Preface to Second Edition The new edition of the book incorporates a number of modifications. These include the correction of various small mistakes and typos identified since the first edition was published. In Chapter 1 there is an update on Section 1.4 on the state of climate, which now refers to the year 2011. The section on wind energy (1.6.1) is modified and now includes only a brief historical introduction into wind energy and wind systems technology, as a new chapter is included in the second revision on wind energy systems. The following sections are also updated and now include more information. These are Section 1.6.2 on biomass, Section 1.6.3 on geothermal energy, which now includes also details on ground-coupled heat pumps, Section 1.6.4 on hydrogen, which now gives more details on electrolysis, and Section 1.6.5 on ocean energy, which is enhanced considerably. In Chapter 2 the sections on thermal radiation (2.3.2) and radiation exchange between surfaces (2.3.4) are improved. In Section 2.3.9 more details are added on the solar radiation measuring equipment. Additionally a new Section 2.4.3 is added, describing in detail TMY type 3. Some of the charts in this chapter are improved and the ones that the reader can use to get useful data are now printed larger in landscape mode to be more visible. This applies also to other charts in other chapters. In Chapter 3, the section on flat-plate collectors is improved by adding more details on selective coatings, and transpired solar collectors are added in the air collectors category. New types of asymmetric CPC designs are now given in Section 3.1.2. A new Section 3.3.5 is added on the thermal analysis of serpentine collectors and a new Section 3.3.6 is added on the heat losses from unglazed collectors. Section 3.4 on thermal analysis of air collectors is improved and now includes analysis of air collectors where the air flows between the absorbing plate and the glass cover. In Section 3.6.4, on thermal analysis of parabolic trough collectors, a new section is added on the use of vacuum in annulus space. In Chapter 4 a new Section 4.6 has been added on efficiency parameter conversion and there is a new Section 4.7: Assessment of Uncertainty in Solar Collector Testing. The listing of the various international standards is updated as well as the description and current status of the various standards. In Chapter 5, Section 5.1.1 on thermosiphon systems analysis is improved. The same applies for Section 5.1.2 on integrated collector storage systems, where a method to reduce night thermal losses is given. In Section 5.4.2 the array shading analysis, and pipe and duct losses are improved and a section on partially shaded collectors is added. The status of the various international standards in Section 5.7 is updated. Finally, two new exercises are given. In Chapter 6, Section 6.2.1 on building construction is modified and now includes a section on phase-change materials. Section 6.2.3 on thermal insulation is improved and expanded by adding the characteristics of insulating materials and advantages and disadvantages of external and internal insulation. In Chapter 7, Section 7.3.2 on fuel cells is clarified and diagrams of the various fuel cell types are added. Section 7.4 on solar dryers is improved by adding some more details on the various types of dryers and general remarks concerning the drying process. Chapter 8 is modified by adding more analysis of desalination systems. Particularly, a diagram of a single-slope solar still is now given as well as the design equations for Section 8.4.1 the multi-stage flash process, Section 8.4.2 the multiple-effect boiling process, Section 8.4.3 the vapor compression process, and Section 8.4.4 reverse osmosis.
Preface to Second Edition
Chapter 9 is restructured considerably. In particular, Section 9.2.2 on types of PV technology, Section 9.3.2 on inverters, Section 9.3.4 on peak power trackers and Section 9.4.5 on types of applications are improved by adding new data. In the latter a new section is added on buildingintegrated photovoltaics (BIPV). A new Section 9.6 on tilt and yield is added describing fixed tilt, trackers, shading and tilting versus spacing considerations. Section 9.7 on concentrating PV is updated and in Section 9.8 hybrid PV/T systems, two sections on the design of water- and air-heat recovery have been added as well as a section on water and air-heating BIPV/T systems. In Chapter 10, Section 10.2 on parabolic trough collector systems and 10.3 on power tower systems are modified by adding details of new systems installed. A new Section 10.6 on solar updraft tower systems is added, which includes the initial steps and first demonstration plants and the thermal analysis. Additionally, Section 10.7 on solar ponds is improved by adding a new section on methods of heat extraction, description of two experimental solar ponds and the last section on applications is improved adding some cost figures. In Chapter 11, a new Section 11.1.4 is added describing the f-chart method modification used for the design of thermosiphon solar water-heating systems. Section 11.5.1 is modified by adding details of TRNSYS 17 and TESS and STEC libraries. Chapter 12 has almost no modification from the first edition. Finally in this second edition a new chapter is added on wind energy systems. This chapter begins with an analysis of the wind characteristics, the one-dimensional model of wind turbines, a survey of the characteristics of wind turbines, economic issues, and wind energy exploitation problems. Many thanks are given to people who communicated to me various mistakes and typos found in the first edition of the book. Special thanks are given to Benjamin Figgis for his help on Chapter 9 and also to Vassilis Belessiotis and Emanuel Mathioulakis for reviewing the section on uncertainty analysis in solar collector testing and George Florides for reviewing the section on ground-coupled heat pumps. Soteris Kalogirou Cyprus University of Technology