Psychoanalysis and Social Process

Psychoanalysis and Social Process

76 PSYCHOSOMATICS JANUARY-FEBRUARY Book Reviews BEHAVIOR PATHOLOGY. By Norman Cameron, M.D., Ph.D., and Ann Margaret, Ph.D. Boston: Houghton Miffli...

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Book Reviews BEHAVIOR PATHOLOGY. By Norman Cameron, M.D., Ph.D., and Ann Margaret, Ph.D. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1961. 645 pages. Although the book is entitled "Behavior Pathology," it is really a text in psychopathology. These authors use a bio-social approach to the study of psychopathology. They begin with the basic assumption that inescapable frustrations result in conflict and anxiety for which we need to develop adequate techniques for overcoming them. However, the heredity and constitutional background are important aspects of man's function in his social environment. They present human development as a process of maturation and learning. They review the usual topics covered in a book on psychopathology with emphasis on "those deviant reactions which have significance for the individual's social behavior." A fascinating' mixture of psychology and psychiatry pervades the text. The authors present five chapters on specific aspects of behavior organization before embarking upon well organized lectures on such diagnostic syndromes as developmental retardation and social deviates lumped under the bio-social immaturities. The authors then swing back to a discussion of additional dynamic concepts such as regression, conflict, anxiety. Subsequently, they proceed to link anxiety with such diagnostic categories as overgeneralization and displacement reactions and depressive and manic disorers. Under repression, we find a discussion of the compulsive disorders and hysteria. 'I'he final two chapters are devoted to a brief review of the therapies: psychic, chemical, electrical and surgical interferences. The authors try to introduce a new approach to a discussion of the field of psychopathology. There is no consistent order in the manner in which the book is held together. For example, dynamic concepts may be presented separately or tied up with a diagnostic syndrome. The inclusion of the depressions under the anxiety disorders is open to much dispute. Summaries and brief glimpses of the book plan is presented sporadically throughout the text. The authors coin new terms, use terms from other disciplines or make modifications of existing terms that test the reader's fluidity of adaptation. Finally, since this book was published in 1951, the chapter on therapies would have to be expanded to include a glimpse of the latest results ort biochemical and psychopharmacological research and experience. Despite the above criticisms, this is a superior book on psychopathology. Benjamin Kotkov, Ph.D.

THE FROG POND. Joyce Maciver. New York: George Braziller, 1961. $.95. As stated in the foreword, "This book is a fragment of an autobiography . . . the events, insofar as they concern the narrator, are true." '.rhe author obviously remains anonymous, as she goes into considerable detail about her life and her associates. She is a career woman who writes for a magazine, and in this story she records her search for self-understanding, which is the essence of psychoanalysis. The story begins in the summer of 1942, when she "foolishly supposed the problem might be solved by thinking." In the course of the next. several years, she encountered six different psy- . choanalysts and graphically tells of her experience with each. She relates her compulsion that drives her from analyst to lover and from lover to analyst and back again, and the end result is not in favor of the therapy of psychoanalysis. However, for any physician interested in the process of psychoanalysis, much can be learned from this narration. The author depicts the personalities of the persons by whom she was treated, and one would certainly come to the conclusion that psychoanalysis is something that should only be administered by an expert, and that, when inexpertly carried out, can do grave damage. On the other hand, any physician who has used psychoanalysis effectively will find this experience of one woman of constructive value. It will help him to perhaps evaluate his own technics. James L. McCartney, M.D.

PSYCHOANALYSIS AND SOCIAL PROCESS. Ed· ited by Jules Masserman, M.D. Grune & Strat· ton. New York, 1961. Pp. 196. $6.75. This book (Vol. IV, Science & Psychoanalysis) is published by the Academy of Psychoanalysis. In the preface, Dr. John A. P. Millet, its preSident, points out that the Academy originated as. a forum in which divergent views on theory and' practice could be exchanged. This volume, with its wide coverage, attests to the fact that the Academy has effectively accomplished its goals. Weston La Barre assesses the influence of psy-. choanalysis upon contemporary American anthropology. His thesis is that some psychoanalytic understanding is required of all students of the social sciences. Mention is made of Malinowski's reference to his own "irresponsibility" in his "Sexual Life of Savages" and to Kluckhol1!l's critique that the great weakness in Malinowski's work lay in the fact that it was rooted in outmoded behaviorism; that psychoanalysis had

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never become assimilated into his thinking. Abram Kardiner, in his discussion of La Barre's paper, pointed up that Malinowski got into difficulties because he jeopardized the position of Freud who felt that the Oedipus complex was a universally inherited predisposition. Kardiner felt that the traditions of the psychological and social disciplines had a "built-in incompatibility." Talcott Parsons, in another paper, was contrary _ minded. He expressed the point of view that the potentialities of relationship between psychoanalysis and sociology have barely begun to be effected. John P. Spiegel noted that the psychoanalyst is oriented to how the individual feels about himself and why he is motivated to feel and behave as he does; the sociologist is more concerned with the probability of the occurrence of specified behavior in particular groups under variable circumstances. In a study of the social tensions arising in the relationship between Mexicans and North Ameri. cans, Parres and Ramirez trace its possible roots to the Mexican perception of their conqueror as a father image with all of its ambivalence. Joseph Jaffe considers social factors in the doctor-patient relationship. In an interesting experiment he was able to divide patients into those who could verbalize their feelings and those who could not. It was clear that sociological factors are related to the kind of communication .that occurs during a psychiatric interview. This study confirms Hollingshead and Redlich's previous studies on the lack of accessibility of lower socio-economic groups to psychotherapy and their need to be managed by a more directive approach. l The problems of "acting out" are handled by Salo Rosenbaum. Neurotic acting out occurs predominantly in individuals who have difficulties in verbal communication. In many instances, the analyst must use specific gUidance and even prohibition when real and serious dangers for the patient or others occur. Jerome D. Frank discusses the relief of distress and attitudinal change. He emphasizes the goal of "evocative psychotherapy" to be the facilitation of change in attitude. The relief of discomfort was found to be related to mobilization of the patient's expectancy and hope and did not depend on the nature or length of the treatment. In fact, a placebo produced just as much relief as did six months of psychotherapy. Attitude change, in contrast, involves a gradual learning process. Whether different types of psychotherapy produce different types of change still remains to be determined. The nature of the psychotherapeutic process and its need for objective observation is emphasized by Norman A. Levy. Research designed

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to test some features of the interaction between patient and therapist is described, where observers are utilized to evaluate verbal as well as non-verbal expressions of the therapist. Psychotherapy with the family group by Nathan W. Ackerman and William V. Silverberg's concept of the therapeutic process in psychoanalytic therapy are additional valuable contributions. The problem of psychoanalytic training, especially the integration of the analyst with the medical community, is the conclUding report by C. Knight Aldrich. This book, with its wealth of material and interdisciplinary orientation, should be of value to all those interested in the current problems and future of psychoanalysis.

w.n. THE ROOTS OF CRIME: Selected Papers on Psychoanalysis, Vol. II. By Edward Glover, M.D. International Universities Press, N. Y., 1960. $7.50, 422 pp. Dr. Glover is an outstanding, dedicated and substantial contributor to the behavioral sciences. He has had the unique skill and the courage to apply psychoanalytic tools which were obtained from stUdy of the neuroses to the "criminal" mind. Considerable scientific data have been accumulated by him; his psychoanalytic orientation has been stimUlating to those involved in the arduous and delicate task of dealing with the delinquent. . This book contains a great deal of material which is skillfully marshalled and brilliantly presented. In an introductory chapter on the "Roots of Crime," the author's orientation is defined. He teaches that pathological crime is a disease having its roots in early life and the proper approach to it is to examine, diagnose and treat. He demonstrates that symptoms have a cause, a meaning and a purpose and arise out of the unconscious in individuals who have failed to domesticate the brute in themselves. Succeeding papers trace the history of criminology in Great Britain, discuss the diagnosis and treatment of pathological delinquency, the criminal psychopath, and pay a richly deserved tribute to August Aiehorn, author of "Wayward Youth." Sexual disorders and offenses, social and legal aspects of sexual abnormalities, male homosexuality and prostitution are dwelled upon carefully. Then follows an appeal for team research with a formUlation of the tasks involved in the various disciplines which explore delinquency. ,The McNaghten RUle and capital punishment finally receive erudite evaluation. These papers, filled with the rich findings of a careful observer, are to be studied and reread.