Profiling the independent sealing laboratories — Part two

Profiling the independent sealing laboratories — Part two

Feature Profiling the independent sealing laboratories- Part two This f e a t u r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e s e c o n d part o f last m o n t h ' s...

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Profiling the independent sealing laboratories- Part two This f e a t u r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e s e c o n d part o f last m o n t h ' s s p e c i a l f e a t u r e o n t h e k e y a u t o n o m o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d in s e a l s r e s e a r c h . T h e s e profiles d e s c r i b e t h e w o r k o f t h r e e labs in t h e Ukraine, Canada and t h e United States. Sumy State University

was organized and investigations of seals of different types are done.

B a c k g r o u n d in s e a l s r e s e a r c h Test f a c i l i t i e s In 1960 Dr Vladimir Martzinkovsky served as chief of the research d e p a r t m e n t of the Feed P u m p s Special Designing B u r e a u (now the Research and Design Institute for Atomic and Power P u m p Building) and started theoretical and experimental investigations of g a p / a n n u l a r seals dynamic characteristics and their influence on rotor vibration condition of large feed p u m p s being u n d e r design. In 1966 he moved to work at the S u m y State University where the Laboratory of Sealing Technology

There are four acting rigs in the laboratory for investigations into... •





Face seals on water (pressure up to 120 bar) and on air - pressure up to 150 bar, shaft rotation up to 12 900 rpm, and sealing rings diameter up to 200 mm. Dry-running non-contacting gas face seals -pressures up to 150 bar, shaft rotation up to 4500 rpm, sealing rings diameter up to 160 mm. Gap (annular) seals of different types and their influence on

rotor dynamics - shaft rotation up to 7000 rpm, p r e s s u r e up to 40 bar. Face packing seals.

Special analysis methods At the laboratory and at the General Mechanics and Machine Dynamics Department computer software is being developed for the calculation and analysis of rotor vibration conditions of centrifugal machines (pumps, compressors, turbines, etc); diagnosis systems of operating conditions and for prediction of longevity of rotor p u m p s (machines with rotors); calculation and optimization of non-contacting impulse face seals; calculation and design of self-adjusting packing seals; and automated collection and processing of information on rigs.

Current r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s •







Determining design and calculation methods of dry-running face self-adjusting seals which use gases (plant nitrogen, air) as buffer media for p u m p s transferring aggressive, toxic, or explosive fluids. Experimental and industrial testing of self-adjusting face seals at high operating conditions for the t u r b o p u m p units of liquid rocket engines. Experimental and theoretical investigations of dry-running gas face seals for compressors at pressures up to 120 bar. Investigations and tests on face packing seals.

Sponsors and affiliations From 1981 and up until the crash of the USSR the laboratory had the s t a t u s of b r a n c h research laboratory of the Ministry of Oil and Petroleum Machine Building. Main customers: AO Nasosenergomash (Ukraine), AO "SMPO n a m e d after Frunze" (Ukraine), Scientific and Research Institutes of Atomic and Power Pump and Compressor Building (Ukraine), Space Research Centre n a m e d by Keldysh (Russia, Moscow); Ignalina (Litva) and Zaporogie (Ukraine) atomic power stations; scientific and production c o m p a n y E n e r g o m a s h n a m e d after

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Feature a n d elevated t e m p e r a t u r e service h a s emerged from these efforts.

VP G l u s h k o (Khimiki); design b u r e a u C h i m a v t o m a t i k (Voronzech}; Triz Ltd; V a r i a n t - G e r m o t e c h n i k a Ltd; G i d r o m a s h - G e r m Ltd.

Test facilities

Future plans



for a variety of sealing p r o d u c t s a n d fluids (propane, m e t h a n e , argon, helium, nitrogen a n d air).

S p o n s o r s and affiliations E x p a n s i o n of theoretical a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l investigations of s e l f - a d i u s t i n g face seals on high o p e r a t i n g p a r a m e t e r s for liquids a n d gases. Investigation into p a c k i n g seals of new design. Rotor d y n a m i c s in gap (annular) seals i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a n d developing new m e t h o d s a n d c o m p u t e r software for centrifugal p u m p s rotor vibration c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o m p u t a t i o n . Design a n d investigation of c o m b i n e d s e a l s - b e a r i n g s a n d the c r e a t i o n of new types of "shaft-less" centrifugal p u m p s . Developing m e t h o d s a n d devices for v i b r a t i o n d i a g n o s i s of rotary m a c h i n e s o p e r a t i n g conditions. The u n i v e r s i t y s a y s t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s for e x p a n d i n g facilities a r e now greatly restricted, due to financial c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . .









Loading rigs: a m b i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e t i g h t n e s s rig (RH}, 1780 kN capacity; hot t i g h t n e s s rig (UG). 890 kN capacity; servo h y d r a u l i c test m a c h i n e (SG), 560 kN capacity. G a s k e t geometries: on RH r i g - up to 190 m m OD; on UG r i g - up to 158 mm; on SG r i g - - u p to 158 mm. T e m p e r a t u r e : m e c h a n i c a l tests u p to 1200°F; t i g h t n e s s tests up to 1200°F. Test ovens: 2 p r o g r a m m a b l e ovens up to 1200°F; 5 still air ovens u p to 2200°F; 2 circulating air ovens u p to 650°F. Leak m e a s u r e m e n t : He m a s s s p e c t r o m e t e r down to 10-9ml/s; p r e s s u r e change techniques: down to 10 -4 m l / s .

P r e s s u r e Vessel R e s e a r c h Council (USA), Material Testing I n s t i t u t e of the Chemical Process I n d u s t r i e s (USA), N a t u r a l Sciences a n d Engineering R e s e a r c h Council of Canada. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 g a s k e t a n d piping e q u i p m e n t m a n u f a c t u r e r s a n d p r o c e s s and power p l a n t users.

Future plans •





Long t e r m p e r f o r m a n c e of flexible g r a p h i t e p r o d u c t s d e v e l o p m e n t of qualification protocols. Blow-out r e s i s t a n c e of PTE g a s k e t p r o d u c t s - d e v e l o p m e n t of qualification protocols. C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of bolted

Other i t e m s of i n t e r e s t A special a n d i m p o r t a n t feature of the l a b o r a t o r y is the fact t h a t engineers are t r a i n e d here in sealing a n d m a c h i n e vibroreliability. Since 1976 the l a b o r a t o r y h a s held scientific conferences every three years, the last of which was P u m p s 96.

Contact: Prof. I)r. of Sc. Vladimir A. Martzinkovsky, General Mechanics a n d Machine D y n a m i c s D e p a r t m e n / , Machine SeaLing a n d Vibroreliability Problem a n d Research L a b o r a t o r y of S u m y State University, 2, R Korsakov St., Sumy, UA--244007, Ukraine. Tel: +38 542 333594: Fax: +38 542 333594. T i g h t n e s s T e s t i n g and R e s e a r c h

S t r e s s m e a s u r e m e n t : Dynaform <':' s y s t e m up to 13 000 psi S c a n n i n g electron microscope JSM-T300 magnification up to 150 000.

Laboratory, TTRL

Current research projects

B a c k g r o u n d in seals r e s e a r c h

G a s k e t p e r f o r m a n c e testing: room temperature tightness and m e c h a n i c a l tests; hot t i g h t n e s s a n d m e c h a n i c a l tests; fire s i m u l a t i o n t i g h t n e s s tests; m e c h a n i c a l screening tests. C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of bolted flanged j o i n t s s u b j e c t e d to external b e n d i n g loads. Laboratory m e a s u r e m e n t of fugitive e m i s s i o n s

Since 1976 KFRL h a s p e r f o r m e d pioneerim{ ¢'xpel-iinental work in the field of static sealing{ lk)r ~asketed boiled j o i n l s arid olher p r e s s u r i s e d c o m p o n e n t s . A ~tew l echnoloKy for quali~qn~ sealint~ p r o d u c t s for room

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flanged j o i n t s s u b j e c t e d to external b e n d i n g loads. Fugitive emission - - c r~rrelation of p p m with m a s s leak rates. Safe load limils for f{askets.

Contact: Michel Derenne, T i g h t n e s s Testing a n d Research Laboratory (TYRL) of Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, D e p a r t m e n t of Mechanical Engineering, PO Box 6079 Station "Centre-ville", Montreal (Quebec), H3C 3A7, C a n a d a . Tel: + 514 340 4857; Fax: + 514:340 4175. E mail: [email protected]

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WESTERNMICHIGANUNIVERSITY



• • • •

Western Michigan University Background in seals research The Tribology Laboratory was begun in 1993 with s u p p o r t from Durametallic Corporation (now a subsidiary of Duriron Pump Corporation) and Western Michigan University. Previous collaboration between Durametallic and WMU had been sufficiently successful that further work was proposed. A University Centre of Excellence, the Center for Advanced Tribology, was established, with several faculty members conducting research in fluid mechanics, rheology, and molecular tribology. The Tribology Laboratory is devoted primarily to seal research.

Test facilities •





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Each of the testing systems listed below is equipped with a dedicated data acquisition system and appropriate controls for temperature, pressure and on-off cycling. API testing - a system has been designed that meets the requirements of API 682 for qualifying mechanical seals. The system can test single and double seals u n d e r controlled temperature and pressure cycles with fluids s u c h as water, caustics, and mineral oil. Leakage testers - three test barrels are available for routine testing of mechanical seals with pressurized process fluids at ambient temperatures while monitoring fluid temperature,

pressure, and leakage rate. These testers are appropriate for seal design screening studies, barrier fluid compatibility tests, and seal face material evaluation. One tester can be r u n at speeds from 100 rpm to 7200 rpm and pressures to 350 psi. • Advanced torque tester - this state-of-the-art mechanical seal system simulates high pressure-velocity conditions while continuously monitoring critical performance parameters such as seal face pressure, friction torque, fluid and seal face temperature, and energy consumption. • Blistering tester - this test stand is used to assess the tendency of carbon, carbon-graphite, and composite materials to blister u n d e r cyclic PV conditions. • Seal life tests - five double ended mechanical seal test stands are used for simultaneous qualification tests of any combination of seal face materials, in water at pressures to 150 psi. • Bearing lubrication - elevated temperature tests of grease lubricants for bearings.

Analytical equipment Used for wear characterization surface studies and microstructural analysis. Wyko RST Plus Interference Microscope, for surface topographical m e a s u r e m e n t and

analysis, contour plots and surface r o u g h n e s s statistics. Vertical resolution of surface features from 0.1 n m to 100 pm. Nikon light microscope, equipped with Image Pro image analysis system Micromeritics Autopore Mercury porosimeter Leco microhardness tester MTS testing machine, for torque and load cell calibration Numerex coordinate measuring machine

Current research The interactions of lubricants with various seal face materials to determine the best combinations for minimizing operating energy and leakage rates. Evaluation of high-performance seal face materials, including nanoscale diamond coatings. Evolution of surface finish on seal faces during start-up and r u n n i n g in. The blistering tendency of various carbon, carbon-graphite, and composite materials in contact with ceramic and metallic seal faces. Mechanical seal performance u n d e r the API 682 duty cycle.

Sponsors and affiliations DurametaUic Corporation, National Science Foundation, State of Michigan Research Fund, Western Michigan University, The Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, various industrial companies.

Fut~eplans The laboratory is currently increasing its floor space by 80% to accommodate additional test stands.

Contact: Molly Williams, Tribology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA. Tel: +1 606 387 3158; Fax: +i 616 387 4024 or 616 387 3358. E-mail: molly.williams @wmich. du WWW: http: / / w w w . w m i c h . e d u /

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