Pellets Versus Mash for Starting Bobwhite Quail1

Pellets Versus Mash for Starting Bobwhite Quail1

Pellets Versus Mash for Starting Bobwhite Quail1 H. R. WILSON and W. G. NESBETH Poultry Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florid...

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Pellets Versus Mash for Starting Bobwhite Quail1 H. R. WILSON and W. G. NESBETH Poultry Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

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(Received for publication February 20, 1979)

1980 Poultry Science 59:932-934

INTRODUCTION

were f o r m e d in a pellet mill w i t h o u t steam with a 3 m m die and varied in size from a small pellet a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2.5 m m X 3.0 m m d o w n t o small crumbles. T h e same quail starter diet was used for mash and pellets (Table 1).

Both mash and pellet-type feeds are usually available for starting commercially grown gamebirds such as quail and pheasants. Pellets or crumbles are often r e c o m m e n d e d for decreased feed wastage and b e t t e r performance. Flegal et al. ( 1 9 7 2 ) r e c o m m e n d e d feeding mash during t h e first t w o weeks of b r o o d i n g , crumbles during t h e third and fourth weeks, and small pellets thereafter. Pelleting diets for growing birds has been r e p o r t e d t o be beneficial t o growth and feed utilization of chickens (Hussar and R o b b l e e , 1 9 6 2 ) and t o feed efficiency in t u r k e y s (Jensen et al., 1 9 6 5 ) . T h e studies r e p o r t e d herein were c o n d u c t e d t o c o m p a r e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of Bobwhite quail chicks fed mash or pellets.

Each t r e a t m e n t consisted of 4 replicate pens of 1 8 0 chicks each. All chicks were d e b e a k e d at hatching using t h e p r o c e d u r e described b y Wilson et al. ( 1 9 7 5 ) and b r o o d e d u n d e r infrared heat lamps o n p e a n u t hull litter with approxim a t e l y 4 1 0 cm 2 floor space per bird. A vitaminantibiotic s u p p l e m e n t 2 was added t o t h e water until 14 days of age. Body weight was measured at 1, 3, and 5 weeks of age; feed c o n s u m p t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d weekly; and mortality was recorded daily. T h e d a t a were subjected t o t h e analysis of variance and since n o t r e a t m e n t X e x p e r i m e n t interaction was present, t h e e x p e r i m e n t s were c o m b i n e d for presentation. Significant differences b e t w e e n m e a n s were d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e multiple range test of Duncan ( 1 9 5 5 ) .

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES T w o e x p e r i m e n t s were c o n d u c t e d from J u n e t h r o u g h September using a t o t a l of 2 1 6 0 Bobwhite quail chicks of t h e University of Florida strain in each e x p e r i m e n t . T h r e e t r e a t m e n t s were c o m p a r e d : mash fed from hatch t h r o u g h 5 weeks of age; mash fed from hatch through 2 weeks of age followed b y pellets t h r o u g h 5 weeks of age; and pellets fed from h a t c h t h r o u g h 5 weeks of age. T h e pellets

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1658. 2 FloxAid 50, Merck & Co., Rahway, NJ 07065.

Feeding pellets t h r o u g h o u t t h e 5-week starting period resulted in heavier b o d y weights of B o b w h i t e chicks t h a n did feeding mash for t h e 5-week period or for 2 weeks followed by 3 w e e k s of feeding pellets (Table 2 ) . B o d y weights of chicks fed mash or mash followed b y pellets did n o t differ significantly. Birds receiving pellets ate m o r e feed during t h e s e c o n d , t h i r d , and fourth week, w h i c h resulted in a numerically greater feed c o n s u m p -

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ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to compare the performance of Bobwhite quail chicks fed mash or pellets. Three treatments were compared: mash, hatch through 5 weeks; mash, hatch through 2 weeks then pellets through 5 weeks; pellets, hatch through 5 weeks. A total of 4320 chicks were used in the two experiments. Feeding pellets from hatch through 5 weeks of age resulted in larger body weights but did not affect feed conversion or mortality. Feeding mash from hatch through 2 weeks of age then pellets through 5 weeks of age resulted in significantly poorer feed conversion. The data suggested a possible adverse effect of changing types of feed (mash to pellets) at the end of 2 weeks.

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RESEARCH NOTE TABLE 1. Composition of the quail starter diet % Diet

Ingredients

If

43.52 48.64 .66 1.36 .40 .50 4.92 27.3 3066

a Supplied per kilogram diet: 6600 IU vitamin A, 2200 ICU vitamin D 3 , 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadione dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite, 4.4 mg riboflavin, 13.2 mg pantothenic acid, 59.6 mg niacin, 998.8 mg choline chloride, 22 meg vitamin B 1 2 , .11 mg biotin, 125 mg ethoxyquin, 60 mg Mn, 50 mg Fe, 6 m g C u , .198mgCo, 1.1 m g I 2 , 6 0 m g Z n .

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Added per kilogram diet: .25 g zinc bacitracin (40 g activity), .50 g Ipropran, .50 g Amprol, .80 g DL methionine.

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tion for t h e 5-week starting period (Table 3). However, feed conversion was identical for birds fed mash or pellets. T h e slightly poorer feed conversion and b o d y weight of t h e birds which received mash for 2 weeks followed b y pellets m a y be indicative of an adverse effect due to changing t h e form of feed. Mortality for t h e five weeks was 3.8, 5 . 1 , and 4.0% for mash only, mash plus pellets, and pellets only treatm e n t s , respectively. Differences a m o n g treatment means were n o t significant ( P < . 0 5 ) . These data would indicate t h a t mash or pellets are satisfactory for starting quail, however, slightly b e t t e r growth might b e expected with pellets.

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TABLE 2. Body weight of quail chicks fed mash and/or pellets to five weeks of age (Experiments 1 and 2)

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5 wk

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Treatment

1 wk

3 wk

Mash, 1 to 5 weeks Mash, 1 to 2 weeks; pellets, 3 to 5 weeks Pellets, 1 to 5 weeks

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47.7 a

86.4 a

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Weight (g)

16.la 17.1b

48.9 a 50.6 b

85.4 a 90.8 b

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a 'b Means within a column not having a common superscript are significantly different (P<.05).

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Yellow corn Soybean meal (48.5%) Ground limestone (38% Ca) Dyno Fos (18.5% P, 24% Ca) Iodized salt Microingredientsa Animal fat Additives" Protein Metabolizable energy (kcal/kg)

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WILSON AND NESBETH

REFERENCES Duncan, D. B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 11:1—42. Flegal, C. J., C. C. Sheppard, and J. H. Wolford, 1972. Managing game-birds. Michigan State Univ. Ext. Bull. E-892. Hussar, N., and A. R. Robblee, 1962. Effects of pelleting on the utilization of feed by the growing

chicken. Poultry Sci. 41:1489-1493. Jensen, L. S., G. O. Ranit, R. K. Wagstaff, and J. McGinnis, 1965. Protein and lysine requirements of developing turkeys as influenced by pelleting. Poultry Sci. 44:1435-1441. Wilson, H. R., M. G. Miller, and C. R. Douglas, 1975. Debeaking method for Bobwhite quail. Poultry Sci. 54:1616-1619.

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