Public relations employment: Huge growth projected

Public relations employment: Huge growth projected

Robert Kendall Public Relations Employment-. Huge Growth Projected Tile author of this article has analyzed U.S. Census data, Department of Labor sta...

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Robert Kendall

Public Relations Employment-. Huge Growth Projected Tile author of this article has analyzed U.S. Census data, Department of Labor statistics, organizational directories and occupational research to project what he believes will be phenomenal growth in the public relations fieht. By the end of the century, he asserts, public relations can expect to account for one million jobs. Growth of what would strictly be called public relations is expected to triple between now and the end of the 1990s. Related occupations with public relations functions--lobbyist, fund raiser, some communication, promotion and advertising professionals--will account for another two million positions. Robert Kendall's report provides a fldl range of job titles and census count of people filling those jobs. Dr. Kendall is on the faculty of the Department of Advertising and Public Relations, College of Journalism and Communications, University of Florida, Gainesville.


Ior a number of years, if one had asked a public relations leader how many people there are in public relations the estimate would most often have been about 50,000. Recently the number has doubled. In the April 1984 Public Relations Journal, Barbara Hunter challenged a disparaging remark made about public relations with tile statement that such comments "are an affront to the 12,000 members of the Public Relations Society of America and the more than 100,000 public relations practitioners in the United S t a t e s . . . " (inside front cover). The 100,000 figure, in such sharp contrast to earlier figures, prompted an investigation of the question. The search led ultimately to the 1980 U.S. Census data bank and to some surprises. The number practicing public relations, under its strictest definition, are between 319,557 and 384,140. When lobbyists, fundraisers, industrial relations people, communications, promotion and others are included, the number may be nearly a million. H o w one counts the people in the various jobs depends on the use one wishes to make of the results. One may look at either tile maximum or minimum. The numbers included would be smaller if the person counting were interested in recruiting members for a professional society with eligibility restrictions than if the interest were in potential readers for a public 13

Public Relations


relations publication. The following report provides a full range of job titles and census count of people in those jobs; the reader will want to select those job titles which are appropriate to the reader's needs. A question related to numbers is: Which of a range of occupations is and which is not appropriately "public relations?" The list compiled here is in order beginning with those titles most likely to be regarded as public relations. Job titles which involve at least some of the generally recognized functions of public relations have been included. The criterion for including job titles is whether the person in the job would be a likely prospect for goods or services being marketed for public relations practitioners. This research combines three major reference sources: publications of the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; the 1980 Census of Occupations, edited by L.V. Temme (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Occupational Research); and the U.S. Census Bureau's data base Census of Pop-

utatfon and Housing, 1980: Public-Use Microdata Samples Technical Documentation. Job titles in block quotation are from the Department of Labor (DOL) listing of job titles; ~ where the DoL does not list a job title or where job description is lacking, the author has attempted to reflect the general understanding of the job as it may be understood in its relation to public relations. After each job title and job description, the numbers employed in the job are included, either from the Census of Occupations (CO) or from the Census Bureau (CB). Proportions of those who may be properly classified as public relations practitioners in related fields or where job titles are combined will be estimated from proportions in other published statistics. For example, the number of public relations people among the ."editors and reporters'" classification will be estimated from the proportion of editors of house publications among all editors and reporters as compiled in Working Press of tile Nation (WPN), plus the proportion of public relations students enrolled in journalism programs reported by Paul Peterson in Journalism Educator (5 percent and 11 percent respectively).: Five occupations are identified by the Department of Labor as "Public Relations Management Occupations." This group includes: Public Relations Representative, Lobbyist, Director of Fundraising, Song Plugger and Sales Service Promoter. The DoL characterizes these as "'occupations concerned with selection or development of favorable persuasive material and its distribution through personal contact or various communications media, in order to promote goodwill, develop credibility, or create favorable public image for indMdual, establishment, group, or organization." The field "includes both generalists and specialists working either as outside consultant or in-house staff member." A major problem with the listings of both the DoL, the CO, and the CB is that Managers of Advertising, Marketing and Public Relations are lumped together; managers of public relations are not, therefore, classified under "Public Relations Management Occupations." Public Relations Representative is described by the DoL as follows: 14

P R E m l , l o ; ~ n e n t Gvol~lh Plans and conducts public relations programs designed to create and maintain favorable public image for employer or client. Plans and directs development and communication of information designed to keep public informed of employer's programs, accomplishments, or point of view. Arranges for public relations efforts in order to meet needs, objectives, and policies of individual, special interest group, business concern, nonprofit organization, or governmental agency, serving as in-house staff member or as outside consultant. Prepares and distributes fact sheets, news releases, photographs, scripts, motion pictures, or tape recordings to media representatives and other persons who may be interested in learning about or publicizing employer's activities or message. Purchases advertising space and time as required. Arranges for and conducts public contact programs designed to meet employer's objectives, utilizing knowledge of changing attitudes and opinions of consumers, clients, employees, or other interest groups. Promotes good will through such publicity efforts as speeches, exhibits, films, tours, and question/answer sessions. Represents employer during community projects and at public, social, and business gatherings. May specialize in researching data, creating ideas, writing copy, laying out art work, contacting media representatives, or representing employer directly before general public. May specialize in disseminating facts and information about organization's activities or government agency's programs to the general public and be k n o w n as Public Information Officer. The CO and the CB both list the titles as Public Relations Specialist; the CO entry counts 120,037 and the CB lists 162,000 in this job title. Public Relations Manager would be responsible for supervising the activities of the above job holder, developing plans for the above activities, gaining the approval of top management, executing those plans and evaluating the results. The public relations manager generally will be responsible for providing feedback to management of public attitudes and opinions as they affect the organization and counsel management in the most effective ways to maintain mutually productive relationships between the organization and all its publics. The CO lists 688,000 as Managers, Advertising, Marketing and Public Relations; the CB lists 766,000 for the same combination of titles. An estimated 29% proportion of public relations managers in this category may be inferred from a count of the listings for these three job classifications in the Manhattan (New York) "Business to Business Yellow Pages 1984-85." The figures are as follows: Advertising agencies and counselors yielded 19 columns, or 1,444 entries, for a total of 60% of the three titles; marketing consultants yielded 4 columns (335 entries) for a total of 14%; public relations counsel listings yielded 9 columns (684 entries) for of 29%. Twentynine percent of 688,000 is 199,520 and 29% of 766,000 is 222,140. If these proportions are even a close approximation, the total of public relations practitioners, as most strictly defined, is between 319,557 and 384,140.


Public Relations


Lobbyist is described by the DoL as a person who: Contacts and confers with members of legislature and other holders of public office to persuade them to support legislation favorable to client's interests. Studies proposed legislation to determine possible effect on interest of client, who may be a person, specific group, or general public. Confers with legislators and officials to emphasize supposed weaknesses or merits of specific bills to influence passage, defeat, or amendment of measure or introduction of legislation more favorable to client's interests. Contacts individuals and groups having similar interests in order to encourage them also to contact legislators and present views. Prepares news releases and informational pamphlets and conducts news conferences in order to state client's views and to inform public of features of proposed legislation considered desirable or undesirable. May contact regulatory agencies and testify at public hearings to enlist support for client's interests. May be legally required to register with governmental authorities as lobbyist and to submit reports of regulated expenditures incurred during lobbying activities. The lobbyist job title is not included in any of the resources consulted for this research. A sample of job titles listed in the PRSA Directory listed no job titles with the term lobbyist in it. The American League of Lobbyists reports 275 members. The government reports the number of registered lobbyists as 6,500 in Washington, and states requiring registration of lobbyists report an average of 1,023. If that number were projected to the entire nation, the estimated number of lobbyists would be 51,150 plus the 6,500, or 57,650. 3 Fund Raiser is listed under the titles of Director of Fundraising and as Fundraiser I and II (the DoL makes one word of the term while people in the field use two words). Director of Fundraising is described by the DoL as someone who: Directs and coordinates solicitation and disbursement of funds for community social-welfare organization; establishes fundraising goals according to financial need of agency. Formulates policies for collecting and safeguarding contributions. Initiates public relations program to promote community understanding and support for organization's objectives. Develops schedule for disbursing solicited funds. Issues instructions to volunteer and paid workers regarding solicitations, public relations and clerical duties.

Fundraiser I is described as one who: Plans fundraising program for charities or other causes and writes to, telephones, or visits individuals or establishments to solicit funds. Compiles and analyzes information about potential contributors to develop mailing or contact list and to plan selling approach. Writes, 16

PR Emplo.~nent Growth telephones, or visits potential contributors and persuades them to contribute funds by explaining purpose and benefits of fundraising program. Takes pledges or funds from contributors. Records expenses incurred and contributions received. May organize volunteers and plan social functions to raise funds. May prepare fundraising brochures for mail solicitation.

Fundraiser II is described as someone who: Contacts individuals and firms by telephone, in person or by mail to solicit funds for charities or other causes. Takes pledges for amounts to be contributed or accepts immediate cash payments. May sell emblems or the tokens of organization represented. The fundraiser job title is not a separate listing in the CB listing, but is listed with "Street and Door-to-Door Sales Workers," which numbers 222,709. The sample of job titles in the PRSA Directory yielded no titles which indicated fundraising as a major responsibility. Four national associations for Fund Raisers list 3,284 members, as follows: American Association of Fund Raising Counsel--26 members; Direct Mail Fund Raisers Associat i o n - 1 8 0 members; International Fund Raisers Association--78 members; National Society of Fund Raising Executives--3,000 members. The DoL includes two other job titles among "Public Relations Management Occupations"--Song Plugger and Sales-Service Promoter. The descriptions follow.

Song Plugger: Persuades producers and announcers of radio and television musical shows to broadcast recordings produced by employer. Contacts broadcasting station officials by telephone, letter, or in person. Represents phonograph recording manufacturer in dealing with broadcasters. Sales-Service Promoter: Promotes sales and creates good will for firm's products or services by preparing displays, touring country, making speeches at retail dealers conventions, and calling on individual merchants to advise on ways and means for increasing sales. May demonstrate products representing technological advances in industry. Neither of these titles is listed separately by CO or by CB. The people in these jobs are probably included in the CB category, Business and Promotion Agents, which numbers 26,000, and which we will discuss in a later category. A random sample of 875 titles from the PRSA Directory listed one SalesService Promoter, which represents a very small proportion indeed. ~ Of the job titles listed in the PRSA Directory those with "communication" come to 27%; only titles with public relations were more common at 34%. Titles indicating executive responsibility in a firm--President, Vice President, Executive Director, etc.--also numbered 27%. However, the DoL


Public Relations Re~tew

and the CB use the term "communication" exclusively to designate telephone service representatives. The communications specialist or consultant most often deals in written, spoken or mediated language, also a characteristic of the public relations practitioner. An accurate count, or even an estimate, of the numbers in "communication" will probably be the most difficult to project. There are two ways to project the possible number of communication people in the United States: estimate from the numbers of members of "communications" organizations (which total 62,936) or estimate from the number of communications people who are included among the 269,000 Editors and Reporters listed by the CB. The number of communications people who perform public relations job responsibilities is probably between 13,450 and 62,936. The projections were determined as follows: To estimate the number of public relations people among the 269,000 editors and-reporters listed by the CB, two methods were used. Working Press of the Nation (WPN) reports 92,700 "editors and other personnel" in all media and 3,500 house publication editors. House publication editors--assumed to be communications or public relations people--constitute 5% of the total reported by WPN. Five percent of 269,000 would yield 13,450 communications or public relations people at a minimum from the CB totals for editors and reporters. 6 This number may be unrealistically low. Paul Peterson has reported 11% of all journalism program graduates for both 1982 and 1983 are public relations majors. If this number is used, the total for communications or public relations would be 29,590 (290,000 x 11 = 29,590). T h e second method for projecting the number of communications people is based on the numbers of members in communications organizations: Women in Communication (WICI) International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) Conference on College Communication and Composition [English teachers] Speech Communication Association (SCA) International Communication Association (ICA) Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) American Business Communication Association Southern Speech Communication Association Federal Bar Association Communication Center for Marketing Communication Film and Video Communication International Institute of Communication Society for the Anthropology of Communication International Association for Mass Communication Research Nation,'fl Association of Government Communicators (NAGC) Agricultural Communication Association 18

12,000 10,000 8,500 5,000 2,200 1,800 1,500 1,200 1,200 1,200 1,200 1,170 1,100 1,000 1,000 750

PR Emplo~nent Foundation for Student Communication American Agricultural Editors Association Newspaper Farm Editors Association Association for Department Administrators of Speech Comm. Assn. National Communication Club Society of Photographers in Communication Public Utilities Communication Association Advertising Research Association International Organization of Women in Telecommunication Media Institute Graphic Communication Association Forestry Communication Association Industrial Communication Council Black Citizens for Fair Media Religious Speech Communication Association American Association for Agricultural Communicators of Tomorrow Delta Communication Printers Association Republican Communication Association National Sound and Communication Association Chemical Communication Association International Teleconferencing Association Media Action Coalition National Communication Association Conference of School Board Communicators ]Total does not include Public Relations Society of America]

Gro~lth 721 635 550 500 450 400 368 355 350 350 292 273 250 250 212 200 200 165 150 120 100 90 75 52 62,936

These figures were derived from the 1984 Encyclopedia of Associations. The reader may include or exclude organizations which seem to fit the marketing plan being constructed; addresses of the organizations are also available from the Encyclopedia of Associations; see totals for other organizations in note. 7 Promotion Manager constitutes 3% of job titles in the PRSA Directory. Promotion often designates such job responsibilities as sales promotion, development officer, publicity agent, advance agent and other such titles. Promotion Manager is described by the DoL as someone who: Plans and administers sales policies and programs to foster and prom o t e . . , patronage. Consults newspapers, trade journals, and other publications to learn about contemplated conventions and social functions. Organizes prospect files by listing information, such as names of officials and plans for conventions, to be used for promotional purposes. Directs workers engaged in preparing promotional correspondence with travel bureaus, business and social groups. Confers with department heads to discuss and formulate plans for soliciting business. Contacts executives of organizations to explain services and


Public Relations


facilities o f f e r e d . . , and to solicit their business. Supervises and trains service representatives. Plans and prepares advertising and promotional material and arranges for newspaper and other publicity. Both the CO and the CB list the job title Business and Promotion Agents which is the best match for the DoL title Promotion Manager. The CO lists 20,607 for this title and the CB lists 26,000; 3% would be 618 and 780, respectively. The PRSA Directory random sample produced 3% whose job titles fit the category Manager of Education and Training. Manager, Education and

Training is described by the DoL as one who: Plans, coordinates, and directs personnel training and staff development programs for industrial, commercial, service, or governmental establishment. Confers with management and supervisory personnel in order to determine training needs. Formulates training policies and schedules, utilizing knowledge of identified training needs, company production processes, business systems, or changes in products, procedures, or services. Designates training procedures, utilizing knowledge of effectiveness of such training methods as individual coaching, group instruction, lectures, demonstrations, conferences, meetings, and workshops. Organizes and develops training manuals, reference library, testing and evaluation procedures, multimedia visual aids, and other educational materials. Trains assigned instructors and supervisory personnel in effectiveness techniques for training in both general and specialized areas, such as those concerned with new employees' orientation, specific on-the-job training, apprenticeship programs, sales techniques, health and safety practices, public relations refresher training, promotional development, upgrading, retraining, leadership development, and other such adaptations to changes in policies, procedures and technologies. May coordinate established training courses with technical and professional courses offered by community schools. May screen, test, counsel, and recommend employees for company educational program, or for promotion, or transfer. The PRSA Directory random sample produced 1.5% with job titles of Labor Relations. Manager, Labor Relations is described by the DoL as a person who: Manages labor relations program of establishment. Analyzes text of collective bargaining agreement and develops interpretation of intent, spirit, and terms of contract, to counsel management in development and application of labor relations policies and practices, according to policy formulated by Director, Industrial Relations. Represents management in investigating, answering, and settling grievances, by arranging and scheduling grievance meeting between grieving workers, supervisory and managerial personnel, and Business Representative, Labor Union. Prepares statistical reports of types and frequency of 20

PR Emplo~lnent Growth actions taken concerning grievances, arbitration, mediation, and related labor relations activities, in order to identify problem areas. Verifies adherence to terms of labor contract by monitoring day-to-day implementation of policies concerning wages, hours, and working conditions. Represents management in periodic labor contract negotiations or serves as informational source for such matters as provisions of current contract and significance of proposed changes and by furnishing references documents and statistical data concerning labor legislation, labor market conditions, prevailing union and management practices, wage and salary surveys, and employee benefits programs. May be employed by firm offering labor relations advisory services to either management or labor and be known as Labor-Relations Consul~ tant. A similar and usually senior job title is Director of Industrial Relations. (Titles including the term Industrial Relations constituted less than half of I percentmthree entries--of job titles listed in tile PRSA Directory sample.) Director, Industrial Relations is described by the DoL as one who: Formulates policy and directs and coordinates industrial relations activities of organization. Formulates policy for subordinate managers of departments, such as employment, compensation, labor relations, and employee services according to knowledge of company objectives, government regulations and labor contract terms. Writes directives advising department managers of company policy regarding equal ffmployment opportunities, compensation, and employee benefits. Analyzes wage and salary reports and data to determine competitive compensation plan. Studies legislation arbitration decisions, and collective bargaining contracts to assess industry trends. Consults legal staff to insure that policies comply with federal and state law. Prepares personnel forecast to project employment needs. Writes and delivers presentation to corporate officers or government officials regarding industrial relations policies and practices. The three job titles listed above from the DoL are combined in reports of both the CO and the CB. The CO reports 219,945 Personnel and Labor Relations Managers and the CB reports 226,000 in the same title. The CO reports 422,819 Personnel and Labor Relations Specialists and the CB reports 468,000 Personnel, Training and Labor Relations Specialists. These figures combined give a high of 694,000 from the CB and a low of 642,768 from the CO. If we combine the 3 percent Manager, Education and Training and the 1.5 percent Labor Relations Managers from the PRSA Directory sample for a total 4.5 percent that may be projected from the CO and CB totals, we have among these three job titles a possible high of 31,230 and a low of 28,924 who may be public relations practitioners. Advertising Manager titles constituted 1 percent of the PRSA Directory random sample. Advertising Manager is described by the DoL as someone who: 21

Public Rclatlons Rel~ew Directs sale of display and classified advertising services for a publication. Plans sales campaigns. Consults with department Heads and other officials to plan special campaigns and to promote sale of advertising services to various industry or trade groups. Corresponds with customers relative to advertising rates and policies, or to solicit new business. May select and train new sales personnel. May be designated according to type of advertising sold as Manager, Classified Advertising (Print and Publ.); Manager, Display Advertising, or area or region served as Manager, local advertising; Manager National Advertising. In addition to the job title responsible for selling advertising for a publication, the DoL lists a category of "Advertising Management Occupations." These job titles are "concerned with influencing consumer preferences for goods and services, either as an employee of the organization served or as a member of an agency under contract; managing advertising programs or campaigns; and, in advertising agencies, managing customers' accounts. Occupations concerned with planning and executing artwork are included in" the category. Manager, Advertising is described by the DoL as someone who: Plans and executes advertising policies of organization. Confers with department heads to discuss possible new accounts and to outline new policies or sales promotion campaigns. Confers with officials of newspapers, radio and television stations, billboard advertisers, and advertising agencies to negotiate advertising contracts. Allocates advertising space to departments or products of establishment. Reviews and approves television and radio advertisements before release. Reviews rates and classifications applicable to various types of advertising and provides appropriate authorization. Directs workers in advertising department engaged in developing and producing advertisements. Directs research activities concerned with gathering information or with compilation of statistics pertinent to planning and execution of advertising sales promotion campaigns. May authorize information for publication such as interviews with reporters or articles describing phases of establishment activity. May have responsibility for geographical district or department of establishment represented. May transact business as agent for advertising accounts. May direct preparation of special promotional features. The CO lists only the combined category, "Advertising, Marketing and Public Relations Managers" for a total of 688,875. The CB reports 766,000 for the same combination of titles and 138,000 for the category "Advertising and Related Sales Occupations." Determining the proportion of advertising people in the combined category as described above using the Manhattan Yellow Pages, the proportion of advertisers would be 60 percent or 459,600. Adding the 138,000 to the figure gives 597,600 total advertising personnel in the 1980 U.S. census. Using tile 1 percent figure whose job title includes 22

PR Emplo~Inent Grollth advertising in the PRSA Directory sample, the number of public relations people among those with advertising job titles would be 5,976. Various other job titles may apply to people who perform public relations functions. Of the random sample taken from the PRSA Directory, 11 to 12 percent were nonpublic relations or communication titles. The list with the number in the sample and the approximate percent of the total will give some indication of the range of job titles in the field. Manager, Education and Training N = 25 % of sample = 3 Promotion Manager 24 3 Marketing Research 18 2 Manager, Labor Relations 13 1.5 Advertising Manager 9 1 Sales-Service Representative 5 Exhibit-Display Representative 3 Director, Industrial Relations 3 Publicity 3 Health-Hospital Relations 2 Membership Solicitor 2 Sales-Service Promoter 1 Other titles and the numbers reported by the CB will complete the picture of those who perform, or may perform, public relations responsibilities. The CO reports 49,596 Technical Writers, 87,939 Information Assistants, 94,762 Photographers, 7,616 Business, Commerce and Marketing Teachers, and 2,670 scientific Intelviavers. Discrepancies in the use of terms and job titles between the CB and the DOL and the terms in common use in the industry leave the exact count of people in the field uncertain. Except for the combined title category mentioned above (Marketing Managers) other people in marketing are not counted as a separate category.

Conclusions Clearly, the number of public relations practitioners in the U.S. is far above the widely held figure of 100,000. The minimum number which comprises public relations managers and public relations representatives or specialists is 384,140, based on U.S. Census data. When the more obvious public relations job titles are included--lobbyists, fund raiser, and a reasonable proportion of those in communication, promotion, industrial or labor relations and advertising (determined by the proportion in a sample of the PRSA membership)--the totals are between 438,309 and 554,846. Since the lower figure differs only in respect to numbers based on a reference that uses census data, the larger figure is a reasonably conservative total, accurate for all practical purposes. Such a figure might be a reasonable estimate of the potential for public relations organizations' membership services.

Public Relations Review For product marketing purposes--public relations books and publications as well as specialty advertising, travel services, and the like--the number would be much nearer the two million mark. One additional element needs to be added to a consideration of public relations statistics. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a growth rate for public relations occupations at between 36 and 57 percent over the next five years. If this anticipated growth occurs, the numbers will be in excess of three million in all related occupations. In public relations itself the number will be at one million by 1990. Appendix Census attd other Probable number reported totals practicing PR Job Title High Low High Low Public Relations Manager 222,140 (CB) 199,520 (CO) 222,140 199,520 Public Relations Representative or Specialist 162,000 (CB) 120,037 (CO) 162,000 120,037 Lobbyist 51,150~ 51,150 3,284 b Fund Raiser 3,284 Communication 62,936 13,459 62,936 13,450 Promotion 26,000 (CB) 20,607 (CO) 780 618 Training~Industrial or Labor Relations 694,000 (CB) 642,768 (CO) 31,230 28,924 597,600 c Advertising Manager 5,976 Technical Writers 49,596 (CO) Information 87,939 (CO) Assistants Photographers 94,762 (CO) Business, Commerce, Marketing 7,616 (CO) Teachers Interviewers 2,670 (CO) (scientific) Totals: 2,159,043 1,996,349 539,496 422,689 a. estimated from 3000 per state plus 6,500 reported in Washington, D.C. b. estimated from organizational memberships c. proportion estimated from a mixed category (Advertising, Marketing and Public Relations Managers) by using proportions of each in the Manhattan, New York Business Yellow Pages. CB indicates Census Bureau report of the 1980 census from Public-Use Microdata Samples Tcclmical Documentation. CO indicates the 1980 Census of Occupations, edited by L.V. Temme (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Occupational Research).


P R E m p l o . l ~ n e n t Gro~lLh References 'Dictionary of Occupational Titles, Fourth Edition, (Washington, D.C.: U.S, Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, 1977). "The Census Bureau data base contains responses to the long form of the 1980 census questionnaire. The microdata file is a stratified sample of the U.S. population, which is 19.4% ofoll long-form households. "[he method employed in the present research was a one-in-onethousand sample. The sample was thus 226,000, based on a U.S. population of 226,000,000. The chance sampling error was calculated at p = < .001, as follows: tr% =

p \


tJ.N - n N - 1

where p = homogeneity of .50 a n d q = p - 1(.50) n = 226,000 N = 226,000,000

3Paul V. Peterson, "Survey Indicates No Change in '83 Journalism Enrollment" Journalism

Educator 39 (Spring 1984), pp. 3-10. 4"[he Clerk of the U.S. ttouse of Representatives, Office of Records and Registrations, reported 6,500 lobbyists registered at the end of May 1984. All 50 states require lobbyists to register, though different requirements are used. A sample of nine states yielded an average number of lobbyists registered at 1,023. The states in the sample were: California Florida Georgia Kentucky Maryland

800 3,999 550 587 555

New York Oregon Texas Wisconsin

1,202 600 616 301

5A random sample of entries in the 1983-84 PRSA Directory produced a sample of 875, which yielded a chance sampling error of .01. Job titles were matched with those listed in the 1980 Census of Occupations. Results: 34% of titles included the term "public relations"; 27% of titles included a management designation, such as president, vice president, owner, etc.; 27% of titles included the term "communication"; 11-12% of titles indicated specific responsibilities as those listed elsewhere in this research report. ~Working Press of The Nation lists media employees by five categories. Estimates of numbers for the five categories were determined by examining every tenth entry and counting the nonduplicatcd editors' and reporters' names. Proportions and projected totals for each job category are as follows:

Count Newspaper editors and reporters Magazine editors Radio and television reporters Feature writers and photographers House publication editors

61,700 5,000 9,500 2,000 3,500

x x x x x

Proportion estimated (unduplicated) .66 1 1.5 1 1

= = = = =

Included in sample

40,722 5,000 14,250 2,000 3,500 Total 65,472

Using the 65,742 as a sample of all media people, the 3,500 house publication editors were assumed to represent the proportkm of public relations people among all editors and reporters as reported in the Census Bureau figures. "[he 3,500 is approximately 5% of the 65,475 reported in WPN. ttence, 5% of the Census Bureau figure of 269,000 yields 13,450 as the projected number of public relations practitioners among the 269,000 editors and reporters nationally. ;Public relations organizations and marketing organizations listed by Encyclopedia of Associations:


Public Relations


Public Relations: Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) Council for the Advancement and Support of Education Bank Marketing Association Public Relations Student Society of America American Society of ttospital Public Relations Society of Consumer Affairs Professionals in Business National School Public Relations Association College Sports Information Directors of America Religious Public Relations Council International Public Relations Association CIO Editors and Public Relations Council Baptist Public Relations Association Library Public Relations Council Construction Equipment Advertising and P.R. Council Agricultural Relations Council Academy of ltospital Public Relations Railroad Public Relations Association American Jewish Public Relations Association Chemical Public Relations Association Pan Pacific Public Relations Federation Marketing: (major organizations) American Marketing Association (AMA) Direct Mail Marketing Association ltome Economists in Business International Marketing Institute Marketing Research Association Marketing Communication Association

Members 11,000 10,500 4,500 4,500 2,100 2,000 1,500 1,200 800 760 700 315 300 250 250 2O0 175 130 120 50 Total4---T1-,3~ 42,000 4,454 3,100 2,501 1,600 1,200 To tal~~-,-,-,-,-~, ~

Foundation for l'ubllc Relations Research and Education The Foundation is an i n d e p e n d e n t , nonprofit organization, established by m e m b e r s of the Public Relations Society of America in 1956, to foster, sponsor, and conduct basic research a n d s t u d y in the general field of public relations. For more information about the Foundation contact: Foundation for Public Relations Research and Education Room 1816 310 Madison Ave. N e w York, N e w York 10017

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Dr. Dorothy Gregg (Chairman), Research & Forecasts, Inc. A n d r e w S. Edson, Padilla & Spear, Inc. Charles G. Newton, Jr., Burson-Marsteller Betsy A n n Plank, Illinois Bell Telephone