Construction and Building Materials 41 (2013) 131–138
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Properties of bricks made using ﬂy ash, quarry dust and billet scale Alaa A. Shakir, Sivakumar Naganathan ⇑, Kamal Nasharuddin Mustapha Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
h i g h l i g h t s " Brick production using a novel ﬂowable method without pressing or ﬁring. " Brick production using industrial wastes such as quarry dust, billet scale, and ﬂy ash. " Assessment of properties including durability. " Performance of bricks was good and promising.
a r t i c l e
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Article history: Received 8 August 2012 Received in revised form 11 October 2012 Accepted 21 November 2012
Keywords: Bricks Fly ash Quarry dust Billet scale Mechanical properties Durability
a b s t r a c t This paper reports the ﬁndings of an investigation done on bricks made using ﬂy ash (FA), quarry dust (QD), and billet scale (BS) by non conventional method. The procedure for producing the bricks includes mixing the constituents along with cement and water, and then forming the bricks within moulds without applying pressure over them. Unlike the traditional method of brick manufacturing, the new approach neither uses clay or shale nor requires high pressure on mould or high temperature kiln ﬁring having remarkable environmental and ecological gain. Results for mechanical properties and durability were rewarding and promising. The optimum ratio of billet scale and ﬂy ash is found to be 1:1, billet scale and quarry dust is 1:1. It is indicated that the bricks developed in this study can be used as an alternative to conventional bricks. Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction Bricks have been mainly produced from clay and shale since decades. The continuous extraction of clay and the removal of the topsoil for brick manufacturing cause substantial depletion of virgin resources. Besides, the accumulation of unmanaged wastes has resulted in landﬁll scarcity as well as serious environmental contamination. Therefore, civil engineers were obliged in ﬁnding a sustainable solution for saving both of the virgin resources and the context from the evitable depletion. Researches went through manufacturing bricks from various wastes such as water treatment residual, bottom ash, granite sawing waste, paper sludge, straw ﬁbres, ﬂy ash, rice husk ash, and silica fume. Mechanical properties of the bricks developed from the aforementioned wastes like compressive strength, water absorption, and modulus of rupture were
Abbreviations: FA, ﬂy ash; C, cement; BS, billet scale; QD, quarry dust; F.D, fresh density; FA+BS, ﬂy ash + billet scale; QD+BS, quarry dust + billet scale; FA+QD, ﬂy ash + quarry dust; W/(BS+QD), water/(billet scale + quarry dust); I.W, increase in mass; C.R, corrosion resistance. ⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +60 389212257; fax: +60 389212116. E-mail address: [email protected]
(S. Naganathan). 0950-0618/$ - see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.11.077
considerably promising; rewarding and qualiﬁed them to be used in various civil engineering applications [1–6]. However, the conventional method of brick manufacturing which involved mixing, drying and ﬁring the bricks has not yet been changed or converted to more sustainable one. Recent researches have addressed the shortcomings of the conventional method of brick production such as energy consumption and green house gas (GHG) emission and their dangerous impacts on the environment [7–10]. This paper reports the results of investigation on mechanical properties and durability of bricks manufactured from quarry dust, billet scale and ﬂy ash using a non-conventional method. Quarry dust is a by-product from the granite crushing process produced during quarrying activities, is one of these materials that has recently gained an attention to be utilized as concreting aggregates in plenty of applications like cement mortar, building block, concrete and in controlled low strength material [11–14]. Fly ash is a burnt residue of pulverized coal which is siliceous in nature. It is recycled in many applications such as cement, concrete, masonry mortar and solid bricks [15–17]. Billet scale is an iron oxide formed on the surface of steel during continuous casting, reheating and hot rolling operations of steel processing. The scale is removed by
A.A. Shakir et al. / Construction and Building Materials 41 (2013) 131–138 humidity within the box was more than 95% . The constituent materials were weighed according to the given ratio as reported in Table 2. In series A 15% of cement, 50% of quarry dust and 25% of both of ﬂy ash and billet scale were used. In series B, the ratio of billet scale and ﬂy ash was increased to 40% and cement and quarry dust were decreased to 10% and 50% respectively to have a better understanding on the effect of billet scale on brick properties. It was intended to replace ﬂy ash with billet scale in this study based on previous works [18,27–29].
water sprays and then disposed by dumping. It has been recently used as ﬁne aggregate replacement in concrete . However, recycling it in bricks has not yet been explored. This study may help to reduce the cost of disposal of billet scale, quarry dust and ﬂy ash and hence reduce the cost of treatment, decrease the consumption of virgin materials and non-renewable energy resources, reduce the environmental contamination, and thereby contribute to sustainability. There will be saving of energy which otherwise will be spent in extracting, handling and reclaiming of these waste materials.
2.3. Test methods The hardened bricks were tested for compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), water absorption, initial rate of suction (IRS), modulus of rupture (MR), efﬂorescence and durability. Three samples were used in each test and the average value was taken. Compressive strength test was done according to ASTM C 67-03, 2003  at 7, 14, 28 and 56 days using a universal testing machine of 1000 kN capacity. Test for modulus of rupture was conducted according to ASTM C 67-03 . It was determined by the three-point bending test with a supporting span of 175 mm, a height of 60 mm and a width of 90 mm using universal testing machine. UPV test is a function of elastic modulus and density of material. Pulse velocity can therefore be used to assess the quality and uniformity of material. The UPV test was conducted according to BS1881-203, 1997  at 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Water absorption is a key factor affecting the durability of brick. The less the water inﬁltrates into brick, the more the durability of the brick. The determination of water absorption was done at the age of 28 days according to BS3921-1985 . IRS denotes the amount of water sucked by the brick upon contact with mortar during lying. IRS, resulting from the presence of capillary mechanism of small pores in the brick, is an important property in a masonry construction since it affects the bond strength between the brick and mortar thus affecting water tightness and durability of masonry. IRS test was done according to BS3921-1985  by placing two pieces of metals of 100 mm and 75 mm in a water dish and then the brick was placed on its bed with face downwards on the pieces of metal. The depth of immersion of the face of the brick is maintained at 3 ± 1 mm. The IRS test was conducted by subtracting the mass before and after the brick’s immersion in water. Efﬂorescence test was conducted according to ASTM C 67-03, 2003 , the brick was placed on its header face in distilled water for 7 days and the depth of immersion was maintained at 25.4 mm. The brick was heated in an oven at 110 °C for 24 h and the sides of brick were then examined by an observer with normal vision from a distance of 3 m. Durability test performed in this study contrasts sharply from the common durability tests on bricks which involve exposing the bricks to freeze and thaw cycling [33,34]. Acid rain is one of the most constructional challenges that threaten the durability of construction especially in Asian countries . Therefore, this study is one of the earliest attempts in treating the bricks in 1% sulphuric acid which is indicative of an aggressive environment [36,37]. Bricks were also immersed in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) . Bricks were kept in a curing tank for 28 days , the tank was closed tightly to avoid evaporation. After 28 days of immersion bricks were taken out from the curing tank and the surface water was
2. Materials and methods 2.1. Materials Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was obtained from Lafarge cement Sdn Bhd, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. It was conﬁrming to MS522 Part1: 1989 , it was used for all mixtures in the investigation. Tests were held on Ordinary Portland cement according to ASTM C150-85A: 2006  the speciﬁc gravity was 3.15 and speciﬁc surface area was 2910 cm2 g1. Class F ﬂy ash was obtained from Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Kapar Thermal Power Station, Kapar, Selangor, Malaysia. It has speciﬁc gravity of 2.323 and speciﬁc surface area of 2423 cm2 g1 determined according to ASTM C 618:2006 . Billet scale was obtained from Amsteel Mill, Klang, Selangor, Malaysia. Quarry dust was obtained from Hanson Quarry Products, Batu 11, Cheras, Kuala lumpur, Malaysia. The chemical and physical properties of the constituent materials are given in Table 1. It is clear from the chemical composition of ﬂy ash, billet scale, and quarry dust that they lack the high concentration of CaO which is responsible for high compressive strength  whereas, OPC has approximately 63% CaO. Therefore, cement ought to be utilized as minor component in this study in order to control the compressive strength. 2.2. Manufacture of brick The quarry dust and cement were ﬁrstly placed in a mixer and dry mixed for 2 min. Billet scale and ﬂy ash were then added and mixed for another 2 min. The mixer was kept covered with burlap during mixing to avoid the volatility of materials. Water was then added to the constituent materials and mixed for another 2 min. The sample was then tested for ﬂow consistency according to ASTM D 6103 . The mixture is considered ﬂowable when the spread diameter is 200 ± 20 mm . Water content was adjusted until the required consistency was achieved. Moulds were not subjected to vibration since the ﬂow-able mix was designed to have sufﬁcient ﬂow-ability to facilitate easy placement . The mixture was then tested for fresh density according to BS 1881:part 108, 1985 . The mixture was then poured in moulds of size (200 90 60) mm. The moulds were covered with wet burlap overnight and then transferred to the curing environment in plastic storage boxes at a temperature of 22 °C and the relative
Table 1 The chemical and physical properties of the constituents. Material
Chemical composition (%)
Fly ash Billet scale Quarry dust Cement
Blaine ﬁtness (g/cm2)
56.58 1.37 69.94 21.54
27.83 0.09 14.60 5.32
4.0 94.61 2.16 3.6
4.30 0.111 2.23 63.60
1.40 0.03 0.38 1.00
– – – 2.1
– 1.03 0.07 –
2.53 0.56 0.74 2.48
2423 – – 2910
1155 1746 1630 1367
2.323 2.97 2.69 3.15
Table 2 Mix proportion. Mix ID
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5
Bulk composition (kg/m3)
Ratio (%) C
15 15 15 15 15 10 10 10 10 10
60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 50 50
25 18.75 12.5 6.25 0 40 30 20 10 0
0 6.25 12.5 18.75 25 0 10 20 30 40
100/0 75/25 50/50 25/75 0/100 100/0 75/25 50/50 25/75 0/100
273 304 309 323 323 166 182 197 220 225
938 1044 1060 1108 1108 713 781 846 945 967
419 350 243 124 0 612 503 373 203 0
0 119 243 381 508 0 172 373 624 852
309 308 307 306 306 403 365 354 344 339
1896 2087 2152 2240 2242 1872 1976 2135 2329 2400
1.12 1.01 0.99 0.94 0.94 2.42 2.00 1.79 1.55 1.50
A.A. Shakir et al. / Construction and Building Materials 41 (2013) 131–138 Table 3 Mechanical properties. Mix ID
A(1–1) A(1–2) A(1–3) A(1–4) A(1–5) B(1–1) B(1–2) B(1–3) B(1–4) B(1–5) Clay brick Cement brick
Compressive strength (MPa)
15.30 17.20 17.03 10.80 5.76 6.09 7.53 9.60 3.30 30 – –
19.40 23.40 18.80 15.50 7.20 7.60 9.50 12.10 5.70 5.30 – –
22.00 24.50 26.30 18.50 7.70 10.60 12.40 16.10 9.20 6.20 15 12
25.80 36.50 37.60 21.70 9.80 17.50 18.90 27.50 13.80 10.50 – –
3.45 3.15 3.10 2.40 2.10 2.40 2.30 2.30 2.20 1.70 – –
3.49 3.17 3.11 2.50 2.22 2.50 2.40 2.40 2.30 1.80 – –
3.51 3.25 3.20 2.54 2.30 2.67 2.66 2.65 2.40 2.06 0.79 1.50
3.56 3.40 3.30 2.70 2.40 2.78 2.67 2.66 2.22 2.18
IRS (kg/m2 min)
14.26 14.00 13.80 13.60 13.00 19.10 16.20 14.90 13.20 12.90 18.1 14.3
0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.27 7 3
4.83 5.40 5.90 3.90 2.30 2.50 3.60 3.70 1.70 1.60 1.6 1.2
allowed to drain by placing them on a metal wire mesh. Results were compared with bricks cured normally for 28 days. The bricks were then tested for change in mass and change in compressive strength . Change in mass in this study was expressed as increase in mass since the whole bricks tested in this study had mass increase. The increase in mass was evaluated using the following equation :
m2 m1 100 m1
where I.W is the increase in mass (%), m1 is mass of brick before immersion in acid or salt (g), m2 is the mass of brick after immersion in acid or salt (g). Change in compressive strength of bricks was then evaluated and expressed in term of corrosion resistance using the following equations :
Ss 100 Sn
where C.R. is the corrosion resistance (%), Ss is the compressive strength of brick immersed in salt (MPa), and Sn is the compressive strength of bricks cured normally (MPa).
Sa 100 Sn
Fig. 1. Relationship between fresh density and FA+BS.
where C.R. is the corrosion resistance (%), Sa is the compressive strength of the bricks immersed in acid (MPa), and Sn is the compressive strength of bricks cured normally (MPa). Bricks at age of 28 days were cured normally in plastic containers with 95% relative humidity and 22 °C  for another 28 days in order to compare their compressive strength with the compressive strength of bricks soaked in salt and acid solution.
3. Results and discussion Figures in this paper were normalized by dividing the values on Y-axis by the maximum value on Y-axis. The various properties of bricks are given in Table 3. The range of fresh density was (1896– 2400) kg/m3 as shown in Table 2. It is clear from Table 2 that the fresh density was signiﬁcantly grown along the two series and peaked at A(1–5) and B(1–5). This is related to the increase of billet scale content along each series, billet scale is a heavy weight material and the fresh density of the mix is expected to be increased when recycling billet scale in it [27,29]. Relationship between fresh density with ﬂy ash and billet scale (FA+BS) is illustrated in Fig. 1. It is indicated that the fresh density was linearly correlated with FA+BS, adding more billet scale over ﬂy ash will normally increase the fresh density due to the heavy weight of billet scale [27,29]. Fresh density was increased with the increase of quarry dust and billet scale (QD+BS) as shown in Fig. 2. As far as the weight is concerned, billet scale is a heavy weight material as it is shown above and quarry dust is also a heavy weight material since its speciﬁc gravity is 2.97. Therefore, the fresh density was directly proportional to QD+BS. Relationship between w/c and FA+BS is recorded in Fig. 3. It is interesting to note that w/c dropped with the increment of FA+BS. It is because adding more billet scale with less ﬂy ash reduces w/c since billet scale is not a water absorbent .
Fig. 2. Relationship between fresh density and QD+BS.
Results for compressive strength at 28 days varied from 7.7 MPa to 26.3 MPa for series A, and from 6.2 MPa to 16.0 MPa for series B as shown in Table 3. It is clear from Table 3 that the compressive strength was dropped at series B as compared with series A due to the reduction of cement content from 15% in series A to 10% in series B and the compressive strength is directly inﬂuenced by cement content [19,43]. Compressive strength was consistently increased along the two series and peaked at 1:1 ﬂy ash and billet scale as it is evidenced in Fig. 4. It is explained as billet scale is a granular waste that may create voids in the matrix when recycled solely, thereby weakening the bond strength as evidenced in A(1– 5) and B(1–5) which recorded the minimum compressive strength. On the contrary, ﬂy ash as a powder material ﬁlls the pores created by billet scale and then increases the compressive strength. Therefore, billet scale ought to be mixed with ﬁne materials such as
A.A. Shakir et al. / Construction and Building Materials 41 (2013) 131–138
Fig. 6. Relationship between compressive strength and modulus of rupture.
Fig. 3. Relationship between w/c and FA+BS.
Fig. 7. Relationship between modulus of rupture and FA+BS.
Fig. 4. Relationship between compressive strength and FA+BS.
Fig. 5. Relationship between compressive strength and QD+BS.
sand, ﬂy ash and quarry dust to increase the compressive strength. Similar ﬁndings were observed by previous works on billet scale [18,27–29]. Consequently, compressive strength showed an obvious growth with the increase of quarry dust and billet scale (QD+BS) and peaked at 1:1 QD:BS as it is shown in Fig. 5. It is obvious that the compressive strength behaviour with QD+BS is similar to its behaviour with FA+BS. It is conﬁrmed that the billet scale is a base waste material that ought to be mixed with ﬁne materials in order to enhance the compressive strength since quarry dust is granular waste with 16% ﬁnes below 150 lm  such ﬁnes may ﬁll the voids created by billet scale in the matrix, thereby contributing to the compressive strength development. Generally compressive strength was developed when recycling billet scale in
the matrix. However, it should be mixed with ﬁne material [18,27–29]. Limitation of compressive strength of bricks according to BS392, 1985  is (5–50) MPa. Furthermore, the compressive strength test was performed on conventional bricks such as clay bricks and cement bricks and it was 15 MPa and 12 MPa respectively. Therefore, the compressive strength of the bricks developed in this study fall within the acceptable limit of the standard and was signiﬁcantly higher than that of conventional bricks. Results for modulus of rupture varied from 2.3 MPa to 5.9 MPa for series A and from 1.6 MPa to 3.7 MPa for series B as shown in Table 3. Compressive strength was linearly correlated with the modulus of rupture as it is illustrated in Fig. 6, it may be related to the type of raw materials, shape of sample and shaping method . Therefore, the modulus of rupture was expected to behave similarly to compressive strength. Relationship between modulus of rupture and FA+BS is reported in Fig. 7. It is veriﬁed that the modulus of rupture consistently increased along each series and peaked at 1:1 ﬂy ash and billet scale. Similar trend was observed by past researches on billet scale [18,27–29]. The minimum permissible limit of modulus rupture of bricks is 0.65 MPa according to ASTM C67-07a, 2003 . The modulus of rupture test was performed on clay brick and cement brick and results were 1.6 MPa and 1.8 MPa respectively. Therefore, the bricks developed in this study showed superior results for modulus of rupture as compared with standards and with conventional bricks. Result for UPV at 28 days ranged in (2.3–3.51) km/s for series A and in (2.0–2.67) km/s for series B as given in Table 3. It is obvious to observe the reduction in UPV values in series B as compared with series A as shown in Table 3, it is related to the reduction of cement content in series B, cement particles are very small ﬁnes that ﬁll the voids in the matrix and then increase UPV . It is indicated that UPV values were respectively decreased along each
A.A. Shakir et al. / Construction and Building Materials 41 (2013) 131–138
Fig. 8. Relationship between UPV and FA+QD.
Fig. 10. Relationship between water absorption and FA+BS.
Fig. 9. Relationship between compressive strength and UPV. Fig. 11. Relationship between water absorption and W/BS+QD.
series as shown in Table 3; it is attributed to the reduction of ﬂy ash content along each series, ﬂy ash is improving the shape of matrix and ﬁlls the pores in the mix [45,46], hence increase UPV. Relationship between UPV with ﬂy ash and quarry dust (FA+QD) is given in Fig. 8. It is evidenced that UPV was considerably improved with the increase of FA+QD for the two series. It is explained as the quarry dust is a granular waste that has about 16% ﬁnes below 150 lm  such ﬁnes ﬁll the voids in the matrix and contribute to UPV development, ﬂy ash as a powder played a vital role in UPV enhancement [45,46]. Therefore, UPV was directly proportional to FA+QD. Compressive strength was directly proportional to UPV as shown in Fig. 9. It is attributed to the fact that the higher the compressive strength the higher the UPV . Acceptable range of UPV values of bricks is (1.453–2.758) km/s . The UPV test was conducted in clay brick and cement brick and results were 0.793 km/s and 1.501 km/s respectively. Therefore, the bricks developed in this study showed higher UPV as compared with conventional bricks. Keeping in mind that UPV values for series A approached the limitations of UPV for concrete since the range of UPV of concrete is (3.5–4) km/s indicated good quality and homogeneity of concrete according to BS 188-203, 1986 . Results of water absorption ranged in (13–14.2)% for series A and (12.9–19.1)% for series B. It is clear from Table 3 that the water absorption was signiﬁcantly increased in series B as compared with series A. This is attributed to the increase of ﬂy ash content from 25% in series A to 40% in series B. Fly ash is a water absorbent material that increased the water absorption capacity of hardened matrix when recycled in it [46,48,49]. Relationship between water absorption and FA+BS is reported in Fig. 10. It is observed that water absorption decreased with the increase of FA+BS. This is because adding more billet scale with less ﬂy ash decreases water absorption because billet scale is not water absorbent . Relationship between water absorption with water to billet scale and quarry dust W/(BS+QD) is illustrated in Fig. 11. It is demonstrated that the water absorption was linearly correlated with W/(BS+QD).
It is because adding more water to the fresh mix creates pores in the hardened matrix due to bleeding and water evaporation thereby increasing the water absorption . Water absorption of bricks is classiﬁed in accordance to the different grades of weathering exposure condition according to ASTMC67-07a, 2003 . For severe weathering resistance bricks the water absorption is not more than 17%. For moderate weathering resistance bricks the water absorption is not more than 22% and no limit for negligible weathering resistance brick. Water absorption was examined in clay brick and cement brick and it was 18.1% and 14.3% respectively. Therefore, bricks produced in this study showed acceptable results for water absorption that fall within the standard and the conventional bricks. Result for IRS was constant along the two series and it was 0.27 kg/m2 min. IRS measures how quickly water is absorbed into the brick, which gives an idea of whether or not adjustment is necessary to achieve maximum bond strength. According to BS3921, 1985  the acceptable IRS values of (0.25–1.5) kg/m2 min generally produce good bond strength when used with the appropriate mortar designations. The IRS test was investigated on clay brick and cement brick and results were 7 kg/m2 min and 3 kg/m2 min consistently. Therefore, the bricks developed in this study fulﬁl the standard requirement for IRS. Result for efﬂorescence was considerably rewarding and promising, the bricks developed in this study showed no efﬂorescence. Therefore, the bricks developed in this study are categorized as non efﬂorescent according to ASTMC67-07a, 2003 . Result for durability is indicated in Table 4. In acid immersion, it is clear that the compressive strength for bricks soaked in acid solution was generally increased along the series as compared with bricks which were cured normally as shown in Table 4. Compressive strength for bricks soaked in acid was ranged in (7.6– 39.7) MPa whereas the compressive strength for bricks cured nor-
A.A. Shakir et al. / Construction and Building Materials 41 (2013) 131–138
Table 4 Durability. Mix ID
A(1–1) A(1–2) A(1–3) A(1–4) A(1–5) B(1–1) B(1–2) B(1–3) B(1–4) B(1–5)
Cured in acid medium
Cured in salt medium
25.8 36.5 37.6 21.7 9.8 17.5 18.9 27.5 9.2 6.2
34.5 37.1 39.7 24.4 9.3 20.5 23.7 29.3 11.6 7.6
1.3 1.01 1.05 1.12 0.95 1.17 1.25 1.06 1.26 1.22
1.65 1.97 1.64 1.91 2.66 1.19 1.21 1.41 1.84 2.43
25.8 36.5 37.6 21.7 9.8 17.5 18.9 27.5 9.2 6.2
37.7 40.3 40.8 27.1 8.2 25.8 25.8 32.7 12.0 8.0
1.46 1.10 1.08 1.24 0.84 1.47 1.36 1.19 1.30 1.28
2.51 2.76 1.88 2.36 2.63 1.82 1.21 2.01 2.03 3.42
Fig. 13. Relationship between the increase in mass and the bulk composition of billet scale in acid.
Fig. 12. Relationship between increase in mass and FA+QD in acid.
mally was ranged in (6.2–37.6) MPa. Generally corrosion resistance was ranged in (1.01–1.33)%. Compressive strength increase for the bricks developed in this study is attributed to the fact that ﬂy ash and quarry dust as pozzolanic material have found a beneﬁcial technique for enhancing the resistance of the hardened mix to acid attack. Firstly, the ﬂy ash reduces the number of micro pores, those pores make the porous material more vulnerable to salt and acid induced decay . Secondly, SiO2 and Al2O3 which are about 56% and 27% in ﬂy ash and about 69% and 14% in quarry dust ash have played a vital role in enhancing the corrosion resistance since they can react with Ca(OH)2 in cement to form secondary calcium silicate hydrate and calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates that make it chemically stable and structurally dense, the impermeability of hardened mix is enhanced as well [52–54]. Bricks developed in this study have a mass increase when soaked in acid solution and the increase in mass ranged in (1.19– 2.43)%. Relationship between increase in mass with ﬂy ash and quarry dust (FA+QD) is indicated in Fig. 12. Increase in mass was adversely correlated with FA+QD as shown in Fig. 12. However, increase in mass was directly proportional to billet scale content as given in Fig. 13. It may be related to a chemical reaction between Fe2O3 in billet scale and sulphuric acid producing Fe2(SO)4 according to the following equation :
Fe2 O3 þ 3H2 SO4 ! Fe2 ðSOÞ4 þ 3H2 O
was dropped from 13 MPa for cement brick cured normally to merely 9 MPa for cement bricks treated in acid solution. Therefore, the bricks developed in this study showed good resistance to acid attack as compared with conventional bricks. Regarding salt immersion, the compressive strength of bricks soaked in salt solution was ranged in (8–40.8) MPa whilst the compressive strength of bricks cured normally varied from 6.2 to 37.6 MPa. Consequently, the corrosion resistance of bricks soaked in salt solution ranged in between 0.84 and 1.46%. The reason behind the compressive strength increase for bricks soaked in salt solution is related to both of ﬂy ash and quarry dust which are mainly glassy siliceous materials containing aluminous compounds. The reaction of such materials with Portlandite (calcium hydroxide) and water generates hydration products similar to those of Portland cement as calcium silicate hydrates (C–S–H), a rigid gel composed of extremely small particles with a layer structure stabilize the cement hydration , increasing chloride
The formation of Fe2(SO)4 may be responsible for the increase in mass in bricks . Durability investigation in acid treatment was done on conventional bricks like clay brick and cement brick and the compressive strength of clay brick was signiﬁcantly dropped after immersion in acid solution from 15 MPa for clay bricks cured normally to 12 MPa for clay brick soaked in acid solution. Cement brick was the other one which showed compressive strength reduction after immersion in acid solution, the compressive strength of cement brick
Fig. 14. Relationship between corrosion resistance and FA+QD in salt.
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binding  and decreasing chloride permeability elevating threshold chloride content . The above fact was demonstrated in Fig. 14 which indicates that the corrosion resistance was directly proportional to ﬂy ash and quarry dust (FA+QD). The bricks produced in this study gained mass increase after salt immersion and the increase in mass is ranged in (1.22–3.42)%. The increase in mass may happen because of the activation of Fe2O3 in billet scale in salt water forming more Fe2O3 which was found to increase the mass. Durability investigation in salt immersion was done on conventional bricks and it was shown that the compressive strength of clay bricks was dramatically dropped from 15 MPa for clay bricks cured normally to merely 9 MPa for clay brick soaked in salt solution. Moreover, the compressive strength of cement brick has fallen from 13 MPa for cement bricks cured normally to 8 MPa for cement bricks soaked in salt solution. Therefore, the bricks developed in this study showed good resistance to salt attack as compared with conventional bricks for the same dose of NaCl and for the same time of immersion. However, future works on long durability should be investigated. 4. Conclusions Following conclusions are made based on the investigation: (1) The fresh density was strongly inﬂuenced by the increase of the quarry dust and billet scale content. (2) The compressive strength ranged in (7.7–26.3) MPa for series A and (6.2–16) MPa for series B. The compressive strength and modulus of rupture increased with FA+BS and QD+BS. The optimum ratio of FA:BS and QD:BS was 1:1 in compressive strength and modulus of rupture since it got the peak value. (3) Water absorption decreased with the increase of FA+BS and increase with the increase of W/(BS+QD). (4) UPV increased with an increase of ﬂy ash, cement and quarry dust. On the other hand, addition of FA+BS was found to decrease UPV. (5) The optimum ratio of ﬂy ash and billet scale, quarry dust and billet scale is found to be 1:1 since it showed the best performance with regard to mechanical properties. (6) Manufacture of bricks using a combination of billet scale, quarry dust and ﬂy ash is feasible. The method of manufacturing suggested in this study will contribute to sustainability and waste management. The bricks developed in this study ﬁt the requirement of the relevant thresholds. Therefore, they can be used as an alternative to conventional bricks in the building sector. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Universiti Tenaga National for providing the facilities to accomplish this research. References  Tson-liaw Chin, Chan Hui Lang, Hsu Wen-Ching, Run-Hang Chi. A novel method to reuse paper sludge and co-generation ashes from paper mill. Hazard Mater 1998;58:93–102.  Piattoni Quintilio, Quagliarini Enrico, Lenci Stefano. Experimental analysis and modeling of the mechanical behavior of earthen bricks. Constr Build Mater 2011;25:2067–75.  Lin Cheng-Fang, Wu Chung-Hsin, Ho Hsiu-Mai. Recovery of municipal waste incineration bottom ash and water treatment sludge to water permeable pavement materials. Waste Manage 2006;26:970–8.  Chiang KY, Chou PH, Chien KL. Novel lightweight building bricks manufactured from water treatment plant sludge and agricultural waste. Tai-Chung, Taiwan: A case study in Feng-Chia University; 2006.
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