Processing Factors Affecting Yields and Meat Quality of Smoked Bobwhite Quail1

Processing Factors Affecting Yields and Meat Quality of Smoked Bobwhite Quail1

MARKETING AND PRODUCTS Processing Factors Affecting Yields and Meat Quality of Smoked Bobwhite Quail1 A. S. ARAFA 2 , D. M. JANKY 2 , H. R. WILSON 2 ,...

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MARKETING AND PRODUCTS Processing Factors Affecting Yields and Meat Quality of Smoked Bobwhite Quail1 A. S. ARAFA 2 , D. M. JANKY 2 , H. R. WILSON 2 , J. L. OBLINGER 3 , and J. A. KOBURGER 3 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (Received for publication November 20, 1978)

1979 Poultry Science 58:1498-1503

INTRODUCTION Increasing n u m b e r s of Bobwhite quail are being utilized as a g o u r m e t food. Limited i n f o r m a t i o n , however, is available o n processing factors t h a t affect yields and quality characteristics of further processed Bobwhite quail. Dawson et al. ( 1 9 7 1 a , b ) f o u n d t h a t yields of dressed weight (from live weight) were t h e same for male and female and increased from 89% at 10 w k of age t o 9 2 . 5 % at 18 w k of age. R e a d y to-cook ( R T C ) yields (from live weights) increased slightly from 10 t o 18 weeks of age, averaging 7 1 % . Arafa et al. ( 1 9 7 8 ) studied t h e quality characteristics of m e a t from 16-weekold Bobwhite quail scalded a t different times and t e m p e r a t u r e s . T h e y r e c o m m e n d e d a t e m p e r a t u r e of 57.2 C for 30 sec for scalding. Curing and s m o k i n g m e t h o d s for m e a t and m e a t p r o d u c t s have been k n o w n for m a n y years. Prior t o t h e advent of reliable food preservation m e t h o d s , curing and smoking were

1 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. 1471. 2 Department of Poultry Science. 3 Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition.

d o n e essentially t o preserve m e a t . Modern curing and smoking is d o n e primarily t o i m p a r t desirable flavor characteristics and improve t h e appearance of t h e p r o d u c t s (Mast, 1 9 7 8 ) . Although cured and s m o k e d p o r k and beef p r o d u c t s have been m u c h m o r e p o p u l a r t h a n p o u l t r y in t h e past, recently t h e d e m a n d for further processed s m o k e d p o u l t r y p r o d u c t s , particularly as a g o u r m e t item, has increased. Several researchers have r e p o r t e d on the effect of salt-brining and s m o k i n g on yields, eating quality, and microbial characteristics of s p e n t hens ( J a n k y et al., 1 9 7 8 b ; Oblinger et al, 1 9 7 7 ) , broilers ( J a n k y et al, 1978a), and p h e a s a n t ( D e e t h a r d t a n d Hettler, 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e immersion of RTC broilers in NaCl solutions prior t o smoking has been s h o w n t o increase m e a t tenderness (Oblinger et al, 1 9 7 6 ) . These a u t h o r s further observed a slight toughening effect w h e n carcasses were immersed in water for a similar time before smoking. G a r d n e r and Atkinson ( 1 9 6 7 ) observed little or n o effect o n carcass physical quality w h e n broiler carcasses were chilled in various NaCl solutions. Kahlenberg and F u n k ( 1 9 6 1 ) f o u n d n o significant tenderizing effect from cooking fowl in salt solutions rather t h a n water.

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No data have been reported on t h e effect of

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ABSTRACT Bobwhite quail (equal numbers of males and females) were processed at 16 weeks of age in each of two trials to study the effect of different chilling times, water agitation, and chill water salt concentration on cooling rate, thaw loss after frozen storage, yields, and quality characteristics of smoked Bobwhite quail meat. Sodium chloride solutions of 0, 5, and 10% were used for chilling carcasses either without agitation for 16 hr or with agitation for 3 hr. Brine chilling with or without agitation resulted in faster cooling rate when compared with the control (0% NaCl). Non-agitated chilling of carcasses in 5% NaCl solution resulted in significantly (P<.05) higher ready-to-cook yield, less thaw loss, higher cook yield, more tender meat and better organoleptic characteristics as compared with the control. No advantages in yields or quality were obtained by increasing the non-agitated chilling time from 8 to 16 hr. Agitated brine-chilling in 10% NaCl solution resulted in either partially or completely frozen carcasses during the chilling operation. Meat from carcasses chilled in the 10% NaCl was also characterized as being too salty by the panelists. Regardless of chilling technique, tissue salt concentration increased in proportion with both chill time and brine concentration.

QUALITY OF FURTHER PROCESSED QUAIL

processing techniques, such as chilling, brining, and/or smoking on the quality characteristics of meat from Bobwhite quail. This study was conducted to determine the effect of brine chilling, with and without agitation, in different NaCl concentrations on 1) cooling rate of Bobwhite quail carcass during chilling and 2) yields and quality characteristics of meat from smoked Bobwhite quail.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

tions, respectively. Carcasses in the nonagitated chilling treatment were held in slush-ice at 1 ± 1C in a walk-in type refrigerator. Carcass internal temperature was measured using a recording potentiometer connected to single-point thermocouples which were inserted into the center of the breast muscle, pectoralis major. After chilling, carcasses were rinsed with fresh water and allowed to drain for 15 min before they were individually weighed, packaged, and stored at —18 C. Thawing Loss, Cooked Yield, Tenderness (by Shear Force Measurements), and Organoleptic Characteristics. After 6 wk of frozen storage, carcasses were thawed in a cooler at 3 ± 1 C for 60 hr. The thawed weights were obtained and the thawing losses computed. Whole, RTC carcasses were slowly cooked with smoke in a Koch "Grand Prize" smoke house set at 93 C, with the smoke house vent opened. The carcasses were suspended in the smoke house and hickory sawdust was burned as a source of smoke. After 30 min the smoke house vents were closed and the temperature was raised to 107 C. The carcasses were held in the smoke house for 4 hr at this temperature. Carcass internal temperature was monitored during smoking with a single point thermocouple inserted into the breast muscle. An internal temperature of 80 C was used as the endpoint. The carcasses were allowed to cool for 45 min before the cooked weights were recorded for cooking yield computations. The carcasses were then held at 1 C for 24 hr prior to shear force analysis and sensory evaluations. Objective tenderness determinations were made utilizing the Food Technology Corporation (FTC) texture press (Model TP-1) equipped with a 136 kg ring texture gauge (TG-2A-0300) and standard shear compression cell (CS-1). A descent speed of .31 cm/sec was used. Sections of the pectoralis major (20 X 40 X 3 mm) from each bird were weighed and sheared. The results were reported as kg force/g of sample. Samples for organoleptic evaluation were taken from the pectoralis major from each carcass, composited within each sex and treatment, and served to 20 experienced taste panel members for evaluation. Panelists were asked to evaluate the samples for flavor, tenderness, and juiciness on a scale of 1 to 5 with higher scores indicating higher preference. Percent Sodium Chloride, Percent Water

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Processing. Two hundred eighty-eight, University of Florida strain Bobwhite quail, 16 wk of age, were used in this study. The small size of the bird required a slight adaptation in the shackle system commonly used for broilers. Quail were processed in groups of 16 each (8 males and 8 females). The birds were killed using an outside cut and were allowed to bleed for 1 min. Each group of carcasses was scalded using an Ashley model #SS-36 scalder. A scalding temperature of 57.2 C for 30 sec, as recommended by Arafa et al. (1978), was used. Scalded carcasses were picked for 15 sec using a commercial rotary drum picker (Ashley model #SP-38). After passage through the mechanical picker, the shanks, head, and neck were removed. The carcasses were eviscerated by splitting the back and removing the viscera, including the crop and esophagus. The dressed weight of each individual carcass was recorded before chilling. Brine-Chilling and Cooling Rate. Equal numbers of males and females were randomly assigned to two chilling techniques (without agitation for 16 hr and with agitation for 3 hr) and three brine chilling concentrations (0%, 5%, and 10% NaCl solutions) in a 2 X 3 factorial experimental design. A 2:1 brine to bird ratio (w/w) was used. Specific gravity of the saltbrine chilling solutions was held constant during the entire chilling process. This was accomplished by the addition of measured portions of saturated NaCl solution to the chilling tanks to compensate for added ice during chilling. The ratio of chill water volume to carcass weight was kept constant across treatments. Temperature readings of .5 C, —.5 C, and —2.5 C were recorded for the 0%, 5%, and 10% NaCl solutions, respectively, at the end of the non-agitated chilling process. Agitation resulted in a temperature reading of .5, —1.5, and —6.5 C for the three chilling solu-

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Cooling Rate. Brine chilling with or without agitation in 5% NaCl resulted in a faster cooling rate as compared with control slush-ice chilling (Fig. 1 and 2). When the NaCl concentration in the chilling water was increased from 5 to 10%, a further increase in the cooling rate was observed. This rapid cooling rate is desirable in that the immediate removal of the body heat from dressed poultry is considered essential for the retention of quality (Tarver et al., 1956). After 1 hr of non-agitated chilling, the internal temperature of the carcass was decreased from approximately 32.5 to 33.5 C to 7, 4, and 2.5 C for carcasses chilled in control, 5%, and 10%

NaCl, respectively (Fig. 1). A further, slight r e d u c t i o n of t h e carcass internal t e m p e r a t u r e was observed as t h e chilling t i m e was increased up t o 4 hr. No further reduction in b o d y t e m p e r a t u r e was recorded w h e n t h e chilling time was e x t e n d e d from 4 t o 16 hr. After 4 , 8, 12, and 16 h r of non-agitated chilling, t h e internal b o d y t e m p e r a t u r e s of t h e c o n t r o l , 5%, and 10% brine-chilled carcasses were 3 , —.5, and —1.5 C, respectively. A m u c h faster cooling rate was observed w h e n agitated chilling was used (Fig. 2 ) . After 1 hr of chilling with agitation, b o d y t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e dressed carcass was decreased from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 32 t o 33 C t o 3.5, 1, and —2.5 C for c o n t r o l , 5%, and 10% NaCl, respectively. When t h e agitated chilling t i m e was increased t o 2 hr, t e m p e r a t u r e readings of 1, —1.5, and —6.5 C were r e c o r d e d . These t e m p e r a t u r e readings were essentially t h e same after 3 hr of agitated chilling. It was observed t h a t carcasses chilled with agitation in 10% NaCl were partially frozen after 1 h r and c o m p l e t e l y frozen at t h e e n d of t h e chilling p e r i o d (3 h r ) . However, n o n e of t h e carcasses chilled in 10% NaCl w i t h o u t agitation or in 5% NaCl with or w i t h o u t agitation were frozen. Effect of Brine Type on Yield, Thawing Loss after Frozen Storage, Shear Force Values, and Organoleptic Characteristics. Regardless of

the chilling techniques (with and without agitation), brine chilling in 5% NaCl significantly (P<.05) increased water uptake by the carcass when compared with either the control chilled or 10% NaCl chilled birds (Table 1).

«control

_ . control

.

.. 5% salt

.

. 10% salt

_. 5%salt . . 10%salt

l"-_--Zl----rU

2

3

-H y4 i

12

16

Chillinj Time (tr) FIG. 1. Cooling curves of carcasses during chilling without agitation for 16 hr in 0, 5, and 10% NaCl.

0

1

2

3

Chilling Time O0 FIG. 2. Cooling curves of carcasses chilled in 0, 5 and 10% NaCl for 3 hr with agitation.

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Phase Salt, Percent Moisture, and Phenolic Compounds Concentration. Eight carcasses (4 males and 4 females) from each treatment combination were used for these analyses. The skin was removed and meat from the pectoralis major muscle from both males and females was composited within each treatment. Percent sodium chloride, percent water phase salt, and moisture contents were determined using Association of Official Analytical Chemists procedures (AOAC, 1975). The method of Tucker (1942) was followed to determine the concentration of phenolic compounds (expressed in mg/100 g meat). Statistical Analysis. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance and Duncan's New Multiple Range test using procedures described by Steel and Torrie (1961). The entire study was repeated. Since no treatment X trial interaction was found, the data from the two trials were pooled. Data from males and females were also pooled since no treatment X sex interaction was found.

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QUALITY OF FURTHER PROCESSED QUAIL TABLE l.Mean percent water uptake, percent thaw loss, percent cook yield, shear force values1, and organoleptic scores2 of Bobwhite quail chilled in different brine concentrations

Variable tested % Water uptake % Thaw loss % Cook yield Shear force Flavor scores Tenderness scores Juiciness scores

Salt concentration 5%

0%

10%

6.53 a 4.05 b 76.31 a 11.48b 4.13 a 3.86a 3.80a

6.07b 9.30a 67.97 b 14.48a 3.40b 2.46b 2.30c

6.02b 3.02c 76.62a 9.26c 3.36b 2.95 b 2.92b

' 'cMeans within a row not followed by the same superscript are significantly different (P<.05). Kg of force/g of sample. 2 Judging scores ranged from 1 to 5 with higher scores indicating higher acceptability. 1

Carcasses chilled in 10% NaCl picked up numerically less water than those chilled in slush-ice, 6.02% and 6.07%, respectively. An explanation could be offered based on the fact that carcasses chilled in 10% NaCl with agitation were partially frozen during the chilling step which would influence water absorption. The percent thaw loss from brine chilled carcasses was significantly (P<.05) lower as compared with control-chilled carcasses (Table 1). A lower thaw loss was observed when brine concentration was increased from 5% to 10% NaCl. The control chilled carcasses lost a higher percentage of drip (thaw loss after frozen storage) as compared to the percentage of water picked up during chilling. The phenomenon was reversed when brine solutions were used for chilling. A statistically significant (P<.05) higher cook yield was observed in favor of the brine chilled carcasses, approximately 76% and 67% for the brine chilled and slush-ice chilled carcasses, respectively. These data were in agreement with report on broilers by Janky et al. (1978a). Brine chilling resulted in more tender meat as indicated by lower shear force values (Table 1). These data were in agreement with the findings of Oblinger et al. (1977) with spent hens. Organoleptic scores for flavor and tenderness indicated that panelists significantly (P<.05) preferred meat from quail chilled in 5% NaCl over that of control or 10% brine-chilled birds. Eighty percent of the panelists (16 of 20) characterized the samples from the 10% NaCl treatment as being "too salty". Panelists also

gave higher juiciness scores for the brine chilled samples as compared with the control samples. These data support the conclusion of Janky et al. (1978a) in work done with broilers that salt-brine chilling increased the water holding capacity of muscle tissues. Thus more tender and juicier meat would result along with less drip and higher cooking yield. No significant differences were detected

TABLE 2. Mean percent water uptake, percent thaw loss, percent cook yield, shear force values1, and organoleptic scores2 of Bobwhite quail brine chilled with and without agitation Chilling techniques Variable tested

With agitation

No agitation

% Water uptake % Thaw loss % Cook yield Shear force Flavor scores Tenderness scores Juiciness scores

9.27 a 5.72 a 76.49 a 11.37 b 3.80 a 3.40 a 3.37 a

3.79 b 5.19 a 70.78 b 12.10 a 3.45 a 3.78 a 2.94 a

ab ' Means within a row not followed by the same superscript are significantly different (P<.05). 1 Kg of force/g of sample. 2 Judging scores ranged from 1 to 5 with higher scores indicating higher acceptability.

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TABLE 3. Percent sodium chloride, percent moisture, percent water phase salt (WPS), and phenolic compounds (phC) content of smoked Bobwhite quail chilled in different brine concentrations with and without agitation Chilling technique!5 and salt level With agitation tested % NaCl % Moisture % WPS PhC

No agitation

0%

5%

10%

.25 68.3 .38 .61

1.95 70.5 1.36 .40

2.98 66.8 4.24 .49

Mean 1.73 b 68.5 a 1.99 b .50 a

0%

5%

10%

.53 66.7 .77 .68

3.08 68.4 4.18 .47

3.61 67.4 5.14 .48

Mean 2.40 a 67.4 a 3.36 a .54 a

a,b Means within a row not followed by the same superscript are significantly different (P<.05).

Salt, Moisture Content, and Phenolic Compounds Concentration. Increasing the salt concentration in the chilling water resulted in increased salt concentration in the tissue (Table 3). This is true whether the salt was determined as percent NaCl or as percent water phase salt. Tissue salt also increased significantly (P<.05) when the carcasses were chilled without agitation (16 hr) as compared to agitated chilled (3 hr) birds. Brine chilling in 5% NaCl resulted in more moisture in the tissue after smoking when compared with either the control chilled or the 10% brine chilled carcasses. Phenolic compounds were detected at a higher numerical level in the slush-ice chilled

carcasses than in brine-chilled carcasses (Table 3). No significant difference in phenolic compounds concentration was detected between agitated and non-agitated chilled carcasses. Based on the data obtained in this study we conclude that: 1) brine chilling of Bobwhite quail in 5% NaCl will result in a smoked product with more tender meat, better cook yield, and better organoleptic quality; 2) brine chilling of quail in 10% NaCl froze the carcass during chilling and produced an objectionable salty taste; 3) agitating the chilling solution resulted in a faster cooling rate and shortened the time needed for chilling the quail carcass; and 4) salt concentration of the tissue increased as the salt concentration in the chilling water increased, or as the chilling time increased.

REFERENCES Arafa, A. S., H. R. Wilson, D. M. Janky, and J. L. Oblinger, 1978. Quality characteristics of Bobwhite quail scalded at different times and temperatures. J. Food Sci. 43:870-873. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1975. Official methods of analysis. 12th ed. William Horotwitz, ed. Washington, DC. Dawson, L. E., L. R. York, N. Amon, C. Kulenkamp, and T. H. Coleman, 1971a. Processing and yield characteristics of Bobwhite quail. Poultry Sci. 50:1346. Dawson, L. E., L. R. York, N. Amon, C. Kulenkamp, and T. H. Coleman, 1971b. Composition and acceptability of meat from Bobwhite quail. Poultry Sci. 50:1805. Deethardt, D., and F. M. Hettler, 1973. Smoked pheasant: Levels of curing brine and frozen storage intervals. Poultry Sci. 52:2324-2327. Gardner, F. A., and R. L. Atkinson, 1967. Tissue changes associated with chilling broilers in sodium chloride solutions. Poultry Sci. 46:1262. Janky, D. M., A. S. Arafa, J. L. Oblinger, J. A. Kobur-

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between male and female Bobwhite quail in RTC and cook yields, thaw loss, and/or shear force values; therefore, these data are not presented. Effect of Agitation on Yield, Thawing Loss after Frozen Storage, Shear Force Values, and Organoleptic Characteristics. The water uptake by the carcasses was significantly higher (P< .05) with agitated chilling than with nonagitated chilling (Table 2). No significant difference, however, was observed in thaw loss between the two chilling techniques. Cook yield of the agitated-chilled carcasses was significantly higher than that obtained for the non-agitated-chilled carcasses, 76.49% and 70.78%, respectively. Agitated chilling also resulted in lower shear force readings, thus indicating more tender meat (Table 2). Taste panelists, however, did not detect any significant difference in tenderness between the agitated chilled and non-agitated-chilled meat. Subjective evaluations also did not indicate any significant differences in flavor or juiciness in meat from the two chilling treatments.

QUALITY OF FURTHER PROCESSED QUAIL ger, and D. L. Fletcher, 1978a. Sensory, physical, and microbiological comparison of brine-chilled, water-chilled, and hot-packaged (no chill) broilers. Poultry Sci. 5 7 : 4 1 7 - 4 2 1 . Janky, D. M., J. L. Oblinger, and J. A. Koburger, 1978b. The effect of salt concentration and brining time on organoleptic characteristics of smoked broiler breeder hens. Poultry Sci. 57:116—118. Kahlenberg, O. J., and E. M. Funk, 1961. The cooling of fowl with various salts for pre-cooked poultry products. Poultry Sci. 40:668-673. Mast, G. M., 1978. Curing and smoking poultry products. World Poultry Sci. 4 3 : 1 0 7 - 1 1 1 . Oblinger, J. L., D. M. Janky, and J. A. Koburger, 1976. The effect of water soaking, brining and

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cooking procedure on tenderness of broilers. Poultry Sci. 55:1494-1497. Oblinger, J. L., D. M. Janky, and J. A. Koburger, 1977. Effect of brining and cooking procedures on tenderness of spent hens. J. Food Sci. 42:1347— 1348. Steel, R. G. D., and J. H. Torrie, 1961. Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. Tarver, F. R., G. C. McGhee, and O. E. Goff, 1956. The rate of cooling and water absorption of poultry held in various mediums. Poultry Sci. 35:905-910. Tucker, I. W., 1942. Estimation of phenols in meat and fat. Ass. Offic. Agr. Chem. 25:779-782. Downloaded from http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/ at Simon Fraser University on June 15, 2015