Physical, Textural and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Muffins Prepared Using Quinoa Flour as a Replacement for Rice Flour

Physical, Textural and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Muffins Prepared Using Quinoa Flour as a Replacement for Rice Flour

MONDAY, OCTOBER 21 Poster Session: Food/Nutrition Science; Education; Management; Food Services/Culinary; Research Physical, Textural and Sensory Pro...

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Poster Session: Food/Nutrition Science; Education; Management; Food Services/Culinary; Research Physical, Textural and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Muffins Prepared Using Quinoa Flour as a Replacement for Rice Flour Author(s): M.G. Baker, H. Hudson, L. Flores, S. Bhaduri, R. Ghatak, K.P. Navder; Nutrition Program, CUNY School of Public Health, Hunter Coll., New York, NY Learning Outcome: To evaluate the effectiveness of quinoa flour as a glutenfree flour replacer in muffins.

Quality of Student Lunches Brought from Home Author(s): M.L. Caruso1, K.W. Cullen2; 1School of Public Health, Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX, 2USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor Coll. of Med., Houston, TX Learning Outcome: To understand the nutrient and food group content of student lunches from home, and how average content compares to the National School Lunch Program meal.

The market for gluten-free products that are nutritious and palatable is growing exponentially as more people are choosing a gluten-free diet out of necessity or personal preference. Rice flour is often used in gluten-free products. However, other choices, such as quinoa flour, can provide an improved nutrition profile. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of quinoa substitution on the physical, textural and sensory properties of gluten-free muffins. A 100% rice flour control muffin was compared with muffins containing quinoa substitutions at 30% and 50%. There was no significant difference in volume, percent increase in height, and water activity with quinoa substitution. Textural analysis measured by TA.XT plus Texture Analyzer (Texture Technologies Corp., Scarsdale, NY) showed muffins with quinoa substitution have decreased firmness versus the control, but no significant differences were seen in cohesiveness and springiness. Acceptability was determined by 75 untrained consumer panelists using a 9-point hedonic scale. There were no significant differences found between the variations in appearance, odor, flavor or taste. There was a trend for the 50% variation to be ranked highest in order of preference while the control ranked lowest. Muffins prepared with 50% quinoa flour were highly acceptable to consumers and had a more favorable nutrient profile (22% more protein, 1600% more fiber, 829% more magnesium, 204% more potassium and 209% more zinc) than the rice flour control. Quinoa flour can be considered a good alternative to rice flour in the production of gluten-free products.

This study examined the quality of lunches brought from home by students from 12 schools (4 intermediate/8 elementary) in one Houston area school district. In the fall of 2011, 243 elementary and 96 intermediate students were anonymously observed during lunch. Foods brought from home and amounts eaten were recorded on observation sheets, along with student grade level and gender, and then entered into NDSR diet analysis software. Nutrient and food group content were calculated. Average energy content of home lunches as prepared was 645 calories (SD 200), and contained 1/2 serving of fruit, 1/10 serving of juice, 1/10 serving of vegetables, 1/2 ounce of milk, 4 ounces of sweetened beverages, 3 ounces of water, 2/3 serving of chips, 2/3 serving of dessert, 1.75 ounce equivalents of protein, and 2.75 ounce equivalents of grains. Elementary student home lunches contained more milk and protein foods (both p<0.05). This meal pattern contrasts with the 2012 National School Lunch Program meal that provides the food groups that enable children to meet the Dietary Guidelines for lunch: 8 ounces of milk, 2 ounce equivalent each of grains and protein foods, 1 serving of fruit, and 2 servings of vegetables. Students consumed about 570 calories of their home lunches, 89% of total calories brought. For those who brought the item, waste varied by food group; the highest waste was 18% for vegetables. These results document the need for methods and strategies to enable families to prepare healthy lunches from home for students.

Funding Disclosure: None

Funding Disclosure: NIH

The Effects Chia Seeds as a Fat Replacer on the Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Muffins

Refrigeration Equipment in School Nutrition Programs in the USDA Southwest Region

Author(s): P.H. Terry, M. Hancock, K. McCreless; Kinesiology and Nutrition Science, Samford Univ., Birmingham, AL

Author(s): V.S. Webb1, E.B. Barrett2; 1Family and Consumer Sciences, Delta State Univ., Cleveland, MS, 2Hospitality Management and Dietetics, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS

Learning Outcome: After reading this abstract, participants will be able to understand the rationale and apply the techniques for substituting a chia seed mixture as a fat replacer in muffins. High fat diets have been linked to heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. Chia seeds are a good source of both dietary fiber and omega-3-fatty acids. Omega-3-fatty acid deficiencies are connected to many human health problems such as heart disease, eczema, and ADHD. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the fat substitute, chia seeds, on physical and sensory characteristics of muffins. The recipe for the two samples used consistent ingredients and methods of mixing and baking, substituting only for the fat in the control recipe. The chia seeds were incorporated into the recipe using a chia seed mixture (ratio of 1:9 chia seed to water) to replace half the fat in the muffins. Thirty female subjects voluntarily evaluated the final products for color, texture, mouth -feel and flavor. Objective testing included a line-spread test, TA.XT2 texture analyzer, Venier calipers, and a picture of the interior texture of the muffins. Sensory results of the study showed that the color of the chia seed muffin was significantly disliked compared to that of the control recipe (p¼0.001), but for texture, mouth-feel and flavor there were no significant differences. Objective testing confirmed that the muffins with chia seeds were more dense and compact. A chia seed mixture can be substituted for half the fat in baked products; however, further research is needed to improve physical characteristics and overall acceptability. Funding Disclosure: None

Learning Outcome: Describe perceived adequacy of refrigeration equipment to meet 2012 meal patterns. Today school nutrition programs must meet increasing expectations and requirements without expanding resources. This includes implementing the 2012 meal patterns which require that more fruits, vegetables and whole grains be served. Refrigeration equipment is needed to implement these guidelines and for safe storage of many nutritious fruits and vegetables served to children in school nutrition programs. Since resources in the literature that estimate refrigeration space needs are 15+ years old and actual refrigerated space in school nutrition programs is not available in recent publications, there is a need to investigate refrigerated equipment. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to gain insight into the refrigeration availability in school nutrition programs in the Southwest Region and to identify perceived adequacy of refrigeration to meet the new meal patterns. A nonexperimental research design was used for this study with mixed methods research techniques. The study methodology included the use of Delphi panel, ten site observations, a pilot study, and a regional survey of school nutrition directors. The sample included 2,200 school nutrition directors in the Southwest Region. Findings of this study indicated that over a third of school nutrition directors classified refrigerated equipment as inadequate to meet the 2012 meal patterns. Refrigeration equipment and capacity were identified. School nutrition professionals may use study results to assist in justification of increasing refrigerated storage and to identify practices to compensate for inadequate refrigeration. Survey methodology may be used to complete further research on refrigeration in school nutrition and in other foodservice operations. Funding Disclosure: None



September 2013 Suppl 3—Abstracts Volume 113 Number 9