Remote sensing and mineral exploration

Remote sensing and mineral exploration

mechanised mining, this has necessitated the development of geophysical techniques directed specifically at mining. This short report by Lindsey Jacks...

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mechanised mining, this has necessitated the development of geophysical techniques directed specifically at mining. This short report by Lindsey Jackson of the IEA Coal Research Technical Information Service is a summary of the geophysical techniques that are now used within, or are being developed by, the coal industries. There are chapters on seismic. electromagnetic, electrical, nuclear and borehole logging, magnetic, gravitational and geothermal methods. An extensive list of references together with a useful list of the names and addresses of some of the researchers in coal geophysics in the UK, USA, and West Germany appears at the end. Whilst it is true that much research is carried out in these countries, valuable research is also being conducted elsewhere. It is particularly unfortunate that the Eastern European countries have been virtually ignored, although this partially reflects a difficulty in obtaining reliable information. Nevertheless, for any organisation with an interest in coal mining this is a valuable compilation providing both an introduction and a Who’s Who in a highly specialist field. D.

This volume is the proceedings ofthe workshop of the 22nd meeting of COSPAR held in Bangalore, India in 1979. There are 25 papers in the volume. many of them in summary form, and all of them photographically reduced from typescript. The emphasis in the book is on India, and after a useful review by Krishnaswamy of the uses of Landsat data by the Geological Survey of India there are 14 other papers concerned with India. Of these the fullest and most successful are those concerned with Karnataka State and with the Himalayas and the Indian Shield. The other regional examples are rather brief summaries. In one of the longer papers Kamat describes the Indian plans for their Satellite for Earth Observation (SEO), and the remaining papers discuss examples outside India, for example Siberia and Mongolia, Yugoslavia, Canada, and France. The papers tend to be short, thin, and sketchy, and the editors of the volume, all from the U.S. Geological Survey, would have produced a better book if they had concentrated on India, given more space to the authors, and entitled the book ‘Geology and remote sensing in India’.

R. Harris

Batteries. J. Broadhead and Plenum Press, New

This volume, part of a NATO conference series, is a well ordered collection of papers covering the frontiers of battery technology. A first part contains reviews by prominent workers in the field and these give a valuable


J. G. Smith

J. Buchanan

Remote Sensing and Mineral Exploration. Editedby W. D. Carter, L. C. Rowan andJ. F. Huntingdon. Pp. 173. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 1980. f 14.40.

Materials for Advanced Edited by D. W. Murphy, B. C. H. Steele. Pp. 373. York. $39.50.

insight into the requirements for advanced batteries and also into the major problems facing researchers. The first paper, by Cairns, outlines the motivating factors for work on electric vehicle and power storage batteries. Papers on lithium and intercalation electrodes give the basis of some significant recent developments. The second part consists of short contributions on more specialised topics, with emphasis on lithium systems and novel electrolytes. Lead-acid with its continuing materials problems is not, however, overlooked. A final part contains study-group reports on outstanding battery problems and these form a useful guide to the direction of present research. Bearing in mind that this book gives a rather specialised outlook on advanced battery work and that many of the newer aqueous systems are sadly neglected, it still provides a stimulating introduction, especially for materials scientists, to the commercially important field of new electrical energy sources.

Modern Chlor-Alkali Technology. Edited by M. 0. Coulter. Pp. 289. Ellis-Horwood, Chichester. 1980. f27.50.

This book is a collection of papers given at a Society of Chemical Industry Symposium. It has the advantages and disadvantages one might expect. The articles are authoritative and up to date with scientists and technologists giving accounts of the state of the art in their own areas. A basic understanding of the technology of the industry is assumed. Given this, a reader would find much material which would enable him to make an informed judgement on which technology would suit his circumstances. There are chapters on diaphragm cells, mercury cells, and membrane cells as total systems with detailed descriptions of key parts such as metal anodes, diaphragms, and membranes. Particularly welcome is the inclusion of chapters on heavy-current switches and environmental protection, and hazard analysis. This book will have less appeal to school and university teachers who are looking for material for their courses on industrial practice, as nowhere is there an overview of the field at the level of detail they need. For its intended audience-industrial chemists in the chloralkali field, chemical plant manufacturers, and those in electrochemical industries-it is well worth its price.

H. L. Roberts

Structure and Function of Northern Coniferous Forests. An Ecosystem Study. Editedby T, Persson. Pp. 6 Il. 7 980. Swedish NaturalScience Research Council, Stockholm. 290 SKr (approx. US $64, f28, DM 7 33).

This book is the first substantial compilation of information about Scats pine since H. M. Steven and A. Carlisle’s description of The

Native Pinewoods of Scotland in 1959, and it reflects the enormous changes in ecosystem studies which have occurred over the last 20 years. This book contains the first comprehensive documentation of studies made within the Swedish Coniferous Forest Project (SWECON). It contains 37 papers all of which deal with aspects of the structure and function of forests of Scats pine, and, in particular, two st’ands, one young and one old, in central Sweden. The Project was conceived as an ecosystem study and the many papers summarise studies on specific soil, plant, and environmental processes. Three papers deal with the rationale and methodology, one with the micrometeorology and hydrology, sixteen with plant and vegetation processes, nine with soil processes, and eight with simulation and modelling of particular parts of the system. A good deal of the material has appeared previously in internal reports and some in original papers in journals, but this is the first time that a substantial synthesis of the Project has been made. All the papers have been refereed and on the whole the standard is very high. However, because of the ground covered and the synoptic nature of each paper there is often insufficient detail given, of methods and statistical treatment of the data in particular, to evaluate the work properly, and it is irritating to be referred elsewhere repeatedly. especially to internal reports. Nonetheless, the main value of this book is to have within one pair of covers, a comprehensive synopsis of an outstandingly successful ecosystem study. The SWECON Project has increased our understanding of vegetation processes enormously and by concentrating on Scats pine has added substantially to our knowledge of one of the most important and attractive native conifers of Britain and North Europe. This book can be strongly recommended as an introduction to the aims of the projects and an interim summary of its results.

P. G. Jarvis Ecology of a Subarctic Mire. Editedby Sonesson. Pp. 3 15. Swedish Natural Science Research Council, Stockholm. 1980. SKr 125 ($30).


This book contains 15 research/review papers on the ecology (principally plant ecology) of Stordalen mire in north Sweden. The research projects discussed formed a major part of the Swedish contribution to the IBP Tundra Biome Programme, an internationally co-ordinated effort’ designed to attain information for mathematical models of the major flows of energy and nutrients. .’ in selected tundra systems. In general the papers fall well short of this objective. Original data is presented on such topics as correlations between environmental factors and plant distribution, plant biomass, carbon allocation in tundra plants, and photosynthesis and growth of Sphagnum spp., but the conclusions reached are very limited and often speculative. In a comparatively detailed discussion of nitrogen cycling and nitrogen uptake by plants no consideration is given to the availability of