PREBIOTICS IN BEVERAGES: FROM HEALTH IMPACT TO PRESERVATION
Sebastián Ospina-Corral, Carlos Ariel Cardona Alzate, Carlos Eduardo Orrego Alzate Institute of Biotechnology and Agribusiness, National University of Colombia, Manizales, Colombia
11.1 Introduction The demand for healthy or functional foods and beverages has increased in many parts of the world. The term functional food migrated from Japan to the EU and the United States to refer to food with special constituents that possess, together with the basic nutritional impact, advantageous physiological effects on one or more functions of the human organism or/and decreasing the risk of the evolution of diseases. Currently, the range of functional foods includes products such as dairy foods, cholesterol-lowering spreads, baby foods, baked goods and cereals, snacks, meat products, and beverages. The latter are popular among people seeking some health benefit, where dietary or prebiotic fiber drinks are of special interest to those who want to improve the health of their intestinal tract. The human gastrointestinal microbiota provides metabolic, immunologic, and protective functions that play a crucial role in human health. The intestinal tract is colonized by a complex system of microorganisms, whose populations rise to 108 per gram in the intestines and 1012 in the colon (Ouwehand and Vaughan, 2006). The microorganisms present in the gut provide the body with a strong barrier to infections by intestinal pathogens (Bourlioux et al., 2003), and a considerable amount of the metabolic feed for the epithelial cells in the colon (Topping and Clifton, 2001). Dietary fibers, recognized as functional ingredients or functional foods, are neither digested nor absorbed, and are exposed to bacterial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract. Not all fibers are prebiotics; however, most prebiotics can be classified as dietary fibers. A food ingredient as a prebiotic if (1) resists gastric acidity, hydrolysis by m ammalian Preservatives for the Beverage Industry. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-816685-7.00011-2 © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
340 Chapter 11 Prebiotics in Beverages: From Health Impact to Preservation
enzymes, and absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract; (2) is fermented by the intestinal microflora, and (3) selectively stimulates the growth and/or activity of intestinal bacteria potentially associated with health and well-being. The original definition of the term only considered a limited number of “healthy” bacteria in the colon (e.g., bifidobacteria and lactobacilli); today, other bacteria have been associated with gut beneficial health effects and it is likely this definition will continue to evolve (Holscher, 2017). This lack of a consensus on the composition of a healthy gut microbiome complicates a tight delineation between prebiotic and nonprebiotic dietary fibers (Verspreet et al., 2016). In December 2016, a panel of experts in microbiology, nutrition, and clinical research organized by the board of directors of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics reviewed the definition and scope of prebiotics. The panel proposed the following definition of a prebiotic: a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit. Given the differences across animal species, prebiotic efficacy, safety, and appropriate dosing should be demonstrated for the specific target host. The panel recognized that this updated definition would include other noncarbohydrate-based substances such as polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids converted to respective conjugated fatty acids (Gibson et al., 2017). Production of functional drinks containing prebiotic compounds such as inulin, lactulose, and fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) has a great potential for the consumers and public health, and a very dynamic market. The mentioned multiple beneficial effects of prebiotics on gut health and metabolic function, have attracted a rising number of food and pharmaceutical industries. Among these health benefits of probiotics intake, they decrease the transit time in the gut, a normalization in the bowel function and blood lipids, and an attenuation of blood glucose (Fallourd et al., 2009), all of this while changing and enhancing the beneficial microflora present in the intestinal tract. Indeed, the consumption of prebiotics can help prevent the incidence and symptoms of travelers’ diarrhea in adults and acute diarrhea in children (Drakoularakou et al., 2010). The challenges encountered when developing functional beverages with prebiotics are numerous and differ depending on the product. Incorporating the necessary amount of prebiotics into this type of drinks is often a challenge due to the impact that could have over texture or stability of the beverage. This chapter presents the current knowledge, gaps, and tasks ahead in various aspects of the use of prebiotics ingredients in nonalcoholic beverages. It offers an overview of the different prebiotics presently available for use in food and drinks, and also covers in brief the sources and commercial production, their global market, and the more important health effects of prebiotics intake. Preparation, physicochemical effects, and stability issues of prebiotics in beverages
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are also included, as well as the regulatory status in various countries specific to prebiotics, and/or functional foods and drinks which may include prebiotics as a functional ingredient. Finally, recent market trends in this sector are also examined.
11.2 Prebiotics Suitable for Use in Beverages Prebiotics—mainly oligosaccharides—are currently used in beverages (fruit drinks, coffee, cocoa, tea, soda, soya milk, soft drinks, health drinks, powder beverages, and alcoholic beverages) and milk products (fermented milk, instant powders, powdered milk, yogurt, and ice cream). Depending on the chemical nature, prebiotic compounds are categorized into three types: saccharide derivatives, proteins or peptides, and lipids (Ishwarya and Prabhasankar, 2014). So far, mainly oligosaccharides have been presented as (candidate) prebiotics (namely fructo-, gluco-, galacto-, isomalto-, xylo-, and soy-oligosaccharides), inulin, lactulose, lactosucrose, guar gum, resistant starch, pectin, and chitosan (Ozcan et al., 2016). The different types of oligo and polysaccharides that are considered as prebiotics suitable for use in beverages are briefly presented in the following.
11.2.1 Fructooligosaccharides The FOS and inulin-type fructans are linear fructans formed by two or more fructose monomers linked by β(1 → 2) linkages forming linear chains of a few monomers, known as Short-chain fructooligosaccharides (ScFOS) or by several monomers (Inulin) (Pandey et al., 2015). Currently, the most used fructan in the food industry is the chicory inulin (Nishimura et al., 2015) but the scientific community have recognized that ScFOS formulations could provide better organoleptic and chemical properties than inulin, making ScFOS a top trend for investigations (Nobre et al., 2013). FOS and inulin can be quickly fermented in the colon and daily intake of 5–10 g can significantly stimulate the bifidobacteria present in the gut (Bali et al., 2013).
11.2.2 Galactooligosaccharides The galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are nondigestible carbohydrate polymers formed with galactose and glucose. They are produced from lactose by an enzymatic reaction using β-galactosidase (Facin et al., 2015). Commercially available GOS also contain mixtures of lactose,
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glucose, and galactose. GOS solubility is about 70% w/w and has a third of the sweetener capability of sucrose.
11.2.3 Gum Arabic (Acacia Gum) The gum arabic is a natural gum exuded by various species of acacia and is a very complex mixture of branched polysaccharides that can even include some proteins (Fallourd and Viscione, 2009). The fiber content of acacia gum is between 80% and 90% w/w. Due to its complexity, acacia gum is not digested in the small intestine but is fermented in the large intestine. The maximum daily intake is about 50 g, over this quantity, side effects like flatulence begins to show. Acacia gum is very stable in acid media and has been used as an emulsifier in beverages.
11.2.4 Isomaltooligosaccharides Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOS) are branched oligosaccharides with glucose units connected by α-1,6 linkages which are resistant to the digestion by human enzymes. IMOs are found naturally in different fermented foods such as miso, soy sauce, and in honey. Commercial IMOs are produced enzymatically from starch hydrolysates (maltose and maltodextrins) through the action of the α-transglucosidase (EC 184.108.40.206) from Aspergillus sp. (Goffin et al., 2011).
11.2.5 Soy Oligosaccharides Soy oligosaccharides (MOS) refer to oligosaccharides found in soybeans and also in other beans and peas. The two principal soy oligosaccharides are the trisaccharide raffinose and the tetrasaccharide stachyose (Sharma et al., 2011).
11.2.6 Xylooligosaccharide Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) derived from xylan-rich hemicelluloses. Most commercial XOS are produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan that has been isolated from biomass by extraction with potassium hydroxide. It can also be produced from almond shells by autohydrolysis at 150–190°C. XOS have acceptable organoleptic properties and do not exhibit toxicity or negative effects on human health (Nabarlatz et al., 2005).
11.2.7 Resistant Starch Resistant starch (RS) is defined as the sum of starch and the product of starch digestion that resists digestion in the small intestine of a normal human being. Resistant starches have been classified into four classes. The RS1 includes of physically inaccessible starch such as legumes and seeds; the RS2 comprises specially structured granules that prevent
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digestive enzymes from hydrolyzing them, for example, potatoes and corns. The RS1 and RS2 are naturally occurring starches that can easily be destroyed upon processing. The RS3 comprises retrograded starches formed through gelatinization and retrogradation process during food processing. The RS4 encompasses starch obtained by applying standard methods of chemical modification of starch such as crosslinking, substitution, and dextrinization (Zaman and Sarbini, 2015).
11.3 Production of Prebiotics Prebiotics can be extracted from plants such as chicory or agave, but they are normally synthetized using enzymatic/microbial or chemical methods. The prebiotics that can be applied in beverages are mainly produced by three routes as depicted in Table 11.1.
11.3.1 Plants Rich in Prebiotics The majority of the reported studies of plant materials of prebiotic potential are on chicory, asparagus, leeks, garlic, or Jerusalem artichoke. However, there are several fruits, vegetables naturally enriched in oligosaccharides and other potential prebiotic substances. Table 11.2 shows some of those plants (Yun, 1996).
11.3.2 Enzymatic Production of Prebiotics A common process for production of ScFOS or GOS is shown in Fig. 11.1. Prebiotic oligosaccharides are not pure components but mixtures containing oligosaccharides of different DPs, as mentioned
Table 11.1 Prebiotic Production Routes. Approach
Extraction from raw plant materials.
Controlled enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides; may be followed chromatography to purify the prebiotics. Enzymatic process to build up oligosaccharides from disaccharides; may be followed by chromatography to purify the prebiotics.
• • • •
Soybean oligosaccharides from soybean whey. Inulin from chicory. Resistant starch from maize. Fructooligosaccharides from inulin.
• Galactooligosaccharides from lactose. • Fructooligosaccharides from sucrose. • Lactosucrose from lactose + sucrose.
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Table 11.2 Some Plants With Prebiotic Potential. Source Agave americana (agave) Agave vera cruze (agave) Asparagus officinalis (asparagus roots) Allium cepa (onion) Cichorium intybus Crinum longifolium
Beta vulgaris (sugar beet leaf) Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) Lactuca sativa (lettuce) Lycoris radiata Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon)
Prebiotics monosaccharides substrate
Purified syrup 90%–98% (w/w) prebiotics
Final product Purified powder 95%–98% (w/w) Prebiotics
Monosaccharides Unreacted substrate
Spray drying tower
Immobilized enzyme reactor Polysaccharides
Simulated bed chromatography
Purified powder Monosaccharides
Fig. 11.1 Prebiotic production.
before. Normally, the mixture is composed by the oligosaccharides, the parental monomers, and a residual sugar. The production of this prebiotics generally begins with the homogenization of the parental sugar mixture, followed by an enzymatic reaction and finally, a chromatographic separation to reduce the residual sugar content. ScFOS production could be used as example of how the enzymatic production works. ScFOS mixtures are produced by transfructosylation of sucrose and contain oligosaccharides between three and five monomer units, with the proportion of each oligosaccharide decreasing with increasing molecular size (Nobre et al., 2015). These oligosaccharides contain a terminal glucose with β(1 → 2) linked fructose moieties. In
Chapter 11 Prebiotics in Beverages: From Health Impact to Preservation 345
comparison, FOS produced by the controlled hydrolysis of inulin contain a wider range of β(1 → 2) fructooligosaccharide sizes (DP 2–9), relatively few of which possess a terminal glucose residue (Flores-Maltos et al., 2014). Following the example of ScFOs production, the mechanisms of reaction of the fructosyl transferase and enzyme utilized for ScFOS production is outlined in Fig. 11.2 (Dominguez et al., 2012). GF + GF → GF2 + G GF2 + GF → GF3 + G GF3 + GF → GF4 + G GF2 + GF2 → GF3 + GF GF3 + GF2 → GF4 + GF GF3 + GF3 → GF4 + GF2
8GF 4G 4GF2 2GF 2GF3 GF2 GF4
(I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI)
11.3.3 Prebiotics Market and Prebiotic Suppliers The global prebiotic ingredients market is benefitting from the rising demand for functional food ingredients. On the basis of ingredients, the prebiotics market is segmented into inulin, FOS, mannanoligosaccharide (MOS), and GOS. According to recent market reports the global prebiotics market size was over USD 2.90 billion in 2015, USD 3.5 in 2017 and is expected to attain a value of USD 7.7 billion by the end of 2025. These reports divide the prebiotic ingredients market into FOS, GOS, MOS, inulin, and others. Food and beverage application (other uses are dietary supplements, animal feed, and pet food) dominated the market in 2015 accounting for over 80.0% of the volume share and inulin is estimated to hold 34.3% of market share by the end of 2017. In 2015 inulin and GOS demand were over 200 and 100 kilo tons, respectively (Future Market Insights, 2017a; Grand View Research, 2016a,b; Transparency Market Research, 2017). By source, the global prebiotic ingredients market is segmented into vegetables, cereals, root, acacia tree, and others. Of them, root segment is estimated to hold the leading 46.5% of market share by the end of 2017. It is expected that prebiotics sourced from plant roots will be higher than the procured from grains and vegetables. By end use, dairy products are expected to dominate the global prebiotic ingredients market in terms of market share throughout the forecast period, projected to hold over 20% value share during 2017–27. Prebiotic food ingredient manufacturers include Abbott Nutrition, Beghin Meiji, Beneo-Orafti SA, Clasado Biosciences Limited, Cosucra Groupe Warcoing S.A., Cargill Incorporated, Dairy Crest Group plc, Fonterra Co-operative Group Limited, Gova BVBA, Jackson Gl Medical,
Fig. 11.2 Reaction steps of ScFOS production. From Dominguez, A., Nobre, C., Rodrigues, L.R., Peres, A.M., Torres, D., Rocha, I., Lima, N., Teixeira, J., 2012. New improved method for fructooligosaccharides production by Aureobasidium pullulans. Carbohydr. Polym. 89, 1174–1179. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j. carbpol.2012.03.091.
Table 11.3 Commercial Probiotic Ingredients for Food and Beverages. Manufacturer
Short Chain Fructooligosaccharide (ScFOS) Inulin-Oligofructose Galactooligosaccharide (GOS)
From sugar beet though bio-enzymatic process
Profeed, powder (95% FOS) or liquid (55%– 95% FOS) Orafti Bimuno powder (>80%GOS) or syrup (>57% GOS) Fibruline and Fibrulose Oliggo-Fiber SureStart 57% polymer syrup, 70% polymer syrup and 70% polymer powder. Promovita GOS Vivinal GOS syrup (59%–72%), powder (29%–69%), or mixed with maltodextrin (29%) GOS content Biolin, powder or liquid
Jackson Gl Medical Ingredion
Prebiotin Nutraflora, powder or liquid
Beneos Clasado Biosciences Limited Cosucra Cargill Dairy Crest-Fonterra
Bioligo GL IMF GOS syrup
Olygose Prenexus Health Roquette Freres Sensus America The New Francisco Biotechnology Corporation Yakult Honsha Co. Ltd
Hi Maize Novelose CravingZ’Gone AlphaGOS XOS95 Nutriose Frutafit poder Frutalose King-Prebiotics
Oligomate syrup (55%) and powder (55%) GOS content
Inulin and Oligofructose Prebiotic fiber GOS
From chicory root From dairy lactose utilizing a proprietary enzyme system Chicory soluble fiber From chicory root From dairy lactose utilizing a proprietary enzyme system
Specially recommended for infant and toddler nutrition products
Mixture of GOS and Inulin
GOS is obtained from natural sugars via an original enzymatic synthesis process
Inulin and FOS Short Chain Fructooligosaccharide (ScFOS) GOS RS RS GOS GOS. Mix of soluble fibers Xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) Resistant dextrin Inulin FOS GOS FOS MOS GOS
From pure sugar cane utilizing a bio-fermentation proprietary process Synthesized from food-grade lactose for infant nutrition From maize Derived from high amylose maize Extracted from peas, satiety boosting ingredient Whey of field peas, sweetener From high sugar cane From wheat and corn From chicory roots From chicory roots From natural sucrose with B-fructofuranosidase
Manufactured by the action of enzymes on lactose
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Koninklijke Friesland Campina N.V., Kraft Foods Inc., Ingredion Incorporated, Kerry Group plc, Olygose, Cooperatie Koninklijke Cosun U.A., Parmalat S.p.A, Prenexus Health, Roquette Freres S.A., Royal Cosun, Sensus America Inc., The New Francisco Biotechnology Corporation, The Tereos Group, S.A.A., and Yakult Honsha Co. Ltd. A summary of the type and source of prebiotic brands offered by the main manufacturers are shown in Table 11.3.
11.4 Health Effects of Prebiotics Intake A number of beneficial effects have been related with the ingestion of prebiotics. These benefits include stimulation of immune system; improved calcium absorption with ingestion of prebiotic formulations; inhibition of pathogen growth, reduction of blood ammonia and blood cholesterol levels as well as assistance to restore the normal flora after antibiotic therapy; reduced duration, incidence, and symptoms of traveler’s diarrhea; prevention of specific allergies; reduction in energy intake and markers of insulin resistance and improved body weight management; and increased satiety and reduced appetite (Aida et al., 2009). Prebiotics are not the only substances that can affect the microbiota. Substrates that affect its composition through mechanisms not involving selective utilization by host microorganisms are not prebiotics. These substrates would include antibiotics, minerals, vitamins, and bacteriophages (Gibson et al., 2017). As mentioned before, a number of fermentable carbohydrates have been reported as prebiotics, but the dietary prebiotics most extensively documented to have health benefits in humans are those preferentially metabolized by bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Bifidobacteria possess the metabolic machinery to utilize a wide variety of oligosaccharides and complex carbohydrates as carbon and energy sources (Lee et al., 2009) • Bifidobacteria grow well on many prebiotics in comparison to putrefactive or potentially pathogenic bacterial species in the gut (Macfarlane et al., 2006). • Although other intestinal microflora can grow in vitro using prebiotic carbohydrates, bifidobacteria appear to grow more efficiently (Crittenden and Playne, 2009; Stiverson et al., 2014). • Bifidobacteria are tolerant to the resulting production of shortchain fatty acids (SCFAs) and acidification of the intestinal environment (Crittenden and Playne, 2009; Hartemink et al., 1997). The major products of prebiotic metabolism are SCFAs, the gases hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane (in ca. 50% of persons) and bacterial cell mass (Praznik et al., 2015). The SCFAs can modulate certain aspects of metabolic activity including colonocyte function, gut homeostasis, energy gain, the immune system, blood lipids, appetite, and renal physiology (Gibson et al., 2017).
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Overall, the degree and rate of colonic fermentation is believed to decline from oligomers to polymers and from water-soluble to water-insoluble substrates. However, there are exceptions. Resistant starch, for instance, is insoluble and nonviscous but also highly fermentable (Verspreet et al., 2016). However, the use of prebiotics has some disadvantages, they are not as potent as antibiotics in eliminating specifics pathogens and an overdose can cause intestinal bloating, pain, flatulence, or diarrhea. Their indigestibility and subsequent reduced impact on glucose and insulin responses also make them suitable for diabetics (Crittenden and Playne, 2009). Some effects have beneficial value for specific diseases while others are potentially beneficial to the health at large. Because of this, prebiotics have found applications both as pharmaceuticals and as functional food ingredients (Gerdes, 2016; Lee et al., 2009).
11.4.1 Laxatives Prebiotics like lactulose can be used as a pharmaceutical to treat constipation. It has proven efficacy several placebo-controlled trials at doses between 10 and 20 g/day even in patients with chronic constipation (Crittenden and Playne, 2009). Lactulose is a relatively small molecule that is not digested or absorbed, has an osmotic effect, trapping fluid, accelerating transit in the small bowel, and increasing ileocecal flow. Its rapid fermentation to SCFAs and hydrogen also contributes to this effect and induces peristalsis. Several other prebiotics, such as inulin has been shown to mildly improve stool frequency and consistency in adults although their applications are targeted toward functional foods rather than pharmaceutical applications (Aravind et al., 2012).
11.4.2 Hepatic Encephalopathy Prebiotics found another use as therapeutic agents for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, a neuropsychiatric condition that results from liver dysfunction caused by cirrhosis or hepatitis. The most useful prebiotics for this treatment are lactulose and lactitol, but those still cannot be applied in beverages as easy as ScFOS, GOS, inulin, or RS. A dysfunctional liver is unable to clear the ammonia produced by the intestinal microflora during protein metabolism, as consequence this ammonia goes straight to the circulation system across the epithelium. The role of prebiotics in this treatment is the acidification of the colon, inhibiting ureases and bacteria implicated in the intestinal ammonia production, also leading to a protonation of the ammonia to ammonium ions that cannot cross the intestinal epithelium, causing a drop in the pH that traps the ammonia in the intestine (Bongaerts et al., 2005; Dbouk and McGuire, 2006).
Chapter 11 Prebiotics in Beverages: From Health Impact to Preservation 349
11.4.3 Prevention of Allergies in Infants There is a growing evidence that initial colonization of the intestinal tract by an appropriate intestinal microbiota is fundamental for the healthy evolution of the immune system, having an appropriate programming of oral tolerance to dietary antigens (Björkstén, 2004; Crittenden and Playne, 2009; Yang et al., 2013). Positive effects of using probiotics encouraged the interest in figuring out if similar effects could be reached with prebiotics (Crittenden and Playne, 2009). Also, the primary prevention of atopic dermatitis in infants who was genetically at risk of an atopic disease has been reported as a possible health benefit in randomized controlled trials using a GOS-FOS mixture and a symbiotic combination including GOS (Crittenden and Playne, 2009). These results indicate that prebiotics may be able to replicate the benefits seen for probiotics in allergy prevention (Shukla et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2013).
11.4.4 Prevention of Infections Prebiotic oligosaccharides may offer a strong shield against enteric infections through competitive inhibition of pathogen adherence to the mucosa (Crittenden and Playne, 2009). Many intestinal pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonellae, and Campylobacters utilize oligosaccharide receptor sites in the gut for attachment. Prebiotics can act as structural mimics of the pathogen binding sites and work as soluble decoys (Gibson et al., 2005).
11.4.5 Mineral Absorption Prebiotics have shown to increase the mineral absorption in the colon. Due to the acidification of the colon by the fermentative activities of the beneficial microflora, calcium, and magnesium absorption has improved in different studies performed to see this effects (Shortt and O’Brien, 2016; Van Den Heuvel et al., 1999; Zafar et al., 2004).
11.4.6 Reduction in Serum Lipid Concentrations Diverse animal and human studies have focused on the effects of prebiotics on serum concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerides. Overall, the most reliable evidence is for inulin, which demonstrates a reduction in triglycerides and only a slight reduction in cholesterol. Positive results have been observed in feeding studies using lactulose or lactitol and RS. The mechanisms have been speculated to be regulation of host de novo lipogenesis via SCFAs absorbed from the gut, or reduced intestinal fat absorption (Williams and Jackson, 2002).
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11.4.7 Use in Weight Management and Improving Insulin Sensitivity Prebiotics have a low calorific value and are used as low energy, low glycemic index sweeteners that are also suitable for individuals with diabetes (Morris and Morris, 2012).
11.5 Incorporation of Prebiotics in Beverages In general, prebiotics can be incorporated into beverages easily, and they can be dissolved into the liquid matrix by mechanical mixing before or after any thermal treatment.
11.5.1 Daily Products Daily products are commonly processed with a strong thermal treatment (pasteurization) and then preserved at low temperatures. Prebiotics in general have a good thermal resistance and can endure these processes without degradation. A basic process line for the addition of prebiotics in dairy beverages is presented in Fig. 11.3 (FerreiraLazarte et al., 2017). Some dairy beverages that contain prebiotics in their formulations are presented in Table 11.4.
11.5.2 Fruit Beverages Similar to dairy products, the addition of prebiotics into fruit juices can be performed by simply adding the powder or syrup into a mixer before or after the heat treatment. Fruit products which commonly have a greater water activity and lower pH than dairy products, and it becomes important to conserve the product under 4°C to obtain a shelf life around 6 months after production (Cassani et al., 2017a,b).
Dairy product ingredients
Fig. 11.3 Prebiotic-enriched dairy beverage production.
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Table 11.4 Examples of Commercial Dairy Drinks With Prebiotics. Brand
Milk+Fruit+Yogurt Vitagen Less Sugar Pillars Drinkable Greek Yogurt Grow
Solemizo Malaysia Dairy Industries Pillars Yogurt Abbot Laboratories/Sabah International Dairies Yoplait Alimentos del Valle Vitamin Friends Dannon Laticinios Bela Vista
Inulin Polydextrose and inulin Inulin Inulin and ScFOS
Yo Plus San Fernando Yogurth Light ProbaYo Dannon Light & Fit Protein Shake Piracanjuba Dieta+ Leite
Inulin ScFOS Inulin and ScFOS Polydextrose Inulin
Some fruit derivate drinks that contain prebiotics in their formulations are presented in Table 11.5.
11.5.3 Powder Beverages Production of powder beverages is similar to the aforementioned processes. Instead of sterilization or pasteurization steps it is used a spray drying process. After spray drying of liquid food it is obtained a powder product. However, the presence of sugar and organic acids in the feed causes stickiness problems during the spray-drying process and carbohydrates, gums, or proteins are used as helpers to facilitate the drying, being maltodextrin one of the most used drying-aid agents and opening the possibilities for the use of other prebiotics for the same
Table 11.5 Commercial Fruit Drinks With Prebiotics. Brand
Fiber Drink GoLive Enhanced Beverages GoLive Tea IceTevia Alive Pulpy Sun Up
Vital 4U GoLive
Inulin and isomalto-oligosaccharides Larch gum, GOS, RM, and gum arabic
Naturevia Nature’s Way Colanta Nutribeverage
Inulin ScFOS ScFOS Inulin
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Fruit juice Mixer Spray dryer
Fig. 11.4 Prebiotic-enriched powder beverage production.
use and improving the health benefits of the powder. A basic process diagram of how powder beverages with prebiotics can be produced is shown in Fig. 11.4 (Barbosa and Teixeira, 2017; Miravet et al., 2016). Mixtures formed by a concentrated fruit juice and already dissolved prebiotics are used in this process. The spray dryer is commonly fed with a solution that contains 2%–20% in weight of the concentrated fruit juice and a quantity of prebiotics that range from 0.5 to 1.5 g of prebiotic per gram of concentrated fruit juice. Miravet et al. (2016) found that the use of resistant maltodextrins (RM) can improve the drying yield around 10% for drying temperatures between 120°C and 160°C for concentrated pomegranate juice while retaining its bioactive compounds. Humidity is a key parameter in powder storage, at high relative humidity the powder is not stable, thus, it should be packed in a hermetic container. The use of prebiotics as helpers in the spray drying can take advantage of their good qualities as wall materials for microencapsulation of probiotics (Rodríguez-Restrepo et al., 2017) or another key compounds in fruit extracts (Ramírez et al., 2015). Some powder beverages that contain prebiotics in their formulations are presented in Table 11.6.
Table 11.6 Commercial Powder Drinks With Prebiotics in Their Formulation. Brand
GoLive Powder Packets
Way Powered Drink Mix Benefiber FOS Detox
Silver Fern Benefiber Phetai
Blend of larch gum, GOS, RM, and gum arabic Isomalto-oligosaccharides Wheat dextrins ScFOS
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11.5.4 Preparing a Prebiotic Beverage Depending on the kind of drink and storage conditions, Some guidelines to fabricate prebiotic beverages are presented here. As mentioned before, the selection of the type of prebiotics suitable for different beverages depends on different factors as processing, pH, storage stability, etc.
220.127.116.11 Short-Chain Fructooligosaccharides The ScFOS addition to beverages is limited by the dosage regulations, which in general is 3% w/w for infant formulas and 5% w/w for common beverages and the maximum daily intake of 20 g and depending on its storage it can or cannot be used for the beverage formulation (Tables 11.7 and 11.8).
18.104.22.168 Inulin Similar to ScFOS, the addition of inulin into beverages is limited by the legal dosage, which is 3% w/w for infant formulas and 5% w/w for common beverages and the maximum daily intake of 20 g and depending on its storage it would need some extra precautions (Tables 11.9 and 11.10).
22.214.171.124 Galactooligosaccharides GOS are one of the most stable prebiotics developed until now and can be added into almost all kind of nonalcoholic beverages and similar to ScFOS and inulin. The maximum daily intake recommended is 20 g and
Table 11.7 ScFOS Addition to Noncold Storage Beverages. ScFOS Addition Without Refrigeration
Due to their neutral—basic pH, ScFOS be stable without refrigeration If possible, it is recommendable the aseptic addition of the prebiotic after thermal treatments. If not, It will be developed some nonsignificant degradation
Due to the acid pH characteristic of fruit juices, ScFOS usage is not advisable
They can be added to reach a maximum of 5% w/w in the rehydrated beverage Suitable for enhancing flavor and aroma encapsulation (Miravet et al., 2016)
Infant Formulas/ Pharmaceutic Beverages Due to their high fermentability in the colon, they can offer several benefits to infant microflora development. Cannot exceed a dosage of 3% w/w (Sabater et al., 2016).
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Table 11.8 ScFOS Addition at 4°C Refrigeration Storage. 4°C Refrigeration Infant Formulas/ Pharmaceutic Beverages
ScFOS are stable under product refrigeration.
At low temperatures, they can resist the acid media with very low degradation (Renuka et al., 2009) It is recommendable to add the prebiotic after thermal treatments, but it can be added before without significant degradation.
It is recommendable to add the prebiotic after thermal treatments, but it can be added before without significant degradation.
Due to their high fermentability in the colon, they can offer several benefits to infant microflora development. Cannot exceed a dosage of 3% w/w (Sabater et al., 2016).
Table 11.9 Inulin Addition to Noncold Storage Beverages. Inulin Addition Without Refrigeration
Due to the neutral—basic pH of this products, inulin can be stable without refrigeration It can be added before thermal process without degradation
It can be added but is necessary to take into account that the hydrolyzation can leave residual sucrose, meaning that the amount added to the beverage should be a bit higher than the recommended dosage and the sweetener addition should be a bit lower
They can be added to reach a maximum of 5% w/w in the rehydrated beverage It is recognized as encapsulation material and can help to protect key components in the formulation, even probiotics (Aravind et al., 2012).
Infant Formulas/ Pharmaceutic Beverages Due to its low solubility, it is not often used as ingredient in infant formulas. It can be added in portions of 1%–3% w/w
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Table 11.10 Inulin Addition at 4°C Refrigeration Storage. 4°C Refrigeration Dairy Products
Has great stability when refrigerated.
At low temperatures, it can resist the acid media without hydrolyzation
Table 11.11 GOS Addition to Beverages Without Refrigeration in Its Storage. GOS Addition Without Refrigeration Dairy Products
GOS are sable in these products and conditions
GOS can resist acid media, making them the best suitable prebiotics for use in fruit juices
Infant Formulas/Pharmaceutic Beverages
They can be added to reach a maximum of 5% w/w in the rehydrated beverage
They have a great stability and fermentability in the colon, and can offer several benefits to infant microflora development. However, ScFOS are better prebiotics for this application. Cannot exceed a dosage of 3% w/w (Sabater et al., 2016).
cannot exceed 5% w/w in a formulation. GOS are suitable for any kind of nonalcoholic beverage under refrigeration conditions (Table 11.11).
126.96.36.199 Resistant Starch The human body can tolerate around 50 g per day of RS and a product can have at most 30% w/w of it. Similar to GOS, RS are suitable for almost any beverage under refrigeration storage (Table 11.12).
188.8.131.52 Gum Arabic Due to its solubility, the gum arabic addition requires some extra precautions, such as strong agitation to prevent lumps, the maximum daily intake of gum arabic is around 50 g (Table 11.13).
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Table 11.12 Resistant Starch Addition to Noncold Storage Beverages. RS addition Without Refrigeration
They are stable when submitted to sterilization or pasteurization processes. Due to its poor solubility in water, it requires strong agitation to ensure the homogeneity of the product
They are very resistant to acid hydrolysis even on long storage periods.
RS are used as effective encapsulation materials and can enhance the retention of flavors, aromas, and nutraceuticals with low thermal resistance. They can be added to reach a maximum of 30% w/w in the rehydrated beverage
Infant Formulas/ Pharmaceutic Beverages Have a low fermentability compared with other prebiotics. RS are generally not recommended for this use
Table 11.13 Gum Arabic Addition to Beverages Without Refrigeration in Their Storage. Gum Arabic Addition Without Refrigeration
Agitation is required in order to prevent lumps in the product. Gum arabic is an excellent emulsifier that can improves the general stability of the product.
Agitation is required in order to prevent lumps in the product. However, it is very resistant to acid media and can be used as emulsifier.
Gum arabic is a good encapsulating material (Riaz and Masud, 2013)
Infant Formulas/ Pharmaceutic Beverages It is a common emulsifier present in several infant formulas and pharmaceutic products.
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11.6 Physicochemical and Organoleptic Characteristics of Prebiotics Inulin is approximately 10% soluble in water at room temperature, has a neutral taste and is slightly sweet. Owing to these properties, it is used chiefly in low fat dairy products as a fat replacer and in baked products as a texture modifier (Charalampopoulos and Rastall, 2012). The addition of inulin into yogurt gives the product less syneresis and a better body without influence on acetaldehyde, pH, and titratable acidity. Overall, the yogurt containing 1% inulin was similar in quality characteristics to the control yogurt made from whole milk (Al-Sheraji et al., 2013). Generally, the use of inulin can provide texture and body to low-fat dairy drinks (Meyer et al., 2011). The solubility of fructan-derived prebiotics depends on the different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles that can be applied over the product. Higher DP mixtures tends to be less soluble in water than low DPs mixtures, making the ScFOS ideal for applications requiring weak gel structures such as milk-based drinks, yogurts, and fruit juices (Gomes et al., 2017; Vega and Zuniga-Hansen, 2015). FOS are much more soluble than inulin and are commonly used as sugar replacements due to their sweetening capability (around 50% of common sugar) with near zero calories (Kelly, 2008). They can also give bulk with fewer calories and increase the functional value without compromising on the taste and mouthfeel of the products. Sweetener dosage of ScFOS varies from 0.3% to 0.65% depending on the residual sugars present on the mixture and has synergistic effect when is combined with strong sweeteners (Bali et al., 2013). RM has a sweetener capability around 10% of sucrose and can be combined with stronger sweeteners to enhance the taste of the drinks. Both inulin and ScFOS have almost no taste, making them suitable to be added to beverages at practical levels without affecting taste attributes of the product and are widely used for fiber fortification in beverages such as carbonated and noncarbonated drinks, dairy and dairy replacement drinks, dry mixes, near-water drinks, short shelflife juice drinks and juices, sport and energy drinks, tea and coffee, and water (Fallourd and Viscione, 2009). Acacia gum has a low impact in the flavor of the product and increases the mouthfeel and stability of oils present in the beverage while not masking the flavor release. GOS are very soluble in water, mildly sweet (30%–35% compared to sucrose). Because of their stability, in addition to infant foods, GOS can also be incorporated into a wide variety of other foods. Recently, they have been used in beverages like fruit juices and other acid drinks, fermented milks, and flavored milks. Like ScFOS, GOS are suitable to be incorporated to almost all the nonalcoholic drinks. Acacia gum is soluble in water around 43%–48% v/v. Solutions made with acacia gum are not completely clear, which means that
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acacia gum can be used on beverages where water-like color is not essential. RM has normally solubility around 70% w/w and is readily dispersible in water and compatible with almost all nonalcoholic drinks. The dosage of prebiotics in final products commonly cannot exceed the 5% in weight of the product due to the actual market regulations (Crittenden and Playne, 2009). Inulin and FOS can be completely fermented in the colon. A daily consumption of 15–20 g is well tolerated with no side effects (Ferreira-Lazarte et al., 2017). However, dosages over 20 g per day could result in minor digestive complains (Molis et al., 1996; Yasmin et al., 2015). The human body can consume up to 45 g per day of RM without negative side effects. RM has a high molecular weight and slow fermentation rates, where about of 15%–50% of the RM consumed is not fermented and excreted (Sabater et al., 2016). Other physicochemical effects of oligosaccharides used as prebiotics in beverages are the increase of viscosity, reduction of Maillard reactions, alteration of water retention, the lowering freezing points, and the suppression of crystal formation (Pandey et al., 2015).
11.7 Processing Stability The prebiotic oligosaccharides are exposed to a wide range of conditions (especially thermal and pH conditions) throughout their extraction process or integration into formulation. A number of studies have estimated the stability of prebiotics to heat and/or acidic conditions. Dry heating of inulin from chicory for up to 60 min at temperatures between 135°C and 195°C, resulted in substantial degradation fluctuating between 20% and 100% (Böhm et al., 2005). Despite inulin heated at 195°C for 30 min resulted in complete degradation of its fructan chains, when added to a mixed fecal culture preserved the functional activity showing significantly greater stimulation of the growth of bifidobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, and a significant decrease in the growth of potential pathogens (Böhm et al., 2006). So, prebiotics could suffer chemical changes but could be functionally stable if their prebiotic activity before and after processing remains the same or has increased. There are a number of methods described by several groups to determine the functional activity or prebiotic properties of a substrate, from pure culture studies to human trials(Huebner et al., 2008; Makras et al., 2005; Sanz et al., 2005). Huebner et al. (2008) evaluated the effects of processing on FOS and inulin prebiotic activity of four commercial prebiotics via assessment of the change in cell biomass of solutions of prebiotics in citrate-phosphate buffer solutions. The optical cell density measurements of Lactobacillus paracasei 1195 on the prebiotic relative to that of E. coli under equivalent conditions were
Chapter 11 Prebiotics in Beverages: From Health Impact to Preservation 359
given the prebiotic activity scores. Prebiotics were considered functionally stable if their score was unchanged after treatment. In general, only heating at low pH caused a significant reduction in prebiotic activity, with one of the FOS products being the least stable (Huebner et al., 2008). Generally, FOS hydrolyzes during pasteurization and/or sterilization or even at low pH and mild temperatures. This reaction showed a first-order kinetic rate for FOS (L’homme et al., 2002). Contrary to GOS, FOS are liable to hydrolysis in the conditions occurring during the pasteurization of fruit juices and drinks, being the degree of hydrolysis is greater the lower the pH and the longer the pasteurization time. The degree of hydrolysis of FOS can even reach the value of over 80% (Klewicki, 2007). ScFOS are a little bit more resistant to acid hydrolysis than inulin and its use below pH 3.5 is still feasible in short shelf-life products like refrigerated juices (Gomes et al., 2017; Valero-Cases and Frutos, 2017). Regarding the design of thermal processing for model drinks enriched with ScFOS at pH 3.5, the ScFOS hydrolytic degradation occurred during the thermal treatment in extent that depended on the processing conditions, including—but not limited to—pH, food matrix, the DP of ScFOS, the harshness of the heat treatment (temperature, time) and the heat treatment method (batch or continuous) (Vega and Zuniga-Hansen, 2015). Other published works also reported that among various oligosaccharides FOS is the most susceptible acid-sensitive component. Courtin et al. (2009) reported that stability and sensory properties of wheat bran-derived arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS), and chicory root inulin-derived FOS are strongly dependent on their molecular structure. The lower the molecular weight is, the higher sensitivity to alkaline decomposition. Under extreme pH and temperature conditions among the three preparations tested, AXOS showed the most interesting stability properties (Courtin et al., 2009). Stability of XOS prepared from wheat bran insoluble dietary fiber was evaluated by comparing with commercial FOS during pasteurization and autoclave sterilization at pH 2.0–4.0. XOS was characterized by a high thermal stability during pasteurization at pH 2.5–4.0 and sterilization at pH 3.0–4.0. Even at pH 2.0, the remaining XOS reached 97.2% (w/w) and 84.2% (w/w) during pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. Compared with FOS, XOS was strongly resistant to heat treatments and lower acidic conditions (Wang et al., 2009). Resistant starches and specifically, RM have proven to be resistant to high-temperature processing and shows no degradation when submitted to sterilization or pasteurization processes. RM are also very resistant to acid hydrolysis even on long storage periods (Crittenden and Playne, 2009).
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Nonthermal processes could prevent the hydrolysis of FOS. Atmospheric cold plasma, high-pressure processing, and ultrasonic treatment followed by high-pressure processing did not change significantly the concentration of FOS solution and thus prebiotic potential (Alves Filho et al., 2016). Similar results were found in the application of plasma and high-pressure processing for orange juice containing FOS (Almeida et al., 2017).
11.8 Regulations Aspects The regulation applied on prebiotics is constantly reviewed in many countries. One of the most remarked developments was the inclusion of almost all the prebiotic in the category of “dietary fiber.” This has allowed recognition of these products as having some health benefits on product labels. Prior recognition in a regulatory sense had been restricted to Japan, who for many years has regulated the functional food sector with the FOSHU (Foods for Specified Health Use) system. The use of GOS and FOS as ingredients in infant milk formulas has been the subject of intensive regulatory inquiry and its acceptance varies among countries (Crittenden and Playne, 2009). Most countries have no requirement for premarket approval and had not implemented any system for health claims; however, there are countries that have established some regulations, some of those regulations are listed in Table 11.14 (Institute of Food Technologies, 2016).
11.9 Future Trends of the Use of Prebiotics in Beverages Health and well-being drives the drink and many other goods that people consume. This is the main explanation of the recent dynamics of the global functional drinks market that is expected to reach and 279 bn by 2021. That has been a 60% increase since 2014 globally. It is hardly obvious that future trends in the use of prebiotic ingredients will be harmonized with the evolution of the world market for healthy beverages. According to recent market studies, these trends can be summarized in five words: well-being, low- or no-calorie, natural, hydrating, and tasty drinks (Future Market Insights, 2017b; Today in Business, 2017). Dairy products—including drinking yogurts and cultured liquid milk, spoonable yogurt, and flavored milk—has been a growing area of application and one in which prebiotics feature highly. However, the digestive comfort improvement (relief to irritable
Table 11.14 Prebiotic Regulation Status. Country/ Organization Canada
DRAFT—Health Canada guidance on the use of the term “prebiotic(s)” on food labels and in advertising. Elements within the Nutrition Facts Table.
http://www.inspection.gc.ca/food/labelling/food-labelling-for-industry/nutrition-labelling/elements-within-the-nutrition-facts-table/eng/1389206763218/138920 6811747?chap=0 https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/ food-nutrition/legislation-guidelines/policies/policy-labelling-advertising-dietary-fibre-containing-food-products-2012.html https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/ food-nutrition/public-involvement-partnerships/proposed-policy-definition-energy-value-dietary-fibre.html https://www.juridico1.minsal.cl/resolucion_556_2005. doc
Policy for labeling and advertising of dietary fiber containing food products
Proposed Policy: Definition and Energy Value for Dietary Fiber
Resolución Exenta N° 556 de 2005
Resolución Exenta N° 764/09 de 2009
Approval of inulin and other oligosaccharides as prebiotics. Regulation of health claims in food products.
https://www.juridico1.minsal.cl/RESOLUCION_ EX_764_09.doc Continued
Table 11.14 Prebiotic Regulation Status.—cont’d Country/ Organization
https://www.invima.gov.co/ images/stories/resoluciones/ resolucion_0288de2008_rotuladoyetiquetado.pdf
In 2009, the Codex Alimentarius Commission finalized the definition of dietary fiber. Guidelines on Nutrition Labeling.
Revised Codex standards were released in November 2006
http://www.fao.org/ag/humannutrition/33309-01d4d1dd1 abc825f0582d9e5a2eda4a74.pdf www.fao.org/input/download/ report/669/al30_26s.pdf http://www.fao.org/input/ download/standards/288/ CXS_072e_2015.pdf
Resolución 288 from January 31, 2008.
By which the technical regulation is established on requirements of labeling or nutritional labeling that must be met by food packaged for human consumption. “A moderate nutrition and a regular consumption of foods with prebiotics, stimulates the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria and helps to improve the intestinal function and the natural resistance.”
Art 22.2: Claims on properties and functions allowed of prebiotics in a packed food. Art 23.5: Claims on health properties related with disease risk reduction by prebiotic ingestion. Art 24: Another health claims. Art 25: Use of “Healthy” in food labeling.
(Codex ALINORM 07/30/26) CODEX STAN 72–1981; and 156–1987)
European Union— European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
Fructooligosaccharides Scientific Galactooligosaccharides opinion on the Polydextrose substantiation Wheat dextrins of health claims for the following prebiotics: Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to various food(s)/food constituent(s) (including prebiotics and probiotics) and increasing numbers of gastrointestinal microorganisms, and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastrointestinal microorganisms. The European Commission amended its Council Directive on nutrition labeling for foodstuffs about recommended daily allowances, energy conversion factors, and definitions to include dietary fiber. FAO technical meeting on prebiotics. This meeting of experts was convened to discuss guidelines, recommended criteria, and methodology for conducting a systematic approach for the evaluation of prebiotics, leading to their safe and efficacious use in foods. The French Agency for Food, Environment, and Occupational Health and Safety has issued a report titled “Effects of probiotics and prebiotics on flora and immunity in adults.” The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has classified foods containing oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides and other dietary fibers as foods for specific health uses.
2011 2011 2011 2010
http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/search/doc/2023.pdf http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/search/doc/2060.pdf http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/search/doc/2256.pdf http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/search/doc/1761.pdf
Table 11.14 Prebiotic Regulation Status.—cont’d Country/ Organization Japan—FOSHU
Normative Japan is one of the most important countries in the functional food field, having they own specific quality standards related as Food Specified Health Uses (FOSHU). In the formal JHNFA 2003 summary, there were 70 FOSHU gut regulation products containing dietary fiber as the functional ingredient, and another 61 products (of 398 totals at the end of 2003) using an oligosaccharide to support a gut health claim. The Health Functional Food Code developed by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety provides general provisions, general standards and specifications, and prerequisite for health claim for each functional ingredient including some prebiotics such as inulin, chicory, and fructooligosaccharides. The Ministry of Health Malaysia in its Guide for Nutrition Labeling and Claims allows for nutrient function claims for prebiotics such as inulin and oligosaccharides The Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore has approved inulin and oligofructose as prebiotics and allows function claims for foods containing prebiotics. Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act (54/1972): Regulations relating to the Labeling and advertising of foods: Amendment, allows for content and function claims for prebiotics (trans-galactooligosaccharide, inulin, oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, polydextrose, and galactooligosaccharides). The Department of Health has issued draft guidelines related to the regulations on labeling and advertising of foods for compliance purposes
https://www.nutraceuticalsworld. com/issues/2005-03/view_columns/ japan-insider-prebiotics-amp-probiotics-in-japan-a/
https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/sites/ default/files/MYS%202010%20Guide%20to%20 Nutrition%20Labelling%20and%20Claims.pdf http://www.ava.gov.sg/FoodSector/ FoodLabelingAdvertisement/
United States of America
Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels; Proposed Rule: The FDA proposes changes: to the declaration of nondigestible carbohydrates as dietary fibers; related to the substantiation of health claims for nondigestible carbohydrates; to voluntary declaration of “other carbohydrates.” The 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee performed a review of systematic reviews on prebiotics and probiotics and health since 2004 and concluded that the role of gut microbiota is an important emerging area of research, but not enough research is available to make dietary recommendations for either prebiotics or probiotics. IOM report on Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed definition of dietary fiber. In the United States, Inulin, fructooligosaccharides and galacfunctional foods can be tooligosaccharides have been evaluated regulated as conventional by the FDA and confirmed as safe for food, a dietary suppleaddition in foods. ment, a food for special Guide to nutrition labeling and education dietary use, a medical act (NLEA) requirements—Nutrition food, or a drug. Often Labeling and Education Act of 1990 these distinctions depend (NLEA), Pub. L. No 101-535, 104 Stat. on the claims made for 2353 and subsequent legislation the product and how FDA Guidance on Nutrient Content Claims they are marketed. The addition of prebiotics to foods may classify the FDA Guidance on Structure/Function food as functional foods. Claims Regulations that may apply to prebiotics or foods FDA Guidance for Industry on Food containing functional Labeling ingredients include: The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 (FD&C Act), Pub. L. 75-717, 52 US Stat. 1040, codified 21 USC §301 et seq.
http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2001/Dietary-ReferenceIntakes-Proposed-Definition-of-Dietary-Fibre.aspx http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fdcc/index. cfm?set=GRASNotices&sort=GRN_No&order= DESC&startrow=1&type=basic&search=285
http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/ GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/ LabelingNutrition/ucm064916.htm
http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/ GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/ DietarySupplements/ucm103340.htm http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/ GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/ LabelingNutrition/ucm2006828.htm http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/ Legislation/FederalFoodDrugandCosmeticActFDCAct/ default.htm
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bowel, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, heartburn, reflux, and gas) is an important wellness issue for millions of populations. Owing to the association of digestive health with food and drink intake this trend force drives the raise of many types of drinks. One of them is the dairy free/lactose-free segment that includes nondairy milk products like nut milk and others are that include fruit and vegetables-based components (i.e., yogurts made from peas and pecans). Gut and digestive health ingredients include prebiotics, probiotics, dietary enzymes, polyphenol, and others. Among them prebiotic is a dominating segment owing to its attribute of promoting the good bacteria present in the human gut and other medically proven health benefits. The response of the beverage industry to consumer anxiety for reducing sugar consumption has been the offer of varied product alternatives with reduced sugar and/or zero-added sugar as natural alternatives, rather than synthetic sweeteners. It is well known that prebiotics neutral to sweet taste can strengthen the sweetness of high intensity sweeteners and can be used as sugar replacer in low-calorie drinks. Consequently, the use of prebiotic ingredients for this purpose is expected to grow even more in the near future. The consumer request for foods and ingredients that are functional and natural. The natural, chemical-free, and non-GMO properties have boosted the consumption of plant-based ingredients (with protein, fiber, prebiotics and, in general, bioactives) that, in addition to provide nutrients, flavors and other healthy components, include fibers and prebiotics (candidates) in foods and drinks. Moving toward innovation, the current interest in this line of research is to find new source of prebiotic in inexpensive and abundant materials like agrifood industrial waste, mushrooms, seaweed, and marine microalgae. Indeed, the addition of potentially prebiotic flours (made from fruits, cereals, seeds, tubers, rhizomes, and legumes) has been shown to be adequate for the development of functional beverage products (Santos et al., 2017). Some (candidate) prebiotics occur naturally in seaweeds and marine microalgae, and some of their polysaccharides are recognized and accepted as dietary prebiotics (De Jesus Raposo et al., 2016). Moreover, the incorporation of the mushrooms derivatives in food and drinks as its polysaccharides were reported to exhibit immunomodulating properties, antitumor activities as well as anticancer activities (Aida et al., 2009). To close, some possible future trends related to the use of prebiotics in beverages will be highlighted. For new prebiotics (candidates), the available evidence from clinical intervention studies, comprehensive reviews, and metaanalyses is still limited. The publication of novel studies providing evidence of health effects of these substances in the host is likely to increase in the near future.
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For large-scale production of oligosaccharides, advancement in enzyme technology is of great importance. Usually, enzyme processes are cost intensive because of the high processing cost of production, purification, and stabilization. Use of low-cost agro-residues as substrates for producing glucosyltransferases, amylases, and xylanases capable of oligosaccharide synthesis, appears to be a research trend that will continue (Patel and Goyal, 2011). Products including symbiotics (selective blends of probiotics and prebiotics) are yet another dynamic field of functional foods and beverages. Prebiotics can secure the viability of probiotics during fermentation and refrigerated storage and some products of the fermentation can improve organoleptic properties of the drink like taste and aroma (Freire et al., 2017; Ozcan et al., 2016). Some studies suggest health benefits in humans conferred after the intake of symbiotic (improvements of liver function in cirrhotic patients, immunomodulating ability, potential to be used in the treatment of autism, etc.) (Salmerón, 2017). Symbiotics are already in the beverage market, with products like Yoplait’s Yo Plus which contains a mix of probiotics and inulin. For the future is expected that studies about the application of symbiotics products will improve the scale-up production as well to improve the general stability and growth rate of probiotics in the drink. Encapsulation is the process to entrap active agents within a wall material to generate capsules between 1 μm and millimeters (Sarao and Arora, 2017). The encapsulation technology is widely used in food industry to improve the delivery of bioactive molecules and probiotics into foods (Ramírez et al., 2015). Microencapsulation allows the probiotic to be separated from its media until they get to the gut. This technique enhances their viability and enables the control of release of the probiotics during processing and storage (Rodríguez-Restrepo et al., 2017). Low cost wall materials include starches, inulin, and most carbohydrates (de Vos et al., 2010). Following the symbiotic trend of mixing probiotics and prebiotics, some prebiotics, like resistant starches can be used as wall material in microencapsulation of prebiotics, in this cases, prebiotics do not work as a substrate in situ but as protection for the probiotic in strong thermal processing or acid medias (Martín et al., 2015). Spray drying often is used as a low-cost encapsulation technique. Therefore, to increase the probiotic survival, protectants such as prebiotics must be added to the media prior to drying. Spray-dried capsules can be coated by an additional layer to give a protection against acidic environment of the stomach or to reduce the deleterious effect of bile salts (Semyonov et al., 2010). Emerging trends in this field include providing cost-effective large-scale quantities of microencapsulated products for specific beverage or food functionalities, and the research on the interaction of microencapsulated materials with different food matrices, prebiotics,
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smart polymers, etc., for coating the microcapsules for targeting areas in the gastrointestinal tract for delivering different bioactives. Although the prebiotics intake benefits appear impressive, the future of these ingredients in functional beverages depends on the unequivocal demonstration of their efficacy in promoting health. More long-term follow-up studies are necessary to document beneficial health effects for substances to be considered as prebiotics, the establishing of safety aspects related to prebiotics-functional beverage consumption and their implications in regulatory issues.
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Further Reading Bailey, R., 2005. Japan Insider: Prebiotics & Probiotics in Japan: A Perspective (WWW document). https://www.nutraceuticalsworld.com/issues/2005-03/view_columns/ japan-insider-prebiotics-amp-probiotics-in-japan-a/. (Accessed October 7, 2017). Brownawell, A.M., Caers, W., Gibson, G.R., Kendall, C.W.C., Lewis, K.D., Ringel, Y., Slavin, J.L., 2012. Prebiotics and the health benefits of fiber: current regulatory status, future research, and goals. J. Nutr. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.158147. Krasaekoopt, W., Bhandari, B., Deeth, H.C., 2006. Survival of probiotics encapsulated in chitosan-coated alginate beads in yoghurt from UHT- and conventionally treated milk during storage. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 39, 177–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. lwt.2004.12.006. Watson, E., 2016. Energy Fruits Builds Gut Health Platform for Fruit Pouches (WWW Document). https://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Article/2016/06/01/ EnergyFruits-builds-gut-health-platform-for-fruit-pouches. (Accessed October 15, 2017).