practitioner ; out it must oe rememoerea cnat mecticai practice, however learned the hands in which it lies, becomes empiricism when not informed T...

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practitioner ; out it must oe rememoerea cnat mecticai practice, however learned the hands in which it lies, becomes


when not informed

Therefore, alongside with


by the lessons of science. practice in every branch there

be facilities for medical


research, and these, which

very expensive, paid for. It is the truth that in this country money is found to endow the taught than the teacher. must be









The income

by the way necessarily dependent scholarships, may amount to as

upon his prize money or much as the salary of many of the lecturers and readers who instruct him ; this is not a singular case, and as a matter of fact is perhaps commoner in other educational circles than those connected with medicine. We would not say a word against the generosity that has provided and is providing such incentives to industry. Whether the highly endowed student is always worth what he has earned by industry, precocity, or both, is a small matter-the important thing is that were it not for these scholarships the material for teachers would steadily shrink. For teachers are drawn from the scholarship class, and whether they have been properly rewarded or not while in statu pupillari, as teachers they will find themselves ill-paid, and as discoverers hardly paid at all. Therefore we are extremely glad that Mr. BALFOUR should have taken the excellent opportunity given by the recent proceedings at Guy’s Hospital to point out that something of the security which the successful exhibitioner possesses should also be enjoyed by those who, in our modern scheme of medical organisation, are pursuing the work of medical research. °’ Men must live," said Mr. BALFOUR; ’’ they cannot be asked to give up their domestic life, their incomes, and their security. And if a man fitted for research is to exercise his gift he must be provided with a position in which he can feel that he is not sacrificing the interests of those nearest and dearest to him in the pursuit and advancement of new knowledge." Quite so, and this has just been recognised by the Rockefeller Institute in the United States, where some provision of pensions for the workers is now an accomplished fact.

Annotations. "


Ne quid nimis."


May 28th Mr. McKenna, the Home Secretary, in moving the second reading of the Mental Deficiency Bill, which was so unfortunately, and indeed deplorably, dropped from the Government programme last year, pointed out that in the present measure changes had been made in recognition of the criticisms of the Standing Committee. Essentially, however, the Bill is the same as that which passed its second reading on the previous occasion with only 19 opponents, and which derives directly from the unanimous report of a strong Royal Commission. The usual speeches in opposition to the reading of the Bill, on the ground that it would interfere with individual liberty, were made, but impressed no one. their sentimentalism and unfamiliarity with the real and serious problems being obvious. An amendment for the rejection of the measure tound only 11 supporters, a majority of 343 recognising the need for immediate ON


instruction from sense of the House of Commons this was the occasion, and we may fairly expect to learn from the Government that they are willing to promise that the time shall be definitely set aside necessary to pass the measure before the close of the present session. It will be a real shock to thinking people if the Mental Deficiency Bill, after the unanswerable demonstration of the need for such a measure which has been afforded by high authority, and after the sense of the House of Commons has been expressed and reiterated in so unmistakable a manner, should again be allowed to lapse. The mentally defective crowd our prisons and lunatic asylums, and in so doing experience the kinder side of their fate ; for, deprived of disciplinary and institutional care, they recruit the brothel and play the most degraded roles in criminal circles. Charity in its religious sense and worldly wisdom alike call for the passage of the measure to protect these unfortunates ; and we do not envy the intelligence of those Members of Parliament who oppose legislation on th& ground either of Christianity or scientific knowledge. The fundamental lessons of biology are as lost upon them as the broad teachings of the Bible. PHARMACISTS




THE Departmental Committee on Jury Service, the report of which we noticed last week, has recommended that all registered chemists and druggists if actually practising be exempted from jury service. Pharmaceutical chemists, of whom there are 2021 on the present register-that is to say, those who have passed the major examination of the Pharmaceutical Society-have been exempt for over 50 years, but chemists and druggists, of whom there are 14,309 on the present register-that is to say, those who have only passed the minor examination-have never been exempt from service. If and when the recommendation of the committee is adopted by Parliament, an anomaly of long standing will be removed. As was shown in THE LANCET 1 after the passing of the Juries Act, the pharmaceutical chemists were able to obtain the exemption by proving that they were a body which could be defined by educational examination and registration, and that it was most difficult and dangerous for. the principal to leave his business to serve on a jury. At that time there was no register of chemists and druggists, the drug business being in the hands of two classes-the pharmaceutical chemists who submitted to such an examination as guaranteed their capacity for dispensing and preparing medicinal substances, and the"outsiders " who had given no evidence of that qualification. As THE LANCET pointed out, among the latter were many very competent persons, but, on the other hand, there were many who were totally ignorant of the niceties of the difficult art which they practised, including " a kind of rabble of chandler-shopkeepers, stationers, perfumers, and. others." There was no list of the competent persons who. were not on the register of pharmaceutical chemists, and as the exemption clause secured for the latter could obviously not be extended to an indefinite number of Six persons, chemists and druggists were left out. years later the Pharmacy Act was passed and a register of chemists and druggists was set up, but since that time an opportunity of extending the exemption to chemists and druggists has not occurred, and they have taken their turn with other ratepayers and served on juries at great inconvenience to themselves and possibly at some A glance at the article in danger to the public. THE LANCET to which reference has already been made serves as a reminder that the awful announcement of the 1


LANCET, August 16th, 1862, p. 178.

in the case of itardeii v. Pickwick was an eihcient

11.45 A.M. to L4.lO P.M., 5.53 miuigrammes ; m.J.o P.M. the cause of the pharmaceutical chemists in to 12.45 P.M., 6 - 40 milligrammes ; 12.45 P.M. to 1.15 P.M., 1862. That chemist observed that he had ’’left nobody but 5-58 milligrammes ; 1.15 P.M. to 1.45 P.M., 6-60 milliHe is a very nice boy, my lord, grammes ; 1.45 P.M. to 2.15 P.M., 6-75 milligrammes ; 2.15 an errand-boy in his shop. but he is not acquainted with drugs ; and I know that the P.M. to 2.45 P.M., 9-29 milligrammes ; 2.45 r. M, to 3.15 P. M., prevailing impression on his mind is that Epsom salts means 10-51 milligrammes ; 3.15 P.M. to 3.45 P.M., 6-45 millioxalic acid; and syrup of senna, laudanum." No doubt I grammes ; and 3.45 P.M. to 4.15 P. M., 5-74 milligrammes. that little incident of the famous trial was not forgotten by On Tuesday, June 3rd, the following results were obtained : the Departmental Committee, and it is to be hoped that the 10.15 A. M. to 10.45 A.M., 6’60 milligrammes ; 10.45 A.M. to committee’s recommendation will be embodied in a Parlia- 11.15 A.M.,6-90 milligrammes ; 11.15 A.M. to 11.45 A.M., 8-63 milligrammes; 11.45 A.M. to 12.15 P.M., 8-63 millimentary measure. grammes ; 12.15 P.M. to 12.45 P.M., 7-77 milligrammes ; 12.45 P.M. to 1.15 P.M., 12-19 milligrammes ; 1.15 P.M. to MEASUREMENT OF THE A CHEMICAL ENERGY 1.45 P. M. (unrecorded) ; 1.45 P.M. to 2.15 P.M., 8-78 milliOF THE SUN’S RAYS.


argument for



2.15 P.M. to 2 45 P.M., 6 - 09 milligrammes ; during the late brilliant weather dis- grammes ; P.M. to 3.15 P.M., 5-74 milligrammes ; and 3.15 P.M. 2.45 played extraordinary chemical activity according to some THE sun’s rays

in THE LANCET laboratory. Their to 3.45 P.M., 3-20 milligrammes (growing cloudy). The were conducted in exactly the same shown upon a solution of acid potassic experiments throughout manner in each case, but some allowance had to be made iodide, has been most marked, and it may be concluded, when there was slight obscuration by passing clouds. On therefore, that their germicidal properties have been the whole, however, the period of observation was carried, equally strong. The destruction of disease germs must as far as admissible, through an unbroken continuity of have been very great during the period, and many enemies If the chemical energies of sunlight are conto the human race must, therefore, have succumbed. It is sunlight. in cerned the physiological joyousness of the body, and are interesting to note that the maximum chemical intensity of the foundation of the cheerful effect of the bright really the rays occurred between 1 o’clock and 3 o’clock P.M. their measurement is clearly of interest and sunny day, each day, although it does not appear that the temperature importance. reached its highest point in the same interval. Frequently the highest temperature records appear in the months of THE CURABILITY OF LEISHMANIOSIS. July and August, while in those months the chemical WE are indebted mainly to our Italian colleagues for intensity never reaches the spring intensity, although the recent additions to our knowledge of this disease. Prior to weather in the early part of the year may be, comparatively infantile 1909 leishmaniosis was considered incurable, but speaking, cold. The question as to what sunstroke is due Dr. G. Carsina has published eight cases of cure observed at has often been debated, but the general opinion seems to be will find details in a magazine pubPalermo. The reader that it is connected with the heat and not with the chemical lished at Rome under the guidance of Professor G. Baccelli energies of the solar rays. The heat rays, of course, are 1 and Out of others. 78 cases, verified by the presence of perfectly distinct from the chemical rays, and the one series Leishman’s obtained parasite by splenic puncture, there The chemical rays easily can be separated from the other. 12 were 50 8 remained deaths, recoveries, ill, and 8 were lost set up a sun-burn or dermatitis, as is seen in the case of a about of 14 per cent. recoveries. the ultra-violet ray lamp, but many authorities do notsight of, making percentage This result was not attributable to any special satisfactory appear to think that the actinic rays are responsible of iron and other In the tropics during intense heat remedies ; salvarsan, arsacetine, cacodylate for sun apoplexy. and more arsenical recently preparations, Roentgen rays, persons stopping within doors are frequently attacked, inoculations with dead cultures, had been used on progressive when have been in work. especially they engaged fatiguing Heat apoplexy may also occur in cloudy weather and ata large scale, but none of them had shown any definite night when the conditions of temperature and humidity areresult. The only beneficial influence noticed seemed to oppressive. It is curious, also, that at sea the tropical sunFollow the use of arsenical preparations in all forms, from is less fatal than on land, and while the passengers on deckcacodylate of iron to salvarsan. Cure seemed to have been the result of a natural process, and it is interesting to notice may escape sunstroke the stokers and firemen below often that in two of the cases a specific amboceptor for leishsuffer from prostration during such a voyage. In altitudes, again, the chemical energies of the sun are very:nania could be demonstrated after the cure, which it was intense, and yet the heat leads to no discomfort. Sunstrokelot possible to demonstrate during the illness. Recovery, ensued owing to the immunising reaction of the appears to be engendered by heat and to be due to thetherefore, ( body failing to adapt itself to exertion under conditions)rganism, as in many other chronic infections, and the which seriously retard or check the cooling of the body bygravity of this disease depends on the fact that in the radiation or conduction. According to the observation wernajority of cases such a reaction does not take place. If have made that the maximum chemical intensity of the sunthis explanation be the correct one it lends force to the ivpothesis put forward by Jemma of the existence of slight occurs, generally speaking, between 1 and 3 o’clock, it would seem reasonable to conclude that the greatest risk’orms of this disease which escape observation, and in which of incurring sunstroke, if it is due to solar chemical is a strong immunising reaction which results in a and not to heat, would be at this time. We are not aware,r’apid resolution before the individual presents such symhowever, that a greater number of sunstrokes are recorded I)toms as would arouse suspicion. Recent observations, howin this interval than at other periods. As giving some idea;ver, by Di Cristina put the matter in a different light. In a of the chief variations of chemical intensity shown in twoase of Leishman’s anæmia, in which during life there was abundant and clear evidence of the presence of the parasites recent sunny days, we append the following results recordn the splenic juice, he found them absent at the necropsy from an the amount of iodine the ing expelled by rays acidified solution of potassium iodide in intervals of 30 n smears of various organs stained after Leishman’s minutes. Monday, June 2nd: 10.15 A.M. to 10.45 A.M.,rnethod, and in sections of organs stained with hæmatoxylin .nd eosin he found only a few parasitiferous cells in the liver 4’06 of A.M. to 11.15 A.M.,

experiments made oxidising power, as




iodine ;10.45

4-57 milligrammes ; 11.15

A.M. to







Malattie dei Paesi Caldi, Anno IV.,


Fasc. II.