Quaternary research in France

Quaternary research in France

,QUATERNARY RESEARCH 1, 369-388 (1971) Quaternary Research H. ALIMEN Received Deccmbcr Between the two wars, studies on the Quaternary were s...

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H. ALIMEN Received


Between the two wars, studies on the Quaternary were scarcely in favor in France. However. from the beginning of the 19th century recent terrains had held the attention of our country’s eminent geologists, and later that of the prehistorians, and starting in the 1850s these terrains were given the first chronological classifications based, on the one hand, on the evolution of Mammals. and on the other hand, on the succession of civilizations. Then came the prehistoric studies on the great glacial advances that characterize the Quaternary Era, but studies on the French glaciers were not to come into their own until the masterly work of the Austrian geologists A. Penck and E. Briickner (1901-1905). The prehistorians returned to the forefront in France with H. Breuil, who did considerable work over the course of the 20th century. At the same time, French geographers took over an area that the geologists had then more or less abandoned, at first centering their work on



‘7’ 2, 1970

the study forms, devoting themselves, from the 1930s and 1940s on, to analyzing the processes of the genesis of forms, particularly those of the Quaternary epoch, and to mapping their observations, thus giving a considerable boost to geomorphology. The geologists, however, were returning to the study of Quaternary. Some of them, who made up the unfortunately too small core group of “Quaternarists,” oriented all their activities toward this study, while most other researchers, though preferring to study many geological periods, still reserved a part of their research to the study of recent terrains. By their general orientation and scientific training some tended toward a primarily statigraphical point of view, while others were geared more toward paleontology, laboratory study of sediments, paleoclimatology. Quaternary chronology, or geological cartography. It was also from about 1930 on that Quaternary studies began to benefit from the contributions of new techniques. Several were tested outside of France before being used here. Photogrammetrp, which adds aerial photographs to on-terrain ohservations, provides a valuable system of points of reference, that is a means of control in dealing with forms and structures. Paleopedology allows 11s to characterize generative alterations of early soils. It remains closely dependent on classical pedology, which follows an independent course. Sedimentary petrography is becoming increasingly impor-

1 Directeur de Recherches, Laboratoire de GCologie du Quaternaire C.N.R.S., 92, Bellevue, France. 1 Editor’s note: This comprehensive and very useful survey of current French research on the Quaternary appeared originally in French in IIIformatiom Scicrztifiques Francaiscs (No. 3, 1969, pp. 125-142). The text has been updated and a bibliography has been added by Dr. Alimen for reprinting in @ratrv~~.av~ Rrseauck; the text was translated into English by Mr. Ned Dubin of the University of Washington. Submission of original manuscripts similarily summarizing Quaternary work in various parts of the world will be welcomed by the Editor. 369



tant in its many aspects: the study of coarse elements, blocks and boulders, and the study of fine particles, sands of silts. It is a matter of granulometric, morphoscopic, and, if possible, morphometric studieqof the statistical study of minerals extracted from fine particles, of the determination of clayey minerals by x-ray diffractometry, differential thermic analysis, and thermoponderal analysis. Here geology goes hand in hand with mineralogy. Paleopalynology reconstructs the image of vanished vegetation by means of pollen preserved in sediments. It must maintain close contact with the palynology practiced by botanists in order to interpret the significance of vegetal associations of the past correctly in the light of present associations. In 1949 very interesting perspectives were opened on the study of the Quaternary by radiochronology, with the work of American researchers on carbon-14 isotopes supplying a chronology for the recent Quaternary (as far back as 70,000 years). The potassium/argon method furnishes the dates of the more ancient Quaternary strata, dating back from 1.5 to 3 million years. Other isotopic measurements, notably rubidium/ strontium and thorium-230/uranium-234, are being put to use in dating intermediate epochs, but have not yet been sufficiently tested. Variations in temperature, first measured in the United States (1955)) have been uncovered through the study of oxygen isotopes (‘“O/‘*O). Th e study of the variations in the terrestrial magnetic field, based on the residual magnetism of rocks, now brings an important contribution to the study of the most ancient Quaternary formations, because of the successive upsetting of the earth’s magnetic field. As for prehistory, although this science is. in many of its approaches, clearly separate from the study of the Quaternary, in its other areas the two are so intimately bound that many Quaternary geologists are also prehistorians.

Quaternary research thus appears to be the crossroads where many disciplines meet and are joined. It is the responsibility of the Quaternary geologist or of the geomorphologist who undertakes to study the Quaternary to elaborate a synthesis of the results obtained from such diverse approaches. It appears totally impossible to us to give even a slightly accurate notion of the studies being carried out at present by French Quaternary researchers, taking as our frame the many centers, institutes, and laboratories at which these researchers are based. The first reason is that the essential work is carried out in the field; another reason is that, for a single organism, work on the Quaternary is often dispersed over as wide a geographical area as it is over many branches of science. Moreover, few laboratories, in France or abroad. are solely devoted to Quaternary research. On the other hand, one might almost say that every geological laboratory or every school of geography at the university level is likely to have one or severa researchers working on the Quaternary. Finally, in those institutions not a part of the national education system, such as ORSTOM (Office of Foreign Scientific and Technical Research) or INRA (National Institute of Agronomic Research) or BRGM (Bureau of Geological and Mining Research), some researchers are oriented primarily or secondarily towards Quaternary studies. At the end of this article we shal1 therefore supply a list of some laboratories, officially specializing, totally or partially, in Quaternary research, followed by a list of institutions where research of more or less importance is presently being carried on in this area, although this second list will not be exhaustive. Moreover, this very separation is somewhat artificial, since some of the laboratories on the second list are undertaking important research on the Quaternary, such as the Laboratory of Dynamic Geology or the Geographical Institute of the Univer-



sity of Paris, the Geological Laboratory or the Geographical Institute of the University of Strasbourg, and several others. With the exception of some isolated researchers, or researchers associated with a laboratory only vaguely engaged in Quaternary research, the names of the researchers cited in the text will be assigned a number referring to these lists. Only works which are very recent or now in progress will be taken into consideration. I. FIELD


The Quaternary era takes much of its individuality from the exceptional development of glaciers and the pulsations they underwent. The zones now called the temperate and the arctic and antarctic zones are profoundly marked by the great Quaternary glaciations. On the other hand, in the intertropical areas, although glaciers did appear on the highest summits, the overall history of these territories is dominated by the alternation of pluvial and dry periods. Moreover, scattered throughout the continents and oceans the volcanism, that had great intensity during the Tertiary, has had important manifestations in the Quaternary, as have tectonic phenomena. Finally, the deposits on the littorals and on the continental platform have registered, through the oscillations in the level of the seas, the double incidence of eustatic variations, related to the retention or release of water in the immense glacial caps, and of the rising or sinking movements of the shores, related to tectonic phenomena. These diverse conditions will guide our exposk. elta.ternary Formations Great Glaciutions

in the Area

of the

Few French researchers are studying the Quaternary of the arctic regions: A. Cailleux (40), J. Corbel,3 J. Malaurie (36), N. 3 J. Corbel

was killed

in an accident

in 1970.




Feederoff (50)) G. Barbaroux (31) ; or of the antarctic regions : P. Bellair (40) and J. Nougier (40, 77). The great inland ice that covered a large part of the continents of the Northern Hemisphers is largely studied by the geologists of the countries in question. Few French studies therefore have reference to these areas, but we must mention A. Godard ( 12) for his research in Scotland. Glacial and related formations in all the mountainous regions of France and southern Europe are the object of many French investigations. In the French Alps, in addition to F. Bourdier’s (2 ; thesis we must mention the work of the following geologists, currently in progress : on glacial deposits and the alluvia of the Rhc?ne and its tributaries, A. Gigout (34), A. Bonnet (25)) M. Contini (7), and E. Bonifay (21) ; on stratigraphical, and palynological research, Linnick Brun (39) : those oriented toward sedimenAnnie Martin’s ( 51) tologY f especially study of clays and fluvio-glacial deposits, and M. Salveyre’s (47) studies on the Quaternary filling of the Conflent valley (Villefranche basin). G. Monjuvent ( 16) has arrived at some precise information on the absolute age of certain moraines (carbon-14 method ) . Also gemorphological studies, notably by Y. Bravard (15), R. Vivian (15), M. Ricq (15), M. Gidon (16). and E. Steinfatt (16). P. Gabert’s ( 5) recent thesis on the south slopes of the Italian Alps gives a synthesis of geomorphological data relating to the western plains of the P6 Valley and their foothills, while that of J. Demangeot (30) deals with the geomorphology of the Adriatic Abruzzi, combining the classical methods of geomorphology with ideas originating in geophysics, prehistory, and sedimentology. As for the Pyrenees, H. Alimen (1) puhlished a geological monograph on the fluvioglacial formations of the Bigorre. while the geographers of the University of Bordeaux,



picking up the geomorphological investigations of F. Taillefer (61)) were pursuing the study of highland deposits in the central and western Pyrenees [P. Barr&e (S)] and of the relief and soils of Aquitaine [H. Enjalbert (S)]. Old earth studies of the central Pyrenees foothills with a pedological and geological slant are now in progress with the research of M. Icole (4) and in the more local work of J. C. Begon (44). The study of clays in Quaternary sediments, the objective of an early collaboration between H. Alimen (4) and S. Caillere, has been taken up again by M. Icole (4). Some young researchers under the direction of J. Tricart (57) are undertaking a study of a few Pyrenees valleys (the Adour, Arros, and Touch). Lastly, under F. Taillefer’s (61) and G. Veirs’s (61) direction a detailed geomorphological study of the recent formations of the eastern Pyrenees is being carried out with the use of aerial photography. In Aquitaine (mid and lower Adour basin) the work of Cl. Thibault (1) brings together the stratigraphical and sedimentological study of alluvia and silts and a study of their archeological content. In the Massif Central, not important studies of glacial deposits have been undertaken recently. On the other hand, the study of the early Quaternary (Villafrancian) and of its chronology, the traces of cold climate found there and its palynological flora give rise to the publications of P. Bout (12). Annick Brun’s (39) research aims at a synthesis of stratigraphical, sedimentological, and palynological points of view on the Mont Dore region. While L. Gachon’s (13) work bridges morphogenesis and pedogenesis for the Quaternary of Limagne, that of J. Moinereau (44) brings to bear both geology and pedology. J Tourenq (40) is pursuing sedimentological investigations on the alluvia of the Upper Loire and the Allier. A. Rude1 (12), by a study of diggings in the area of Clermont-Ferrand, puts forward some phenomena of subsidence

during the Quaternary. Recent volcanism is the object of research by L. Glangeaud (39), R. Brousse (52), R. Letolle (39), J. L. CheminCe (39), A. Rude1 (12), and F. Cohn (19). Potassium/argon dating has established the most ancient Quaternary formations of the Massif Central, also paleontologically defined by the succession of mammalian fauna. Finally, studies on the inversion of the earth’s magnetic field have helped establish the beginnings of the Quaternary in the Massif Central [Research by A. Roche (39) and C. Bobier (39), actuated by L. Glangeaud 1. In the Jura, glacial and other Quaternary formations are being studied by J. Tricart and his students, the Quaternary (57) deposits of the Saone Valley by G. Montjuvent (16), following the work of A. Journaux (lo), and glacial deposits of the Vosges by N. Theobald (7) and the school of J. Tricart (57 ) The so-called periglacial phenomena, which leave traces of the climatic rigor of glacial periods in sediments, are inspiring much research, particularly at the Geomorphological Center of the CNRS of Caen, directed by A. Journaux (10). We must also mention, among many others, the observations of A. Cailleux (40)) H. Bertouille (40)) P. Gabert (5)) J. Masseport (15), Mireille Ters (36), P. Horemans (44)) Henriette Alimen (4), Y. Guillien and J. Tricart (57), who have (3Jl described polygonal soils, wedge-shaped fissures, “soft” boulders, “big boulders,” etc., as well as the observations of all those involved in the study of periglacial breaches, for example Y. Guillien (3) in France and E. de Vaumas in Cyprus. The study of loess and silts may be classified in the area of periglacial studies, at least in our regions. There are many interesting loess formations in France that have given rise to some important studies, some of these already rather old, such as that of F. Bordes (1) in the Somme and P. Wernert



(58) in Alsace, which aimed principally at establishing a chronology of the loess based on palentology, prehistory. and paleopedology. These were followed by sedimentological studies. such as that of B. Brajnikov (39) and A. Motamed (39 ) , which open the way to today’s work. A special volume of the Memoirs of the Geological Society of France, recently published, is devoted to the loess and silts of the Paris basin; among the authors of this volume we mention M. Lautridou (IO), F. Bourdier (Z), Cl. Lechevalier (Rouen) , and the pedologists M. Jamagne (Laon) and N. Fedoroff (SO). J. Guicharcl (1 j and Cl. Thibault (1) are investigating the silts of southwest France ; E. Bonifay (21) and H. Alimen and collaborators (4), those of the southeast. J. SommC (,18) is working with loess in the area of Lille: J. Puisdgur (14) has taken up loess in Alsace, which was the subject of P. Wernert’s (58) thesis. The fluvial terraces of nonenglaciated areas gave rise to very early research. which has not been discontinued today. Mireille Ters (36)) C. L. Markus ( 36 ) , F. Bourdier (2), and J. P. Michel (40) are studying the alluvia of the Seine and its affluents ; F. Bourdier (2) and R. Agache (Abbeville), the terraces of the Somme. A morphological study of the south Paris basin was the subject of J. Gras’s thesis (32) The alluvia of the Loire basin are being researched by M. Gruet (prehistorical stratigraphy), by F. Ottmann (31) and L. Berthois (55) (sedimentologyj in the Lower Loire, and by P. Horemans (44) and J. C. Yvard in the middle Loire. ,4. Guilcher (36) and his collaborators have suppled us with new data on the morphological evolution of the Breton valleys. As for the rivers flowing from the Pyrenees or the Alps, their history is so bound to that of the glaciers that we have already mentioned the principal researchers devoted to studying them. Let us still cite the work of L. Rieucau (36) on the Garonne as a whole, of J. Barriere (25)




and collaborators on the lower Rhone and Languedoc (stratigrapny and pedology) , of H. de Lumley (23) on the alluvia of the eastern Pyrenees (stratigraphy and prehistory), of E. Bonifay (21) on the alluvia of Provence, and of N. Federoff (50) on the calcareous incrustations, their genesis and their chronology, of Mediterranean southern France. In Corsica, following F. Ottmann’s (31) work on littoral and nearby Auvial formations, Odette Conchon (4) is studying glacial, fluvio-glacial and torrential deposits, while, in a more narrow field, Dominique Loye (43) is focusing on the littoral formation of the area around Orbino. From the geomorphological standpoint, the work of Camile Grelou-Orsini (36)) following that of A. Rondeau (Nanterre), will give a place to the geomorphological study of the Quaternary. Many investigators emphasize the recent deformations that have affected certain regions of France, but we must bear in mind that except for pronounced subsidence in a few areas (Alsace, Limagne), neotectonic phenomena are minor. F. Ellenberger (Faculty of Orsay) and M. Gottis (9) have described the interplay of faults in the Sarbonnais : Ch. Pomerol (40), neotectonic indications in the Paris region ; J. Somme (IS j, Quaternary action near Lille ; J. Goguel (33)) neotectonics in the Alps ; Henriette Alimen (4), neotectonics in the Pyrenees; and M. J. Graindor (Laboratory of the College de France, Bellevue j , neotectonits in the American massif. The Mediterranean regions outside of France have attracted many researchers. In Morocco, work in the Maghreb has progressed remarkably, with such geologists as G. Choubert, Anne Faure-Mm-et (Paris j , such geomorphologists as J. Dresch (36 j, F. Joly (36), R. Raynal (57 j, and prehistorians such as P. Biberson (3 1. Although most of the researchers in Morocco seem at present oriented toward other tasks, the



French presence, Xi far as Quaternary Both groups emphasize the presence of research goes, is maintained by the geomorFrench scientists in the study of the Quaterphology-geology-pedology team of G. Beaunary in the lands surrounding the Mediterdet (36, 72), G. Maurer (36), and A. ranean. Ruellan (74). \Ve cannot omit the studies on the karst W:e do not know if the recent work in in the regions touched by the great glaciaTunisia in geomorphology [R. Coque (IS) ] tions, where we find geomorphologists [J. and geology [A. Jauzein (43)] will be folNicod (S)], geologists [B. Gize (44)], and lowed up. Quaternary study has been scarsedimentologists (Ph. Renault) working in cer in :\lgeria than in other areas of the the subterranean laboratory of the CNRS of Maghreb. Still we must make note of the Moulis (Ariitge j , work of J. Hilly (29) and R. Guiraud Quatevnary Formatiofzs of the Intertropical (Nice) and of the pedologists J. Boulaine Regions (SO ) and P. Dutil ( ChYons-sur-Marne) . As to Quaternary studies of the Iberian The common denominator of the interpeninsula, G. Zbyszewski (Lisbon) is investropical regions is that they have all undergone an alternation of rainy and dry periods tigating the Portuguese terraces, and H. Nonn (57‘) and R. Lhenaff (36), neotectonduring the course of the Quaternary. They its. We find French investigators working may be subdivided into three zones. on problems of neotectonics in central and 1. Desert regions. Much work has been southern Italy, principally R. Neboit (12), done on the Quaternary of the Sahara. M. Chardon (S), J. Demangeot (30), J. C. the research in the northwest Sahara of Bousquet (35). P. Gueremy (36)) and a Henriette Alimen‘s (4) team (Henriette team headed by L. Glangeaud (39). Al&en, J. Chavaillon, Nicole Chavaillon, J. J. Dufaure (36 j is at work in the Francoise Beucher) encompasses the study Balkan peninsula. Studies of the intracarof the entire area by means of diverse appathic Auvio-glacial formations in Romania proaches : stratigraphy, sedimentology, pre[H. Alimen (4)] and the Villafrancian history, palynology, radiochronology. Solange Duplaix (39) has collaborated with this deposits of Oltenia (Romania) [L. Casta (4)], are being pursued in conjunction with team on the study of heavy minerals. The stratigraphical, sedimentological, and pedoRomanian geologists. logical work of G. Conrad (35)) extending In the Near East, an area (in the opinion into the Central Sahara, completes this of E. de Vaumas) untouched by glaciation but acted upon by cryogenic phenomena, group. In his geomorphological investigations on several studies in the Quaternary are being carried on by French researchers: J. Dresch the Atakor Massif, in the Hoggar, P. Rognon (36) has concentrated much on the (36) in Syria and P. Sanlaville (66) in Quaternary, collaborating with sedimentoloLebanon. Two cooperative research progists, prehistorians. and palynologists. grams have been created by the CNRS: Madeleine Van Campo (26) has played a one, under the direction of E. Bonifay (21), to study and correlate the Mediterranean large part among these palynologists, her research taking over that of P. Quezel and Quaternary : the other, directed by Denise Ferembach (37)) primarily interested in A. Pons, who are at present engaged in studying the prehistoric civilizations of the more purely botanical studies. P. Dutil’s (Ch;lons-sur-Marne) pedological study of Asiatic Near East, but with a geologist, the Hoggar is still in progress. pedologist, paleontologist, paleoanthropoloThere is much beil7n done on the eolian rist and palynoloeist included in the team.





*-3/ 3

FIG. 1. Middle Quaternary, Oued Far&s-Mont of Ougarta (Sahara). Prehistorian and geologist collaborate in establishing the chronology of the alluvia. To the right of the peak we can see a prehistoric seg-ment (acheulean nucleus) that has just been cleared. (Photo by H. Alimen.)

sands of the Sahara. After the primarily geomorphological work of the former Algerian geographer R. Capot-Rey and the primarily sedimentological work of P. Bellair ( 40 ) , we must mention the many researchers who have worked in these fields: H. :\limen (4). H. Trichet (43)) C. Verlaque, a student of R. Capot-Rey, and the theoretical and experimental work of the laboratory of Lower Atmospheric Physics of the CNRS at Bellevue (P. Queney, P. de FPlice). P. M. Vincent (33, now at Cotonou, Dahomey ) has produced an important work on the Quaternary volcanoes of the western and central Tibesti. His research covered the volcanoes of the Hoggar. French research is currently in progress in other desert zones of the globe: J. Tri-

cart (57) and M. Mainguet (57) in the Peruvian desert, J. Dresch (36) and P. (36) (geomorphology ) and G. Birot Conrad (35) and J. C. Fontes (39) (geology) in the south of the Desert of Lut (Iran’) under a cooperative research program of the CNRS. 2. Dry intertropical regions. The research of J. Tricart (57) and his collaborators on West Africa has been continued by the geologists and geographers of the University of Dakar. Although the latter have been back in France for some time, their work in West Africa is still going on, concentrating on the Quaternary of the Mauritanian Sahel and surrounding regions. The team is composed of Suzanne DaveauRibeiro (Lisbon), P. Richel (68) and Ph. Chamard (68) (geornorphology), P.



FIG. 2. Late gist


Quaternary, Saoura. above Beni-Abbk (Sahara). in the study of eolian formations (dunes, ridges).

Elouard (19). H, Faure (4, and 39) and L. HPbrard (69) (geology), and P. Biberson (3) (prehistory ) . They seek to establish a Quaternary chronology for this region and arrive at a correlation between the sedimentary deposits of the sunken coastal region and the forms and deposits of the raised and sculpted interior regions. They have already obtained important results. On the periphery of this team’s work, we have the geomorphological work of J. Cabot (49 bis) on the Logone. Chad, Nigeria, and the Sudan, that of J. Gallois (36) on the interior Niger delta and its banks, that of J. P. Blankc (57) on the Niger Valley below Kabara (Mali), and that of R. Rochette (15) on the geography of the MaouriFogha Dallols (Niger). In geology, we have such men as F. Tessier (21 j on the laterite of Senegal and the Ivory Coast, R. Tompette (69) on the Quaternary of Mauritania

Physicist, (Photo

geologist, and geomorpholoby H. Alimen.)

and, subordinately. J. Sougy (21) on the Quaternary of the Zemmur and M. Taieb (4) on the southern section of Mauritania11 Adrar and the Idjibiten (Mauritiania). Also, G. Millot and his collaborators (58) are pursuing a study on the process of alteration. Finally, let us mention the important pedological as well as geological work of the scientists of the Center of ORSTOM in Dakar (57) and Fort I,amy (70). In the area of geology-pedology their staff includes G. nocquier (70’), whose work covers Niger, Senegal, Chad, Gabon, Upper Volta, and the Congo ; M. Gavaud (67), S. Pereira-Barreto (67), J. A. Pias (70), RI. Servant (70)) and L. R. Fauck (57) ; in sedimentology, P. DuPont (70), who is studying the Chad Basin ; and in palynology, J. Maley (26, 70), who, having worked on the geology and prehistory of the second cataract of the Nile, is now devoting him-



self to West African palynology. Before we leave West Africa, let us make special mention of Th. Monod’s countless field trips, rich in observations in all areas, especially geology and prehistory. In East Africa, Ethiopia, because of the high altitude of its plateaus, lies on the border between the dry and the humid intertropical areas. Three French teams are currently investigating the Ethiopian Quaternary. One of these, under the auspices of the laboratory of the CNRS of Bellevue (1), is studying the Awash Valley from a geological (M. Taieb) , prehistoric (J. Chavaillon and Nicole Chavaillon), and palynological (Raymonde Bonnefille) point of view. Another, studying the Afar Depression (eastern Ethiopia), is most interested in the question of volcanism and neotectonits (a cooperative research program of the CSRS with H. Tazieff (39), H. Faure (4, 39) and collaborators. The third, associated with an American and a Kenyan expedition, is at work in the Omo (southern Ethiopia). It was organized by the late C. Arambourg 4 and includes J. Chavaillon (4) in stratigraphy, sedimentology, and prehistory, Y. Coppens (38) in paleontology, and Raymonde Bonnefille (4 j in palynology. 3. Htmzid intcrtl-apical vcgiorts. There is a vast amount of research on these regions, but as it is more the work of geomorphologists and pedologists than of geologists, only a brief resumCwill be given. There is much work in South America by the school of geomorphology of Strasbourg, mider the direction of J. Tricart (57) : Monique Mainguet-Michel in Venezuela ; J. Tricart and collaborators in Chile; J. Tricart, 0. Dollfus, P. Taltasse, H. Vogt, and E. Motti in Peru: J. Tricart on the Pacific coast of Panama: and 0. Dollfus in Brazil. The geologist F. MPgard (25) has argued for a surrection of the Peruvian Andes at the beginning of the Quaternary. A co1 C. Arambourg

died in 1970.




operative research program to study epigenie movements in the Andes chain brings together geologists [M. Mattauer (25)) J. Debelmas ( 16) ] and geographers [ 0. Dollfus (57) and P. Birot’s (36) students]. Finally, there is Y. Beigbeder’s (36) work on the upper Rio Branco, in Brazil. In Central America, a predominatly archeological cooperative research program is studying the Quaternary of the Tampico area. In Africa, geomorphologists are carrying on investigations in Gabon [J. Vogt (33 ) 1, North Cameroon [J. Hervieu (78) 1, the Congo [J. Vogt (33)], and Ivory Coast [G. Rougerie (36), along with the geologist P.L. Vincent (Contonou) 1. There are pedologists interested in the Quaternary in Cameroon [F. Hombel (51) and G. Sieffermann (54) 1, Guinea [R. Maignien (54) 1, and Ivory Coast [G. Rougerie (‘36) and N. Leneuf (54) 1. Seclinientologists, for example, J. P. Taste1 (63). are working around Abidjan. The geological school of Strasbourg, specializing in alterations, is represented in the person of HklPne-Anne Paquet (5s)) studying the geochemistry of soils and alterations. In Madagascar, R. Battistini (76) and P. Le Bourdiec (76) are conducting morphological studies, and J. Hervieu (78) and P. Segalen (54) are working in sedimentology and pedology. There are fewer French researchers in Asia. One can cite the work of the geomorphologist 0. Dollfus (57) on Quaternary glaciations in Kashmir, of the geologist J. P. Charbonnel (39) on the Quaternary in Cambodia, and of E. Saurin (75), who, in collaboration with J. P. Charbonnel, seeks to clarify the conditions of formation and the age of laterite in Cambodia and has also demonstrated recent tectonic movement in Indochina. There are two cooperative research programs of the CNRS studying the Quaternary, one in the region of Nepal with 3.M. Remy (25) in geology and 0. Dollfus



(57) in geomorphology, and the other in 14fghanistan with the geologist G. Mennessier (Amiens) and the geographer M. de Planhol (54). The Littoral

and Submwine

Q uaternary

To set forth the research on littoral and submarine formations would entail lengthy discussion. We can do no more than summarize them. The littoral itself is currently under active investigation in France. Above all there is the work of A. Guilcher (361, whose research has concentrated on the western littorals of France. To these we add the work of J. Pinot (36) on the Brittany coast, Mireille Ters (36) on the coast of Vend&e and the Channel, H. Elhai on the Normandy littoral, ,4. Prenant (8) on Gascony, and F. Verger (42) on the marshlands along the French coast. Under the direction of A. Riv&e (51) on the one hand and of L. Dangeard (11) and F. Ottmann (31) on the other hand, sedimentological investigations of the littorals along the Channel and Atlantic Ocean are in progress. The Mediterranean shores are the seat of important studies in which geology and prehistory are of mutual assistance. Let us mention E. Bonifay (21), J. de Lumley (23), J. Iaworski (Monaco), W. D. Nesteroff (39), and J. Cl. Miskowsky (40). A sedimentological study of these shores is in progress under the direction of Christiane Duboul-Razavet (47). Studies of the continental shelf and the ocean floor can be carried on with the help of several ships equipped by the CNRS : the “Catherine-Laurence,” assigned to the laboratory of Villefranche-sur-Mer, directed by L. Glangeaud, and the “Kornog,” assigned to the group of researchers led by A. Guilcher. The geological laboratory of Caen, under the impetus of L. Dangeard, is also pursuing undersea research. Quaternarists interested in underwater prehistoric remains have a boat at their disposal, the

“Archeonaut,” equipped by the Office of Excavations of the Ministry of Cultural Affairs. G. Boillot (38) is conducting Quaternary research in a vast section of the Channel, and P. Hommeril (ll), in the zone extending from the lower Normandy littoral to the Anglo-Norman archipelago. An interesting lead has just begun uncovered by L. Berthois (55) and collaborators through the study of a “carrot” taken from off Pointe du Raz. The granulometric variations, temperature variations (016/018 method), and variations in percentage of potassium and thorium (gamma spectrometry) were established for the sample, and from the combined results a chronology of these formations (recent Quaternary) was deduced. L. Glangeaud (39) and his students are actively researching the Gulf of Gascony and the Mediterranean, where they have uncovered important neotectonic phenomena. With the help of the “Archeonaut,” E. Bonifay (21) is undertaking a geological exploration of the prehistoric caves off the Mediterranean coasts. Outside of continental France we list H. Norm’s (57) work on the coastal regions of Galicia, and that of F. Ottmann (31) on the littoral formations of Corsica; in Morocco, the syntheses obtained by M. Gigout (34), G. Lecointre (33). P. Biberson (3), and G. Choubert and Anne Faure-Muret. G. Lecointre (33) has extended his prospecting to Mauritania and the Canary Islands. In Senegal, the determination of the age of the littorals by carbon-14 and of the correspomling paleotemperatures has led H. Fame (-+, and 39) and P. Elouard (39) to some interesting results. The ,4lgerian continental margin is the subject of a study on the part of L. LeClaire. actuated by Professor R. Laffitte of the Museum of Natural History. B. K&-audren (45) is studying the shores of the eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Turkey), and E. de Vaumas, those of Crete and



around Tripoli. Suzette Gillet (59) seeks to establish the paleography of Eastern Europe in the early Quarternary. hmong the French participating in the study of the South American coasts we have R. Paskoff in Chile, F. Ottmann (31) in \“enezuela and Rio de la Plata, and J. Deply (33) in Peru. R. Battistini (76) is studying the coasts of Madagascar, and A. Guilcher (36)) A. Moign, and L. Barbaroux are studying the coasts of Spitzberg. II.


Although paleoanthropology has its place in Quaternary studies, it appears too closely related to anthropology for us to do more than cite a few names among the French researches in this field. J. Piveteau (45), who deals with Neanderthal Man, C. Arambourg, who has described Pithecanthropus fossils and recently uncovered some three million-year-old remains of Australopithecus in the Omo, and E. Patte (48) are all geologists by training. H. V. Vallois (37), Denise Ferembach (37)) Nicole Heintz-PetitMaire and Mme. E. Genet-Varcin are all anthropologists who have turned to paleoanthropology. In mammalian paleontology we cite J. Piveteau (45). who devoted a large section of his treatise on paleontology to Quaternary mammals ; C. Arambourg, a specialist in North African fauna and the Villafrancian fauna of the Omo (Ethiopia) ; Y. Coppens (38). who is studying the Probostides as well as some other groups, especially in Chad and the Omo ; and E. Heintz (38), who is specializing in the ungulates of the European Villafrancian. C. Guth (48) has taken up the systematic excavation of the \‘illafrancian strata in S&n&ze and Chillac, and E. Bonifay (21) in Massif Central; Marie-Francoise Bonifay (21) , following a thesis on the carnivora of southeastern Fance, is investigating the carnivores and other mammalian groups of other fossil




beds, Also worthy of mention is F. Prat (l), who has given us a study of the Equides of the French Quaternary and many studies of the fauna of the late Quaternary ; E. Patte (48)) whose most recent work has been on the ’ Asinians of the French Quaternary; and J. ,Bouchud (37), who after studying carnivora has. extended his research into other areas, especially reindeer in France and fauna associated with Palestinian Neanderthals. Among the first work of young scientists, Mlle. F. Delpech (1) has dealt with the fauna of the southwest of France and Magdalenian industries, and C. Suire (1) with the fauna of the late Quaternary in Dordogne. CCcile MourerChauvirC (19) specializes in the birds of the French Quaternary, and J. MahC (Tananarive, College of Sciences) in Lemurians and tortoises in the subfossil beds of West Madagascar. There are now Frenchmen specializing in the study of Quaternary micromammals: JChaline (14) has just completed a thesis on the Rodents of the French Atlantico-BoreaI Quaternary, J. Michaus (24) is working along similar lines in southern France, and J. J. Jaeger (25) h as undertaken a study of the Rodents of Morocco and Algeria. The Mollusca of our continental formations have aroused great interest thanks to the work of J. J. PuissCgur (14), while marine Mollusca are the domain of P. Mars (20) and G. Lecointre (33)) on the French Mediterranean and on the Atlantic coast of Africa from Morocco to Senegal, respectively. The Diatoms of lacustrine sediments are being studied by Aline Elrlich (40, presently with the Israeli Geological Servicej in the Massif Central and the Sahara, by Francoise Fournier-Gasse (4) also in the Quaternary formations of the Massif Central and in Ethiopia as well, and by Simone Servant (70) in the Chadian Quaternary formations. The palynological study of Quaternary



sediments is developing in relation to stratigraphical research. In the laboratory headed by F. Bordes (l), Marie-Madeleine Paquereau is investigating the sediments of the southwest of France, most often in conjunction with the prehistoric excavations of that laboratory. Under Henriette Alimen (4) and M. Van Campo’s (26) direction, Fancoise Beucher is studying the pollens in several Quaternary levels of the northwest Sahara, and Raymonde Bonnefille the pollens in the successive Quaternary layers of the Awash Valley (central Ethiopia) and the Omo (southern Ethiopia), in conjunction with studies conducted by the laboratory on the Quaternary of Bellevue (4) in these regions. In the palynological laboratory directed by Madeleine Van Campo (26)) the Directress herself is studying pollens from the Quaternary of the Sahara mountains and the Nile Valley; M. Klimeck, Pliocene and Quaternary pollens from the eastern Pyrenees ; and Nadine Planchais. Holocene pollens from Loire basin. Other Palynologists are scattered around many laboratories : Martine Rossignol in Israel and Crete, and J. Maley (70) in the Chad basin. Arlette Leroi-Gourhan (46) and Josette Miskowsky (40) deal with pollens from prehistoric caves. Henriette Vilain-Meon (19) is studying the Pliocene and, to some extent, the Quaternary beds of the Saone-Rhone Valley; Annick Brun (39) is classifying the pollens in Quaternary sediments being used as part of an expedition in the field in Savoy and on Mont Dore; and Jacqueline Sauvage (historical geology laboratory, Orsay), after many years in Quaternary palynology. has now turned to tertiary palynology. P. Qdzel and his collaborators, A. Pons and Cl. Martinez, after their study of Quaternary pollens in the Central Sahara, have seemingly given up Quaternary palynology for the time being. However, under the leadership of A. Pons, J. de Beaulieu (26 bis) and M. Reille (26 bis) have taken up palynological research on the

Quaternary of southeastern France and the Holocene in Corsica, respectively. J. L. Vernet (26 his) is studying vegetable macroremains from the Quaternary in Languedot and Provence. III. RESEARCH IN PREHISTORY ASSOCIATED WITH QUATERNARY GEOLOGY All we can do is point to those studies in prehistory that are most intimately bound up with Quaternary research. In France at the Laboratory of Geology and Prehistory of Bordeaux (1) the excavations of F. Bordes and his students in the caves, shelters, and terraces of southwestern France are accompanied by sedimentological, paleontological, and palynological studies. Two excavation teams organized by E. Bonifay (21) and H. de Lumley (23) have updated our knowledge of Quaternary geology in southeastern France. F. Bourdier (2) is working in the Rhone. Seine, and Somme Valleys. A team associated of the CNRS has been created under the direction of R. Ciry (14) to study the archeological, paleontological, and paleoclimatic stratigraphy of the Quaternary and protohistorical times in Burgundy. Outside France, the prehistorians of the Museum team, directed by L. Balout (3)) notably P. Biberson in Mauritania and J. Tixier in Morocco and Lebanon, are not neglecting the concerns of historical geology, nor are the prehistorians from Algiers under G. Camps (5). The geologist-prehistorians of the CNRS laboratory in Bellevue are working in the Sahara (Henriette Alimen, Jean Chavaillon, Nicole Chavaillon) and in Ethiopia (J. and N. Chavaillon ) as was indicated above. IV.



Quaternary cartography has long been neglected in France and has often been entrusted to nonspecialists. Over the past few



years a healthy reaction has set in under the impetus of J. Goguel (33). A number of re-editions of geological charts of France on a l/80,000 scale and the new charts on the l/50,000 scale have been done with the assistance of Quaternary geologists and geomorphologists in the survey of Quaternary outcrops. Unfortunately, France does not yet have special geological maps of the Quaternary. On the other hand, geomorphological maps are now in preparation. A cooperative research program of the CNRS is working to produce such maps, which will indicate the lithology of recent strata, as well as their structure and the forms of the relief. J. Tricart (57) is in charge of this program, along with J. Dresch (36j, F. Joly (36)) F Taillefer (61)) P. Gabert (5), and several others. A third type, soil cartography, is at a more advanced stage because of its immediate usefulness in agriculture. These three kinds of maps complement each other without repetition. Preparation of such maps is also underway in some sections of Frenchspeaking Africa. A Quaternary map of Europe to the scale of 1/2,5W,OOO and one of Northwest Africa to the scale of 1/2,OCO,OOO have been started under the aegis of INQUA (International Association of Quaternary Studies ) . The Northwest African charts have been entrusted to a French commission [supervisor, H. Alimen (1) and since 1969, G. Choubert (Paris) 1. Utilitarian preoccupations are not lacking in the work of geologists and geomorphologists. In problems of hydrogeology we come across the names H. Schoeller (Hydrogeological Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Bordeaux), R. Karpoff (Paris), Cl. MCgnien (33), L. Simler (SS), M. F&e (29), and many others. Conditions of soil erosion are dependent on geomorphological factors. Pedological maps are indispensible to agriculture. Urban planners should consult geologists far more frequently. especially those studying surface strata. A number of accidents, which it might he best not to name,



could have been avoided of important buildings.

381 in the construction

CONCI,USIONS We realize that we have certainly not given a complete account of research in Quaternary geology, and we therefore ask those of our colleagues whom we may have unintentionally overlooked to forgive this omission, especialIy our fellow geographers, less well known than ourselves, whose participation in our field has become, as must have been noticed, more and more extensive, and likewise many prehistorians whom we would not have been able to site without OVerextending this article. This survey has made it clear that, for Quaternary geology as well as and perhaps even more than in other sciences, we must from now have recourse to several other disciplines. The time when the geologist needed no more than his hammer, a good pair of shoes, and a table, and a microscope has gone for good, and yet such was the case when I first entered the field. A truly specialized laboratory is needed for petrographic and sedimentological research, the study of clays included, as well as for palynological research. No one of the four laboratories officially specializing in Quaternary studies realizes this objective in its entirety; they are all only more or less successful. There is a second necessary remark. In our country an extremely important part of Quaternary studies is currently in the hands of the geomorphologists. Trained in the humanities, it is more difficult for them than for geologists to integrate the contributions of indispensible parallel disciplines ; moreover, they are often involved in other tasks (geomorphological studies unrelated to the Quaternary. economic geography, etc. ) . However, they are better trained than geologists in observing and interpreting forms in the field. If geologists and geomorphologists are occasionally in mutual opposition in



their research on the same terrain, their points of view are nevertheless complementary. It is therefore to be hoped that in the future the partition separating the realm of pure geomorphologists, in the School of Humanities, and that of the geologists, School of Sciences, will no longer be hermetic and that “Quaternarists” with a good scientific basis may be produced who are both geomorphologists and geologists. For the time being we may wish to see productive collnborations in the field between these two disciplines. Geological Quaternary studies were honored in France in 1968. when the 8th International Congress for Quaternary Studies (INQUA) was held, with meetings in Paris and many field trips around France. At the time of the Congress two colloquia were organized by UNESCO, one on “The Origin of Modern Man” under F. Bordes (l), the other on “Shorelines and Continental Shelves and Their Reciprocal


Relations” under A. Guilcher (36). The number of participants at this Congress, which was about one thousand. and the interest taken by UNESCO, under!ines the importance that Quaternary studies have assumed in the world. The 8th INQUA Congress will tighten fertile relations between countries, as vital as the interdisciplinary relations have been for Quaternary research over the past years. May it contribute in structuring research in all countries on that very special geological epoch, the Quaternary, and in France may it accentuate the movement already begun by the creation of specialized laboratories, centers, and institutes and by the creation of research teams composed of scientists of many outlooks working toward the solution of a single problem. Then one might at last be able to write a single article on Quaternary research giving less of an impression of a welter of individual efforts than does this article.



(Classified Alphabetically by Region) Laboratories

(A) of

the Quaternary



in the study




the study





1. Laboratoire de GCologie du Quaternaire et de PrChistoire, FacultC des Sciences, 351, Cows de la Libkration, 33-Talence. PARIS.

2. Laboratoire de PrChistoire Etudes, 3e Paris (Se). 3. Laboratoire de Quaternaire relle, 1, rue REGION

but that are not only Period (France)

Gkologie du Quaternaire et de de 1’Ecole Pratique des Hautes section, 8, rue de Buffon, 75-

5. Laboratoire de Giographie Physique, Facultk des Lettres, 13-Aix-en-Provence. BESANCON.

6. Laboratoire de GCographie, Facultk des Lettres, 30, rue MCgevand, 25-Besanqon. 7. Laboratoire de GCologie, Facult& des Sciences, 25-Besanqon. BORDEAUX.

Prkhistoire et de GCologie du du M&urn d’Histoire NatuRem?-Panhard, 75-Paris (13e).


4. Laboratoire de G&ologie du Quaternaire C. N. R. S., Place Aristide-Briand, Bellevue-Meudon. (B) Laboratories or institutes search more or less inzportant

du 92-

that carry out reto the Quaternary

8. Institut de aographie, Facultk des Lettres, 33-Talence. 9. Institut de Gkologie, Faculte des Sciences, 351, Cours de la Liberation, 33-Talence. CAEN.

10. Centre de gkomorphologie du C. N. R. S., rue des Tilleuls, 1CCaen. 11. Institut de Gkologie, FacultC des Sciences, 14Caen.



CLERMONT-FERRAND. 12. Institut de Gkographie, FacultC des Lettres, 34, avenue Carnot, 63-Clermont-Ferrand. 13. Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (I. N. R. A.), Station de Clermont, 63Clermont-Ferrand. DIJON.


Laboratoire de GCologie, FacultC Boulevard Gabriel, Zl-Dijon.

des Sciences,


15. 16.


Institut de Gtographie alpine, FacultC des Lettres, Montee Rabot, 38Grenoble. Laboratoire de GCologie alpine, Institut Dolomieu, Facultk des Sciences, MontCe Rabot, 38Grenoble. Laboratoire de Glaciologie alpine, 38Grenoble. Institut

de Geographic,


Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Faculte des Sciences, 86, rue Pasteur, 69-Lyon(7e).

Laboratoire de GCologie Sciences, 44-Nantes. 3.2. Section de Geographic, 44-Nantes.


Laboratoire de Biologie animale; 21. Laboratoire de G&ologie; 22. Laboratoire, de S~klimentologie, FacultC des Sciences St. Jerome, Traverse de la Barasse, 13-Marseille ( 13e). Laboratoire de Geologic Historique, Faculte des Sciences St-Charles, Place VictorHugo, 13-Marseille (138).

Centre d’Etudes phytosociologiques et Ccologiques, B. P. 1018, 34-Montpellier. 25. Laboratoire de Geologic, Faculd des Sciences, 34-Montpellier. 26. Laboratoire de Palynologie, FacultC des Sciences, Place Eugine-Bataillon, 34-Montpellier. 26 his. Laboratoire de Paleobotanique et evolution des VCgCtaux, FacultC des Sciences, place Eugene Bataillon, 34 Montpellier.

36. 37. 38.



MOULIS. 27. Laboratoire Moulis.













ORLBANS. 33. B. R. G. M., (actuellement d.enomnie Service GCologique National), Section d’Hydrogeologic et Service de la Carte Geologique, 45-Orleans-La Source. 34. Laboratoire de Geologic g&kale, Faculte des Sciences, Chateau de la Source, 45-Orleans.



Institut de Geographic, 54-Nancy.












43. 44.



de Recherches sur les zones arides (C. N. R. S.), 16, rue Pierre-et-MarieCurie, 7.5Paris ( 5e). Institut de Qographie de la Faculte des Lettres, 191, rue St-Jacques, 75-Paris (5e). Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, 1, rue RenC-Panhard, 75Paris (13e). Institut de Paleontologie du Mu&urn National d’Histoire Naturelle, 8, rue de Buffon, 75Paris ( 5e). Laboratoire de Geographic Physique et de GCologie Dynamique. 40. Laboratoire de GCologie I, 41. Laboratoire de Geologic Historique, Fact&C des Sciences 9. quai St-Bernard, 75-Paris (Se). Laboratoire de Geomorpho’logie, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, 61, rue de Buffon, 75Paris (Se). Laboratoire de Geologic de I’Ecole Normale Superieure, 45, rue d’Ulm, 75Paris (5e). Laboratoire de Geologic de 1’Institut National Agronomique, 16, rue Claude-Bernard, 75Paris (5e). Laboratoire de Paleontologie des VertebrCs et de Paleontologie Humaine; FacultC des Sciences, 9, quai St-Bernard, 75Paris (se).






S., 09-



de l’Homme, Departement toire, Palais de Chaillot, Place d&o, 75Paris (168).

de PrChisdu Troca-


28. 29.

Centre de Pedologie Biologique du C. N. R. S., 54-NancyVandceuvre. Ecole Nationale Sup&ieure de Geologic Appliq&e et de Prospection Mini&e, DCpartement des Sciences de la Terret, 94, avenue du GCdral-De-Lattre-de-Tassigny, B. P. 452, 54-Nancy et B. P. 682, Nancy Vandoeuvre.


47. Laboratoire de Geologic et de Skdimentologie marine, College Scientifique Universitaire, B. P. 242, 66-Perpignan. POITIERS.


Laboratoire PCdologie tiers.

de Geologic, 49-Laboratoire de ; Faculte des Sciences, 86-Poi-



49 his.

Laboratoire de Geologic, tres, 86-Poitiers.








des Let-




de Recherches 74-Thonon-les-Bains.


de Geographic du Proche et MoyenOrient, avenue de Damas, B. P. 2691, Beyrouth (Liban).

de Recherches $dologiques de 1’0. R. S. T. 0. M., B. P. 1386, Dakar (Republique du Senegal). Laboratoire de Geographic, Faculte des Lettres, Dakar Fann (Republique du S&egal). Laboratoire Dakar





Centre de Recherches Villefranche-sur-Mer.

(C) that

French laboratories carry out research


QY kstitutes based on the Qz~aternary





de recherches tchadiennes de 1’0. R. S. T. 0. M., B. P. 65, Fort Lamy (Tchad).

Centre de Recherches prehistoriques B. P. 547, Jerusalem (Israel).



72. 73.



de Geologic, Facultk des Sciences, Fann (RCpublique du Se&gal).



63. Centre


67. Centre

B. P. 45,

Institut de Geographic, Laboratoire de G&omorphologie, Fact& des Lettres, 4, rue A.-Lautman, 31-Toulouse.

pre3, al-




B. P.




Institut de Geographic Physique et Centre de Geographic Appliquee, Fact&k des Lettres, 43, rue Goethe, 67-Strausbourg. Laboratoire de Geologic, Centre de SCdimentologie et de Geochimie de la surface, Facult& des Sciences, 1, rue Blessig, 67-Strasbourg. Laboratoire de Paleontologie, FacultC des Sciences, 67-Strasbourg.

60. Centre

de Geologic de l’UniversitC, Abidjan ( Cote-d’Ivoire).

Centre de Recherches anthropologiques, historiques, ethnographiques (CRAPE) rue F.-Roosevelt, Alger (R&publique gerienne).


Ecde Nationale d’Agriculture, 35Rennes. Laboratoire d’Anthropologie prehistorique, Facult& des Sciences, B. P. B31, 35-RennesBeaulieu.



Laboratoire 4322,


Laboratoire de Geologic et de Pedologie, Ecole Nationale Sup&ieure d’Agriculture, 7% Grignon. Laboratoire de S,edimentologie et de GCologie G&r&ale, 52Laboratoire de Petrographic, Faculte des Sciences, 91-Orsay. Laboratoire des Sols. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (I. N. R. A.), route de St-Cyr, 78Versailles. 0. R. S. T .O. M., Institut d’enseignement et de recherches tropicales, 80, route d’Aulnay, 93-Bondy.


55. 56.


Institut de Geographic, FacultC des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Rabat (Maroc). Institut scientifiique cherifien, Laboratoire de Geologic, Avenue Biarnay, Rabat (Marot). Office de mise en valeur agricole de l’0. R. S. T. 0. M., route de Casablanca, P. K. 0750 Rabat (Maroc).



Departement Sai’gon

de Geologic, (Sud-Vietnam)

Faculte .

des Sciences,



Laboratoire tres,



de Geographic, B. P. 907, Tananarive




Facultk des Let(Madagascar). FRANCAISES.



de I’ORSTOM, B. P. V18 Abidjan ( C&e-d’Ivoire) .

et B. P. 20,

BIBLIOGRAPHIC Only volumes that appeared recently ports published in periodicals, however siderably. These reports are distributed the end of the bibliography.


Centre de Recherches pedologiques de 1’0. S. T. 0. M., YaoundC (Cameroun).



are indicated (since 1960 with rare exceptions). Frequently, reimportant, could not be given without lengthening this list conamong several periodicals, and the principal ones are listed at






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