RUSSIAN L E G I S L A T I O N
.Reds Guinea Green B Fast Green FCF Yellows Naphthol Yellow S Acid Yellow Tartrazine Oranges Orange GGN Sunset Yellow FCF
C.l. (1956) No.
42085 42053 10316 13015 19140 15980 15985 P~trrrED
Greens Fast Red E Ponceau 4R Ponceau 6R Ponceau SX Scarlet GN Black Black PN Violets Violet 5 BN Violet 6B
C.L (1956) No.
16045 16255 16290 14700 14815 28440 42650 42640
FLAVOURINGS AND AROMAS
Ammonium chloride. Essential oils, natural and artificial essences. Diacetyl. Quinine. Caffeine. Lactic acid. Sodium glutamate. Citric acid, vanlllin and ethyl vanillin. Tartaric acid. ARTIFICIALSWEETENERS Saccharine and its sodium salt. Sodium and potassium cyclamates.
RUSSIAN FOOD ADDITIVE LEGISLATION IN the food industry of the Soviet Union only food additives approved by the All-State Union Sanitary Inspectorate of the U.S.S.R. Ministry of Public Health are permitted to be added to food, and the number of such substances is very limited. There appear to be certain basic regulations which are of universal application, and also more detailed regulations issued by the various Soviet republics. All substances proposed for use as food additives are first examined, in scientific research institutes and nutritional hygiene departments of medical institutes, not only for toxicity but also, in certain cases, for carcinogenic properties. Methods used for such testing correspond approximately with the scheme proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Corn mittee on Food Additives and published in "Procedures for the Testing of Intentional Food Additives to Establish their Safety in Use" (Wld. Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser. 1958, 144). On the basis of the data so obtained, the State Sanitary Inspection of the U.S.S.R. Ministry of Public Health either authorizes or prohibits the use of given quantities of the substance in the food industry. Investigation of the toxic properties of new pesticides and hygienic evaluation of the food products treated with these agents is carried out in accordance with the methods published in the "Collection of Official Data on Poisonous Chemicals, Applicable in Rural Economy", Moscow, 1961. The following additives are permitted to be used in food under the basic regulations. Permitted food colourings Natural: Carmine, Saffron, Indigo, False Saffron [Carthamus tinctorius], Annato, Carotin, pigment from marigold flowers [Calendula], food dyes from the dog rose [Rosa canina]. Synthetic: Amaranth, Indigo-carmine, Tartrazine. Mineral: Ultramarine. Permitted preservatives ~ maximum permitted amounts: Benzoic acid and its salts (0.07 ~o), sulphurous acid (0.3 Yo), sulphur dioxide (0.2 ~o), orthophosphoric acid (0.6 ~o),
sorbic acid (0.1 ~o), hydrogen peroxide (0.2~o), butylated hydroxyanisole (0.01 ~o) and butylated hydroxytoluene (0.01 ~o). Permitted food acids (pure chemicals) These consist of tartaric, citric, malic acetic, adipic and trioxyglutaric acids. Permitted flavouring and colouring improvers and stabilizers--maximum permitted amounts Sodium nitrate (0.03~), potassium nitrate (0.10~o), sodium nitrate (0.02~o), sodium citrate (0.6~o), potassium or sodium tartrate (2.5~o), magnesium carbonate (0.12~), vanillin (0.I ~) and emulsifiers T-2 and T-f (0.18 ~o)- Saccharine--only in drinks for diabetics and drug additives. Permitted aromatics: essences suitable for use in making up prescriptions, vanillin, diacetyl and benzaldehyde are also used in suitable limited amounts in food products. Maximum permitted amounts of unintentional contaminants: Inorganic: arsenic (0.0014 ~o), copper (0.0035 ~), tin (0.02 ~o), iron impurities (0.001 ~o), sand (0.1 ~o). Organic: glycerine (3.2 ~), methyl alcohol (0.1 ~). Contaminants Hygienic standards have been established for dishware, packaging materials and industrial plant which comes into contact with food products. Typographic and lithographic dyes are permitted in the printing of coloured foil. With regard to pesticides, residues of certain pesticides are permitted to be present in food products. More detailed information of all these questions can be found in the following literature: Sbornik Vazhreshich Ofitsialnich Materialov po Sanitarnium i Protivoepidemisheskim Voprosam. [Collection of Important Official Data on Sanitary and Antiepidemic Problems] Vol. II, published 1953. Gigiena Pitaniya'. [The Hygiene of Nutrition] 1957. Edited by T. E. Boldireva & A. I. Shtenberga. Standard specifications and auxiliary commercial conditions for food products of the various republics.