‘no effect levels’ for 1.2.3. and 1.1.2. trichloropropane was 100 mg 1. Anselme et al. report on the dissolved organic compounds leaked from polyethylene tubing used as water mains. In some cases taste and odour problems remained after four months, which finally lead to the replacement of the pipe.

The above is just a summary of a few of the many excellent papers collected together in this large symposium volume, which should be on the book shelf of all persons interested in organic micro-pollutants. The overall reaction of the symposium emphasises the difficulty in not only dealing with micro-pollutants but in many cases the problems of identifying them. A great deal of research is still needed in the identification and treatment of organic micropollutants in this most important area of drinking water. H. CASEY

Dr. H. Casey is at the Freshwater Biological Association, River Laboratory, East Stoke, Wareham Dorset BH20 6BB, U.K.

Specialized problems and solutions Synthetic Peptides as Antigens, Ciba Foundation Symposium 119, Wiley, 1986, f 27.50 (x + 307pages) ZSBN O-471-99838-9

The deeper understanding of protein conformation arising from more recent X-ray crystallographic and other studies has led to the search for ways to design antigenic peptides with particular abilities, such as vaccines. Nevertheless, it is still very difficult to make accurate predictions of polypeptide secondary configuration and tertiary folding (conformation) abilities despite the advent of computer graphics. Very large numbers of equivalent low energy states are possible, and accurately predicting the major configuration and conformation actually adopted by the larger polypeptide or protein molecule may outstrip all present methods. Therefore the exact reason for the antigenicity (and general immunogenicity) of these molecules is not well understood (see pp. 6-24).

This useful book contains a wealth of current information on particular fundamental problems in protein (peptide-protein interaction, as presented at the conference held in London on 4-6 June, 1985. There are fourteen unnumbered chapters, plus discussion on each chapter, mostly multi-authored, which present a distinguished international coverage of specialised problems and solutions. There is also a useful introduction and summing up by the Chairman, G. L. Ada, followed by a valuable index. The Chairman’s introduction defines the problem of making suitable peptides, often by chemical or enzymic synthesis, that represent a particular antigenic region or domain of a protein (an epitope). This interacts with the host’s complicated immunological system, usually resulting in the production of specific antibodies (polyclonal). Many of the investigations of these phenomena at molecular level use monoclonal antibodies however - see pp. 264-278 containing a chapter entitled ‘Epi-