Overview and plumbing system implications of monogenetic volcanism in the northernmost Andes' volcanic province

Overview and plumbing system implications of monogenetic volcanism in the northernmost Andes' volcanic province

Accepted Manuscript Overview and plumbing system implications of monogenetic volcanism in the northernmost Andes' volcanic province H. Murcia, C. Bor...

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Accepted Manuscript Overview and plumbing system implications of monogenetic volcanism in the northernmost Andes' volcanic province

H. Murcia, C. Borrero, K. Németh PII: DOI: Reference:

S0377-0273(17)30594-2 doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2018.06.013 VOLGEO 6407

To appear in:

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research

Received date: Revised date: Accepted date:

30 September 2017 11 May 2018 20 June 2018

Please cite this article as: H. Murcia, C. Borrero, K. Németh , Overview and plumbing system implications of monogenetic volcanism in the northernmost Andes' volcanic province. Volgeo (2018), doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2018.06.013

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Overview and plumbing system implications of monogenetic volcanism in

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the northernmost Andes' volcanic province

Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad de Caldas, Colombia

Instituto de Investigaciones en Estratigrafía (IIES), Universidad de Caldas, Colombia Volcanic Risk Solutions, Massey University, New Zealand

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Murcia, H., 2Borrero, C., 3Németh, K.

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By

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*corresponding author: [email protected]

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Words = 5970 (without references); References = 107; Figures = 8; Tables = 0

Abbreviated title: Monogenetic volcanism in the northernmost Andes' volcanic province

Manuscript resubmitted to Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research Special Issue Monogenetic volcanism

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Abstract Monogenetic volcanic fields are commonly related to rifts and/or intraplate tectonic settings. However, they are also less commonly recognised in subduction zones, including both front and back-arc volcanoes (e.g. monogenetic volcanoes associated with the Llaima

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volcano in Chile or the San Agustín Volcanic Field in Colombia). Here, we describe

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monogenetic volcanic fields associated with subduction-related polygenetic volcanism in

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the northernmost part of the Andes Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) (2° S to 4°30´N). These

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fields are associated with the main axis of the Quaternary volcanoes. They are linked to the polygenetic San Diego – Cerro Machín Volcano Tectonic Province (~140 km long;

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SCVTP) in Colombia, the chain that hosts the iconic Nevado del Ruiz volcano. Presently,

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three monogenetic volcanic fields, with a typical calc-alkaline signature, have been

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identified on both sides of this province. From south to north, they are: 1) Pijaos Monogenetic Volcanic Field (PMVF), 2) Villamaría – Termales Monogenetic Volcanic Field

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(VTMVF), and 3) Samaná Monogenetic Volcanic Field (SMVF). PMVF is located ~25 km

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south of Cerro Machín volcano, the southernmost active volcano of the SCVTP. This field was formed by at least two eruptions with both effusive and explosive eruptive styles.

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Three cones and a maar are recognised. Previous work has defined the volcanoes as basaltic andesitic in composition, which we recognised as the most mafic expression (MgO 10-11 wt.%) in the whole SCVTP. Its source is related to the same, but deeper magma that feeds the volcanoes in the SCVTP. Stratigraphic relationships show that the volcanoes are younger than the underlying alluvial and volcaniclastic Ibagué fan (<2.58 Ma). VTMVF is located in the northwestern region of the SCVTP (>5 km of the axis of the province). This

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT field is made up of at least 14 volcanoes aligned with the active Villamaría – Termales fault system, as previous work has recognised. The volcanism has been mainly effusive, represented by lava domes and some lava flows. Since the 1980s, studies have framed these andesitic to dacitic volcanoes in the context of the history of the Nevado del Ruiz

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volcano. It is inferred that the magmatic source is a shallow magma reservoir underneath

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the SCVTP. Stratigraphic and field relationships have shown that the last eruption

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occurred <38 ka. SMVF is located ~50 km north of Romeral composite volcano, the

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northernmost active volcano from the SCVTP. Previous studies have revealed that this field comprises at least two volcanoes: A maar (~20 ka years old) and a pyroclastic cone

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(~33 ka years old). These studies defined the volcanic products as andesitic and dacitic in

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composition. It is inferred that this field is a result of the same magmatism as that of the

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SCVTP. Overall, it is clear that monogenetic volcanism is not atypical in the area. We thus propose a SCVTP magmatic plumbing system joining both the monogenetic and

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polygenetic volcanoes related to the subduction arc.

Keywords: Volcanic chains; Polygenetic volcanoes; Monogenetic volcanoes; Fracture

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aquifers; Colombia

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Introduction Monogenetic volcanoes refer to those that erupt only once in their lifespan (Connor & Valentine, 2015; Smith and Németh, 2017), and differ from polygenetic volcanoes, which experience more than one eruptive episode in their history and are

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commonly fed from shallow crustal magma chambers (Sigurdsson, 2015). Monogenetic

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volcanoes occur in any tectonic setting and are usually located in clusters; thus, they

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collectively form volcanic fields (Németh, 2010). These fields may be active for thousands

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or even millions of years in a similar way to a polygenetic volcano (Németh, 2010). Some monogenetic fields only host a few volcanoes, while others host hundreds of centres (e.g.

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Le Corvec et al., 2013). The centres can be lava domes, scoria or cinder cones, maar-

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diatremes, or tuff rings and tuff cones (Kereszturi & Németh, 2012; Kurszlaukis & Lorenz,

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2017), and the composition can vary from basic to as acidic as rhyolites (e.g. AustinErickson et al., 2011). The monogenetic eruptions can be effusive or explosive (magmatic

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or phreatomagmatic) depending both on the nature of the magma and the external

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environment (Smith & Németh, 2017). It is also known that monogenetic volcanoes are usually fed by a single batch of magma from deep, direct mantle source, and that there is

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typically little time for the magma to interact with the crustal rocks due to its rapid rise to the surface. This often results in less geochemically evolved magma (Smith & Németh, 2017). However, it has been recognised that this magma can experience some degree of fractionation, mixing, and in some cases, contamination by cognate or exotic (crustal) material (Smith & Németh, 2017), which suggests a likely stagnation in the crust. Consequently, every volcanic field is different, and eruption dynamics depend on many

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT factors. Presently, efforts worldwide are focused on understanding volcanic fields from a range of aspects in order to elucidate their geological behaviour through time (e.g. Lindsay and Moufti, 2014). Given their association with cities and sensitive facilities, efforts are particularly focused on estimating possible future eruption scenarios (e.g. Kereszturi et al.,

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2014; Deligne et al., 2017).

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Monogenetic volcanism in Colombia (Fig. 1A) has rarely been mentioned, and

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therefore scarcely studied. This is because the prominent polygenetic volcanoes such as

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Nevado del Ruiz and Cerro Machín have taken priority (e.g. Murcia et al., 2008; Murcia et al., 2010; Laeger et al., 2013; Martínez et al., 2014; Londoño, 2016). Recently, however,

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three monogenetic fields have been recognised (named and reported by us in previous

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studies: Borrero et al., 2017; Murcia et al., 2017a,b; Botero et al., 2017; Osorio et al.,

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2017). These monogenetic fields are associated with the volcanic chain called San Diego – Cerro Machín Volcano Tectonic Province (SCVTP; Martínez et al., 2014; Fig. 1B). From

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south to north, they are: Pijaos (PMVF), Villamaría – Termales (VTMVF), and Samaná

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(SMVF) volcanic fields (Fig. 1B).

Here, we present an overview of the monogenetic volcanic fields that overlap

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spatially and temporally with the well-known polygenetic volcanism of the SCVTP. We use previous studies from others and ourselves to assemble the geological information that frames their existence. We describe the stratigraphic and sedimentologic characteristics of the volcanic centres, along with their composition and their age. This information is then used in a novel approach to illustrate the plumbing system that may exist

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT underneath the province, as well as to highlight future studies that could increase our understanding of the volcanism in this part of the northern Andes. Figure 1 Regional geological setting

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The San Diego - Cerro Machín Volcano Tectonic Province (SCVTP) is located on the

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axis of the Central Cordillera of Colombia (Fig. 1A). It is related to the subduction of the

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Nazca Plate underneath the South American Plate (e.g. Bourdon et al., 2003). This process

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has generated magmatism that extends from the Plio – Quaternary up to today, and the SCVTP represents the northernmost volcanism in the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ; 2° S a

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5° N in the Ecuadorian and Colombian Andes; Bourdon et al., 2003).

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The SCVTP hosts at least 10 polygenetic volcanoes including (from south to north)

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Cerro Machín, Nevado del Tolima, Paramillo del Quindío, Paramillo de Santa Rosa, Nevado de Santa Isabel, Paramillo del Cisne, Nevado del Ruiz, Cerro Bravo and Romeral), and the

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Pijaos, Villamaría – Termales and Samaná monogenetic volcanic fields (Fig. 1B). The

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dominant composition in the whole province is andesitic to dacitic varying occasionally to basaltic andesite, all with calc-alkaline affinity (e.g. Toro et al., 2010).

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The basement of the SCVTP is primarily composed of Triassic metamorphic rocks from the Cajamarca Complex (~240 - 220 Ma, Villagómez et al., 2011), and a series of igneous intrusions with variable dimensions (refer to the Colombian Geological Map, 2015; Gómez-Tapias et al., 2015). The metamorphic rocks display a low to medium degree of metamorphism in the greenschist to amphibolite facies (Maya & González, 1995). These

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT rocks form the core of the Central Cordillera and have been named “Polimetamorphic Complex of the Central Cordillera” (Restrepo & Toussaint, 1982). In the northeastern area of the SCVTP, the Cajamarca Complex is intruded by the Early Cretaceous Samaná Igneous Complex (119 ± 10 Ma K-Ar in hornblende, Vesga and

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Barrero, 1978), the Paleogene Florencia Stock (54.9 ± 9 Ma, K-Ar in biotite, Barrero and

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Vesga, 1976), and a series of Neogene plutonic and sub-volcanic bodies (Gómez-Tapias et.

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al., 2015). In this sector, the Palestina Fault marks the contact between the metamorphic

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rocks and an Early Cretaceous metasedimentary sequence (Gómez-Tapias et al., 2015). In addition to the Cajamarca Complex and several Cretaceous and Paleogene

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igneous bodies, the eastern area of the SCVTP includes the Ordovician Santa Teresa

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Sedimentary Sequence (González, et al., 1995), the Jurassic Tierradentro Gneisses and

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Amphibolites (U-Pb metamorphic ages from 160 Ma to 156 Ma; Rodríguez et al., 2018), the Eocene El Bosque Batholith (49,1 ± 1,7 Ma, Vesga & Barrero, 1978), the Eocene El

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Hatillo Stock (55 Ma, Bayona et al., 2012), the Lower Cretaceous Mariquita Stock (143-129 Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Ibagué

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Ma, Bustamente et al., 2016), and the

Batholith (158 - 142 Ma, U-Pb zircon ages, Bustamante et al., 2016). These igneous units

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intrude the Cajamarca Complex and are overlaid by widespread Neogene volcaniclastic deposits associated with the volcanic activity of the area, namely: the Pliocene – Pleistocene Casabianca Formation (Borrero & Naranjo, 1990). In the southeastern area of the SCVTP, the Tierradentro Gneisses and Amphibolites, Cajamarca Complex, and Ibagué Batholith are present, as well as sedimentary deposits from the Late Miocene Honda Group (Horton et al., 2015). This unit

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT is unconformably overlain by volcaniclastic deposits from the Pliocene Mesa Formation (Horton et al., 2015). Younger (Quaternary) units such as Mariquita, Armero, Lérida, and Ibagué fans also appear in the area; all of them formed by volcaniclastic and epiclastic deposits (Gómez-Tapias et al., 2015).

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Besides the Cajamarca Complex, the southwestern, western, and northwestern

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regions of the SCVTP also include the Early Cretaceous Quebradagrande Complex

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(Villagómez & Spikings, 2013), the Early Cretaceous Arquía Complex (Villagómez &

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Spikings, 2013), and the volcanic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Amaime and Barroso formations (Kerr et al., 1997). The San Jerónimo, Silvia – Pijao, and Cauca Almaguer fault

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systems (Nivia et al., 2006) are the faults that put in contact these units. In the southwest,

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the basement is overlaid by sediments and rocks from the Aquitanian - Tortonian La Paila

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Formation, the Pliocene - Pleistocene Zarzal Formation, and the Pliocene - Pleistocene El Quindío alluvial fan (Neuwerth, 2009; Jaramillo et al., 2017). In the west-northwest,

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besides the Cajamarca and Quebradagrande complexes, the outcropping basement is the

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Paleocene quartz diorite – tonalithic rocks of Manizales Stock (56 ± 2 Ma and 57 ± 2 Ma, KAr in biotite; Brook, 1984). The basement is generally overlaid by the Miocene-Pliocene

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Irra – Trespuertas Formation (Sierra, 1994) and the Late Miocene Combia Formation (Ramírez et al., 2006). In turn, these units are overlaid by Middle and Late Pleistocene alluvial and volcaniclastic deposits (Borrero et al., 2006). Ultimately, a Late Pleistocene volcaniclastic unit called “Tefra Amarilla” (Borrero et al., 2017) covers the basement along the province in the eastern sectors.

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Pijaos monogenetic volcanic field (PMVF) PMVF is a monogenetic field located in the southernmost region of the SCVTP (bordering the city of Ibagué, Fig. 1B). It is formed by at least two volcanic centres, the Guacharacos (three cones) (4° 24’ 29’’ N, 75° 11’ 36’’ W, 1120 m asl; Fig. 1B and 2A) and El Tabor (4°24’

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00’’ N, 75° 10’ 33’’ W, 1000 m asl; Fig. 1B and 2B) (Núñez et al., 2001; Galindo, 2012;

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Núñez and Lozano, 2016; Gómez et al., 2016; Murcia et al., 2017a,b). The Guacharacos

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and El Tabor volcanic centres are 1.8 km apart from each other and sit on the Ibagué

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Batholith and the Ibagué Fan, respectively (cf. Gómez-Tapias et al., 2015). To date, no more volcanoes have been found in the area. This volcanism is likely related to the

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regional Ibagué fault, or the Rovira (N-S) and Buenos Aires (NW-SE) faults (Núñez and

Figure 2

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Lozano, 2016).

Stratigraphy and sedimentary characteristics of the pyroclastic deposits

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Guacharacos is the name used for the three dome-like geoforms (Galindo, 2012), which

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are recognised by us as three pyroclastic cones (Fig. 2A). Whether the three structures were formed during the same eruption is, however, yet to be determined. These

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pyroclastic cones have ballistic projectiles on the top (Fig. 3A) and, in the lower part of the flanks, are composed of diluted pyroclastic density current (PDCs) deposits, as indicated by the bedding linked to granulometric changes with very angular fragments (Fig. 3B). These cones also erupted lava flows that can be followed up to 1.2 km from their sources with a maximum preserved thickness of 20 m (Fig. 3C). The Guacharacos magma rose through the Ibagué Batholith, which may explain the dominantly magmatic (instead of

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT phreatomagmatic) products. However, the presence of dilute PDC deposits on the flanks also suggests the involvement of water, possibly sourced from fractures in the intrusive body. This has been noted in other fields where abundant lava flow units form the underlying successions of small volcanoes (e.g. Jeju Island; Sohn & Park, 2004; Kim et al.,

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2012).

Figure 3

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The crater floor of El Tabor centre is lower than the surrounding terrain, and is

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therefore interpreted as a maar (e.g. Kurszlaukis and Lorenz, 2017). The crater is an open geoform towards the east. It is currently 20 m deep and 600 m in diameter (Fig. 2B). The

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outer edifice flanks have less than one degree in slope. El Tabor had a lake within the

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crater, although today only swampy lands and a small remnant of the lake exist. Spherical

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bombs are randomly distributed on the flanks; few of them are loaded (Fig. 3D). This structure formed due to magma-water interaction as the magma reaching the surface

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rose through the Ibagué fan. The Ibagué fan is a water storage landform (aquifer)

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characterised by an average porosity of approximately 0.3, a total recharge of 1.46 km3/y, and a budget of 1.08 km3/y (discounting the discharge from wells and springs) (Consorcio

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Alvarado 2015, 2016). The highest recharge for this hydrogeological system coincides with the location of the PMVF.

Composition The volcanic products forming the PMVF are characterised by having basaltic andesite composition (SiO2: 51-53 wt.%),high MgO content values (10-11 wt.%) and a typical calc-

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT alkaline signature (Galindo, 2012) (Fig. 4). The products singularly contain olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts within an aphanitic groundmass, which occasionally includes plagioclase microlites. Interestingly, these MgO values are the highest in the whole

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volcano tectonic province.

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Age

Figure 4

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Although there are no absolute ages for the Pijaos volcanoes, El Tabor maar is

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considered to be a relatively recent structure as its crater is well-preserved despite the erosion of its tephra ring. We infer from the size of the crater that the tephra deposits

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would have likely been more than few metres thick, which is similar to other small maars

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on Earth (e.g. Büchel et al., 2000; Haller and Németh, 2006; Agustin-Flores et al., 2014).

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This volcano is stratigraphically sitting on the Quaternary Ibagué fan, which means it must be younger than the fan. Unfortunately, there are also no absolute ages for the fan

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deposits, although some authors have invoked a Pleistocene age based on morphology

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(Van Houten, 1976; Diederix et al., 2006; Gómez-Tapias et al., 2016). Accordingly, El Tabor maar must at least be younger than 2.58 Ma. Because the eastern lava flow from the

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Guacharacos cones partially overlays the fan deposits, the eruption forming the cones must also be younger than 2.58 Ma. A Holocene age for this volcanism has been proposed by Núñez et al. (2001), nonetheless, there is no supporting absolute age.

Villamaría-Termales monogenetic volcanic field (VTMVF)

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT VTMVF is a monogenetic field composed of at least 14 lava domes and lava flows. It is located to the west of the Cordillera Central, in the middle of the SCVTP, between Manizales city and the Nevado del Ruiz and Cerro Bravo volcanoes (Fig. 1 and 5A). The diameter of this field is approximately 30 km, and it sits on either metamorphic or igneous

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intrusive rocks (Botero and Osorio, 2017). In general, the structures are aligned through a

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fault system called Villamaría-Termales (Botero et al., 2017). Based on neotectonic

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evidence such as longitudinal valleys, lineal depressions, fault scarps, trenches, sag-ponds,

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linear and shutter ridges, saddles, offset features, and tilted Quaternary deposits, González and Jaramillo (2002) show that the Villamaría-Termales system has Quaternary

Figure 5

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activity.

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Stratigraphy and deposit characteristics

The volcanoes of the VTMVF have been shown to be related to the old Nevado del Ruiz

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volcanic complex (e.g. Thouret et al., 1990; Borrero et al., 2009). However, as a well-

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defined group of volcanoes, they form a volcanic field (Botero and Osorio, 2017). The volcanoes are primarily lava domes (Fig. 5A), although some relatively short lava flows (<4

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km long and m-scale thick) have also been recognised (Botero et al., 2017). The domes are prominent, mostly symmetrical, and reach up to 600 m in altitude from the local base (Botero et al., 2017). Based on previous mapping and 3D geometrical considerations, the total volume of the preserved lava domes and lava flows from this field is approximately 10 km3.

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Within the domes and flows, it is possible to observe cooling structures similar to diaclases (Fig. 5B) as well as tectonic deformation (Botero and Osorio, 2017). Few domes include associated lava flows that developed columnar jointing (Fig. 5C). Some of the structures are partially covered by deposits from a recent volcanic debris avalanche from

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Nevado del Ruiz (Martínez et al., 2014), as well as by pyroclastic fall deposits that

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potentially originate from the Cerro Bravo volcano. The lava flows are thick (m-scale), and

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they exhibit a dense core with some breccia (blocky lava) at the top.

Composition

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The mineral and chemical compositional spectrum of the volcanic products from the

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VTMVF is broad. The structures are divided into those formed by three types of rocks. The

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centres all have plagioclase, amphibole, and pyroxene as ubiquitous phases, however, in addition some centres exhibit olivine and others quartz (Osorio et al., 2017). The rock

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compositions vary from basaltic andesite to rhyolitic with a typical calc-alkaline signature

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(SiO2: 56-69 wt.%; Fig. 4; Osorio et al., 2017; Botero and Osorio, 2017 and references therein). Interestingly, these rocks are consistent with the adakitic field (Y <18, Sr >400)

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from Defant & Drummond (1990; see Osorio et al., 2017). This signature is also illustrated by rocks from the Nevado del Ruiz volcano (Toro et al., 2008; Borrero et al., 2009; Martínez et al., 2014). Today, a portion of these centres display external propylitic alteration (alteration caused by iron and magnesium bearing hydrothermal fluids; Toro et al., 2008). In many cases, it is difficult to sample a fresh rock to generate a reliable chemical analysis or to date the rocks.

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Age The Sancancio and Tesorito volcanoes have been dated by K-Ar at ca. 1.2 Ma (Thouret et al., 1990), while Lavas de Lusitania has a maximum emplacement age of about 38 ka

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(Mejía et al., 2011). Botero and Osorio (2017 using information from Martínez et al., 2014)

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argue in favor of ages younger than 45-35 ka because the centres are overlain by a

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volcanic debris avalanche deposit that is not affected by the Last Glaciation event (cf.

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Samaná monogenetic volcanic field (SMVF)

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Flórez, 1992). Unfortunately, there are no more absolute ages available.

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The SMVF is a monogenetic field located in the northernmost region of the SCVTP (in the

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Samaná municipality, Colombia). It is composed of at least two well-recognised volcanic centres: San Diego maar (5° 38’ 52’’ N, 74° 57’ 36’’ W, 740 m asl; Fig. 1 and 6A) and El

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Escondido pyroclastic cone (5° 31’ 00’’ N, 75° 02’ 15’’ W, 1500 m asl; Fig. 1 and 6B)

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(Borrero et al., 2017; Monsalve and Arcila, 2016; Sánchez-Torres et al., 2017; Monsalve et al., 2018). These volcanic edifices are only 16 km apart from each other and both sit on

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metamorphic and igneous intrusive rocks (cf. Gómez-Tapias et al., 2015). Their volcaniclastic sequences, however, overlie the Tefra Amarilla unit that unconformably overlies the basement in the zone (Borrero et al., 2017). Presently, more volcanoes have not clearly been defined in the area, although other volcanic centres (e.g. Berlín, Norcasia, pre-Escondido and Guadalupe volcanoes; Monsalve and Arcila, 2016; Borrero et al., 2017; Murcia et al., 2017a,b; Sánchez-Torres, 2017; Monsalve et al., 2018) are putatively present

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT in the zone; however, there is either not enough information or ambiguity surrounding their existence. This volcanism is related to the Palestina fault system, a northeast to southwest 350 km long dextral strike slip fault system. It disrupts Quaternary volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences as well as controls the distribution of the thermal springs in the

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Nevado del Ruiz volcano surroundings (Mejía, 2012).

Figure 6

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Stratigraphy and sedimentary characteristics of the volcaniclastic deposits

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In spite of the strong erosion in this humid tropical zone (4000-5000 mm/year; http://atlas.ideam.gov.co), the characteristics of the volcaniclastic deposits associated

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with the monogenetic volcanoes is evidence of the type of volcanoes that form the SMVF.

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San Diego maar, which holds a 50 m deep lake (cf. Beltrán et al., 2017), is formed by a set

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of PDC deposits that vary from diluted to concentrated, providing evidence for alternating wet and dry explosive eruptions (Fig. 7A). They contain dense lithics and accretionary

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lapilli, but also massive deposits (Fig. 7B). The lack of juvenile fragments at the base of the

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whole volcaniclastic sequence suggests phreatic eruptions at the onset of the eruption during the birth of the volcano. Subsequently, the confined aquifer located in the

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basement played an important role in triggering explosive highly energetic eruptions when coming into contact with the ascending magma (cf. Aramaki et al., 1986; ArandaGomez et al., 1996; Németh et al., 2001; Buttinelli et al., 2011; Saucedo et al., 2017). Finally, because of the water exhaustion, the degassed magma reached the surface in an effusive way (cf. Valentine and White, 2012; Lorenz et al., 2017) and formed a lava dome.

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT This dome is now a prominent mountain located northeast of the maar crater (Borrero et al., 2017; Fig. 6A). Figure 7 El Escondido pyroclastic cone is more complex than the San Diego maar as the

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cone is strongly eroded (Fig. 6B). It has a set of volcaniclastic deposits on the crater rim

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and flanks that suggests: 1) rare PDC generation for this type of volcanism and 2)

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unexpected secondary volcaniclastic deposits with large rounded block-sized clasts. The

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PDC deposits vary from facies that resemble block and ash flow deposits (Fig. 7C) to pumiceous pyroclastic deposits or ignimbrites (Fig. 7D). To explain the former, it is

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probable that a pre-existent dome was present near the eruption. The dome’s destruction

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during the eruption then provided the necessary lithics to form the block and ash flows

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(Sánchez-Torres, 2017). The ignimbrite deposits could have been introduced via a low fountain magmatic eruption through a process called boiling over eruption. In a boiling

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over eruption, magma reaches the surface highly vesiculated and forms pumice fragments

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typical of an ignimbrite deposit (Sánchez-Torres, 2017). Boiling over eruptions have been documented in other monogenetic volcanoes (e.g. Martí et al., 2017). There are also some

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dilute PDC deposits associated with these ignimbrite deposits. In addition, facies of lahar deposits are unexpectedly observed on the flanks of the cone close to the rim. These loose deposits not only exhibit typical sedimentary structures, but also rounded block-sized (up to 1.5 m) fragments. Because of the location of the deposits, the region may have been morphologically different when the eruption occurred than present-day. The deposits are currently located in the upper part of a mountainous region. However, they were most

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT likely formed within a paleo-valley that channelised the flows from higher sources (cf. Lorenz, 2007; Benedetti et al., 2008).

Composition

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The volcanic products of the SMVF contain crystals of quartz, plagioclase, biotite,

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amphibole, and/or pyroxene. The rocks are dacitic in composition (SiO2: 61-70 wt.%) (Fig.

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4), with the magmas that formed the San Diego maar being more evolved than the

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magma that formed the El Escondido pyroclastic cone (Borrero et al., 2017; SánchezTorres, 2017; Monsalve et al., 2018). Particularly, the El Escondido volcano shows less

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evolved fragments within the deposits (Sánchez-Torres et al., 2017). The fragments are,

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however, similar to the lava dome located on the northern border of volcano, which

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suggests that the dome was disrupted during the El Escondido eruption. Thus, this composition provides evidence for the existence of a previous volcanic centre as part of

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the SMVF (Sánchez-Torres et al., 2017).

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Using fission-tracks in apatite, Toro (1998) dated the lava dome associated with the San Diego eruption at 18.7 ka. Later, Borrero et al. (2017) reported its age at 20 ka BP using a paleosol underlying the volcaniclastic deposits. Thus, an estimated age of 20 ka is close to the true age of the San Diego eruption. In addition, the eroded structure of the El Escondido pyroclastic cone suggests that it is older than the San Diego maar. Accordingly, Monsalve et al. (2018) reported ages of 36 and 33 ka BP from charcoal found within the

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT volcaniclastic deposits. Paleosols underlying the associated volcaniclastic deposits have yet to be dated.

Discussion

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Plumbing system: a compositional approach

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Plumbing systems refer to the physical way that magma is transported and stored from

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the source to the surface (e.g. Burchardt and Galland, 2017). These systems are regarded

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as the magma network that begins in the asthenosphere and/or lithosphere and continues through dikes, sills and magma-storage chambers in the crust (Jerram and Bryan, 2015).

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On Earth, magma may either reach the surface quickly and produce a single monogenetic

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eruption, or it may create a magma chamber and feeds an individual conduit through

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which the magma erupts over time in a typical polygenetic volcano. Thus, a monogenetic eruption (<10 – 102 years) usually reflects the compositional connection with the mantle

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source, while a polygenetic volcano (103 – 107 years) often reflects a chemically evolved

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magma through the operation of assimilation and fractional crystallisation in crustal reservoirs (Smith and Németh, 2017). Nevertheless, volcanism does not always behave as

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monogenetic or polygenetic, perhaps because of the existence of a more complex plumbing system. Thus, volcanic systems can change from monogenetic to polygenetic based on the petrogenetic features and the volcanic architecture (e.g. Smith and Németh, 2017). These systems can share characteristics from both types of volcanism and can create complex interactions (e.g. Cañón-Tapía, 2016). One well known example is the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (Alaniz-Alvarez et al., 1998; Ferrari et al., 2012).

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT The SCVTP is a typical volcanic province where the interaction between monogenetic and polygenetic volcanism exists To date, two isolated monogenetic volcanic fields have been recognised (SMVF and PMVF), in addition to a monogenetic field (VTMVF) that is located close to polygenetic volcanoes (Nevado del Ruiz and Cerro Bravo

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volcanoes). Particularly, the volcanic system shows compositional characteristics of

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interest. For the SCVTP, the monogenetic volcanic fields display the following

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characteristics: 1) All fields have a calc-alkaline signature (Fig. 4), and are consequently

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associated with the subduction environment. 2) The isolated monogenetic volcanic fields (SMVF and PMVF) with maar craters are located at the extremes of the province (Fig. 1B).

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3) The spatial distributions of the monogenetic volcanic fields are tectonically controlled

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by peripheral main fault systems. 4) The PMVF products have the highest MgO content

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known for the province (MgO = up to 11 wt.%), which may indicate deep sources of magma and negligible evolution en route to the surface. 5) The SMVF products display

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evolved magmas (SiO2 up to 70 wt.%), which is rare for monogenetic magmas as they

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typically ascend to the surface without significant fractionation. 6) The VTMVF has an adakitic-like signature. For the polygenetic volcanoes, the following characteristics are

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worth mentioning: 1) The composition of the emitted products varies from basaltic andesite to rhyolite over time. 2) All products display the typical calc-alkaline chemical signature as a response to the subduction magmatic origin. A few of the products contain adakitic-like rocks. 3) The volcanoes are mainly located at the top of the Central Cordillera axis and they share a coeval activity in the Quaternary. 4) The formation and evolution of the volcanic edifices present similar construction/destruction histories during different

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT stages of development. 5) They primarily display composite edifices with similar heights (greater than 4900 masl), except for the Cerro Machín volcano (pyroclastic cone-like and 2650 masl). To explain the compositional characteristics of the SCVTP plumbing system, it is important

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to note that, from source to surface: 1) The magma associated with the province occurs

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due to the dehydration of the Nazca oceanic plate in the subduction process under the

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South American plate (e.g. Bourdon et al., 2003). This generates a partial melting of the

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mantle wedge in the asthenosphere (Asthenosphere-Lithosphere boundary: 105 km; Blanco et al., 2017). 2) The magma likely ascends forming several reservoirs before

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arriving to the last reservoir, located below the upper crust and forming a common

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reservoir between 20 and 30 km deep for the whole province (Londoño, 2016). 3) From

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this reservoir, magma ascends to form magma chambers beneath the polygenetic volcanoes. Magma chamber depths range from 18 to 5 km (Laeger et al., 2013; Londoño,

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2017; Pinzón et al., 2017). 4) The reservoir is potentially heterogeneous in composition

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and follows the Mush model (25-55 vol.% crystals; Marsh, 1996; Putirka, 2017). Thus, this reservoir storages not only the magmas that feed the evolved products recorded in two of

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the monogenetic fields (VTMVF and SMVF), but also the magma with the adakitic-like signature recorded in some volcanoes (e.g. Toro et al., 2008; Laeger et al., 2013; Martínez et al., 2014; Osorio et al., 2017). 5) The basic magmas feeding the PMVF may not come from the mentioned reservoir; instead, they seem to come directly from the mantle. From this, it is also possible to suggest that the adakitic-like signature, which is not recorded in the PMVF volcanic field, should be acquired during the route to the surface through a

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT relatively intensive fractional crystallisation, likely at relatively high lower crustal pressures (cf. Zellmer, et al., 2014 and references therein). Based on this framework, a magmatic plumbing system as shown in Fig. 8 can be conceptualised. Figure 8

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Future work

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Plumbing systems have been studied using different methods (cf. Burchardt and Galland,

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2017). Compositional analysis (petrological and geochemical studies), as outlined above, is

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just one of the approaches. Structural and geophysical analyses can also provide insight into the location of magma generation, magma storage, and its pathways. Future studies

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may be focused on defining magma chamber depths through analysis such as

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geothermobarometers. Isotopic analysis, in whole-rock and mineral chemistry, could also

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help to understand magma evolution before it reaches the surface. Structural analysis could help to explain why the magma reaches the surface where it does, why it

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occasionally follows a preferential path (polygenetic volcanoes), and why others are

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connected to the surface through dykes (monogenetic volcanoes). Geophysical studies can help to understand magma depth distribution.

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In the SCVTP, the emitted products exhibit unusual characteristics that may direct future work. They are described below in the context of ten points of investigation that may illuminate the VTSCP plumbing system. 1) The most primitive products in the whole SCVTP are closely related to the primary magma from the partial melting that is occurring in the asthenospheric wedge. Therefore, it would be important to determine the process en route to the surface that

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT facilitates the development of adakitic-like signatures; petrogenetic modelling may help to solve this issue. 2) The Cerro Machín is a clear polygenetic volcano (e.g. Murcia et al., 2010), however, it has a typical monogenetic geoform (Aguilar and Piedrahita, 2017). The crater

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resembles a pyroclastic cone because of its morphology and the deposits recorded in the

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crater walls, which are typical PDCs resembling magma-water interaction (Piedrahita et

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al., 2017). Thus, it would be interesting to investigate whether the current crater was

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produced from only one eruption in spite of the long eruptive history of the volcano. 3) Close to the Cerro Machín volcano, there are crypto-domes (e.g. Tapias crypto-

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dome located ~5 km apart). Discerning their relationship with the Cerro Machín magma

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chamber would be valuable.

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4) Regardless of their composition, some volcanoes only erup explosively (e.g. Cerro Machín), others mainly effusively (e.g. Santa Isabel), and some both explosively and

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effusively. Compositionally, an obvious relationship does not exist. Thus, an explanation of

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the factors that influence eruption style would be valuable. 5) The VTMVF is characterised by centres formed exclusively from effusive

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eruptions (lava domes and lava flows) (Botero et al., 2017). Because these centres are not common in this type of volcanism, it would be worthwhile to investigate the reason for this style in VTMVF magmas. 6) Romeral volcano was recently found (2005) by following a 5390 y. BP pyroclastic fall deposit (Pinilla et al., 2006). It would be interesting to collect more evidence to determine whether the centre is polygenetic or monogenetic.

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 7) The recently proposed Caldas tear (Vargas and Mann, 2013) divided the subduction in two segments, the Bucaramanga and Cauca segments (see also Syracuse et al., 2016; Idárraga-Garcia et al., 2016). The former is defined as a no-volcanogenic (or amagmatic) flat subduction and its southern boundary coincides with the likely

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northernmost polygenetic volcano (i.e. Cerro Bravo) in the VTSCP. It would be interesting

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their relationship is with the tectonic configuration.

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to discern whether all volcanoes located north of Cerro Bravo are monogenetic, and what

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8) El Escondido volcano (part of the SMVF) emits ignimbrites. The reason that the magma is released in this way in a monogenetic eruption requires further study.

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9) Several structures similar to monogenetic volcanoes exist between the Romeral

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and San Diego volcanoes. A clarification about whether these structures are really

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monogenetic expressions may help with the understanding of the plumbing system in the north of the province.

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10) It would be advantageous to interpret why magma-water interactions in the



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Conclusions

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monogenetic volcanic fields are recorded in the east of the Cordillera but not in the west.

The three monogenetic volcanic fields (VTMVF; SMVF; PMVF) described here are part of the San Diego Cerro Bravo Volcano Tectonic Province (SCVTP). They are located around the province.



The distribution of the three monogenetic volcanic fields is controlled by the E-NE and N-NE main fault systems that are oblique with respect to the main N-S Central

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Cordillera structural trend. These fault zones were the preferred shallow pathways for magma ascent. 

The proposed volcanic fields, recently named and defined as monogenetic volcanoes with different landforms, have petrographic and geomorphological data;

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however, the geochemical and geochronological data is limited. The monogenetic



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volcanism spans ~1.2 Ma, with the most recent only ca. 20 ka.

The three monogenetic volcanic fields have a calc-alkaline magmatic signature.

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Some also have an adakite-like signature. These signatures are similar to the magmatism of the SCVTP, which is related to the Nazca plate subduction

The phreatomagmatic volcanoes are only located in the SMVF and PMVF, on the

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underneath the northern South American Plate.

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eastern front of the Central Cordillera. The VTMVF, located on the western front of the Cordillera, only hosts magmatic structures. The location of the SMVF San Diego Maar (5° 38' N) is now recognised as the

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northernmost volcano from the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ); it starts at ~2° S (Sangay volcano, Ecuador). A framework for a magmatic plumbing system model is now developed to explain

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the volcanism in this part of the Colombian Central Cordillera. 

The approach to describe the plumbing system presented here is an example of a coupled magmatic input that can generate different types of volcanic centres in the northern Andes.

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 

Future work may provide new insights into the SCVTP magma generation, and its storage, location, chamber depths, and pathways en route to the surface.



The recently discovered monogenetic volcanoes illustrate the difficulty in finding these landforms in urbanised areas or those covered in vegetation. The most

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recent overlying pyroclastic deposits associated with the polygenetic volcanism at

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the SCVTP further masks and complicates the discovery of new centres.

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Acknowledgements

Gabrielle Knafler performed an English revision of the manuscript. Comments from two

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anonymous reviewers helped to greatly improve the manuscript. This manuscript

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integrates research work performed by many years under the frame of the Stratigraphy

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and Volcanology Research Group (Grupo de Investigaciones en Estratigrafía y Vulcanología

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-GIEV- Cumanday) from Universidad de Caldas.

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Figure captions

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Figure 1. A. Study site in Colombian. B. San Diego – Cerro Machín Volcano Tectonic

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Province (SCVTP).

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Figure 2. Pijaos Monogenetic Volcanic Field. A. Guacharacos pyroclastic cones. The photo

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Tabor maar.

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was taken from Guacharacos cone 2, a pyroclastic cone with an associated lava flow. B. El

Figure 3. A. Ballistic projectiles from Guacharacos cone 2. B. Dilute pyroclastic density current deposits from Guacharacos cone 2. C. Lava flows from Guacharacos cone 2. D. Loaded cannonball bombs from El Tabor maar.

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Figure 4. Geochemistry diagrams showing the relationship between the three monogenetic fields. Top left, the TAS Le Maitre (2002) diagram. Top right, the AFM Irvine and Baragar (1971) diagram. Down, Harker type diagrams. PMVF data from Galindo (2012), VTMVF data compiled by Botero and Osorio (2017; see references therein), and

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SMVF data from Borrero et al. (2017), Sánchez-Torres (2017) and Monsalve et al. (2108).

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Figure 5. A. Centres from the Villamaría-Termales monogenetic volcanic field. B. Cooling

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structures in lava flows. C. Columnar jointing in lava flows. Photos taken from Botero and

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Osorio (2017).

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Figure 6. Samaná Monogenetic Volcanic Field. A. Panoramic view of San Diego Maar; note

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the lava dome at the background (Borrero et al., 2017). B. Panoramic view of the tephra-

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ring in the southeastern region of El Escondido volcano.

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Figure 7. A. Dilute pyroclastic density current deposits from San Diego maar (Stratigraphic unit 2; from Borrero et al., 2017). B. Concentrated pyroclastic density current deposits

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from San Diego maar (Stratigraphic unit 1; taken from Borrero et al., 2017). C. Ignimbrite deposit facies from the El Escondido concentrated pyroclastic density current deposits. D. Block and ash flow deposit facies from the El Escondido concentrated pyroclastic density current deposits.

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Figure 8. Proposed magmatic plumbing system of the San Diego – Cerro Machín Volcano Tectonic Province (SCVTP). Cerro Machín magma chamber from Laeger et al. (2013), Nevado del Ruiz magma chamber from Londoño (2017), Cerro Bravo magma chamber from Pinzón et al. (2017), Magmatic reservoir from Londoño (2016), Lithosphere-

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Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) from Blanco et al. (2017), Moho location from Idarraga-

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Garcia et al. (2016). Mg# from Galindo (2012). SiO2 value from Borrero et al. (2017).

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Temperature and pressure extrapolated from Bloch et al. (2017).

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Highlights

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Three monogenetic volcanic fields, with a typical calc-alkaline signature, have been identified on the northernmost Andes' volcanic province Monogenetic magmas are linked to the reservoir that feeds the polygenetic San Diego – Cerro Machín Volcano Tectonic Province (~140 km long; SCVTP) Both magmatic and phreatomagmatic activity is recorded in the volcanic fields. Lava domes are also recorded as monogenetic volcanic centres

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