THURSDAY, OCTOBER 28 POSTER SESSION: FOOD AND NUTRITION MANAGEMENT THE USE OF ROSEMARY EXTRACTS TO IMPROVE THE FLAVOR OF PRECOOKED LOW FAT GROUND BEEF PATTIES. M.I. Schnepf, PhD, RD, and Y. Zhu-Wood, PhD, Department of Nutritional Science and Dietetics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE Reduced fat meat products are readily available in the marketplace. Precooked beef patties are used by foodservice establishments for their convenience but the quality of these products may be lower due to warmed-over flavor. The objective of this study was to determine if the fat content of precooked ground beef patties has an effect on the development of warmedover flavor (WOF) and to determine if WOF could be reduced by using rosemary antioxidants. Ground beef patties (70, 80 and 90% lean) were formed into 100g patties, grilled to an internal temperature of 72°C and stored for 9 days at 4°C. Herbalock type D-20 (Kalsec, Inc.) was added at 0.45 percent (w/w). The thiobarbituric acid test (TBA) and gas chromatographic headspace analysis were performed to determine the extent of lipid oxidation. All patties with rosemary antioxidants had lower TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) than those patties without rosemary. After 9 days of refrigerated storage TBARS for the patties with no antioxidant averaged 7.7±1.6 mg/kg while the patties containing rosemary averaged 3.6+1.1 mg/kg. Headspace analysis of volatile development supported this data with lower total area of volatiles for the patties with the rosemary antioxidant. No difference was found among the patties with the three levels of fat when no antioxidant was present. However, when rosemary was added, the lowest TBARS and total volatiles were found with the 90% lean patties. Fat content does affect the development of warmed-over flavor with the lower fat content patties developing less warmed-over flavor but only when a rosemary extract was used.
A SELF-STUDY PROGRAM FOR DIET WRITING TRAINING. M.K. Schofield, MS, RD, LDN and B.C. Miller, Rex Hospital, Raleigh, NC. A self-study training program for teaching diet writing skills was developed as an alternative to the traditional classroom teaching methodology. The goals for the project were to design a training program that allowed the learner to acquire new knowledge and skills at their own pace and enabled the trainer to measure learner performance against defined objectives. Criterion-Referenced Instruction formed the basis for the training program. Clinical dietitians wrote three levels of teaching modules (basic, intermediate, advanced), representing 22 diet types. Each module was reviewed by the entire staff of clinical dietitians and validated by nonclinical department personnel prior to use in the training program. Each module contained the following components: objective, criterion evaluation statements, list of additional resources, introduction, principles of diet, procedures, and practice materials. Learners were instructed to read the module, complete the practice exercises, and then report to their trainer for feedback and criterion evaluation. New modules were distributed only after successful completion of the current module. Upon completing each level of the program, employees received a certificate of achievement. This individualized, criterion-based approach to training has been successfully used to teach diet writing skills to the entire Diet Office staff. The flexible nature of the program enables employees to join at any time and avoids the usual problems inherent in scheduling training sessions for shift-work employees. Response to the program has been positive, with employees reporting increased knowledge, confidence, and self-esteem.
SOLID WASTE MANAGMENT FOR FOODSERVICE: WASTE STREAM ANALYSES. C. S. Shanklin, PhD, RD and D. A. Ferris, MS, Department of Hotel, Restaurant, Institutional Mangement and Dietetics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Data on composition of waste generated in various types of food production and service systems are needed to assist foodservice directors in developing and implementing a solid waste managment plan for their operations. The objective of this study was to determine the quantity and type of waste generated in two types of production systems: a conventional food production system (Facility A) and a convenience system (Facility B). Waste stream analyses were conducted at two universtiy dining centers at a Midwestern University for 14 days in Facility A and 10 days in Facility B. Facility A generated 0.2039 pounds/meal or 0.0004 cubic yards/meal of service (plate) waste; 0.1743 pounds/meal or 0.0004 cubic yards/meal food production waste; 0.1539 pounds/meal or 0.0030 cubic yards/meal of packaging waste; and 0.5322 pounds/meal or 0.0038 cubic yards/meal of total waste. Significantly more waste/meal was disposed on weekends than on weekdays at Facility A. Facility B generated 0.1757 pounds/meal or 0.0005 cubic yards/meal of service (plate) waste; 0.1070 pounds/meal or 0.0003 cubic yards/meal food production waste; 0.1047 pounds/meal or 0.0025 cubic yards/meal of packaging waste; and 0.3874 pounds/meal or 0.0033 cubic yards/meal of total waste. Facility B disposed significantly more service waste and plastic containers by percentage weight than Facility A but significantly less paper (other than napkins) (p>0.05). Collapsing cardboard, paperboard, plastic, wooden, and metal containers decreased the total volume by 49.08% and 40.44% at Facility A and Facility B, respectively. Approximately 70.0% of the total waste by weight and 20% by volume were food wastes at the two facilities. Results can assist in assessing feasibility of various alternatives such as recycling and composting.
NEEDS AND EXPECTATIONS OF MATURE ADULTS AGED 50 YEARS AND OLDER FOR PRODUCTS AND SERVICES OFFERED BY COMMERCIAL FOODSERVICE OPERATIONS. A.B.Reddy, PhD,RD, and C.W.Shanklin, PhD,RD, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Texas Woman's University, Denton, TX and Department of Hotel, Restaurant, Institution Management &Dietetics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS. As dietitians expand services to commercial foodservice operations, knowledge of the needs and expectations of various market segments is essential. The purpose of this study was to identify the needs and expectations of mature adults age 50 and older regarding food consumed away-from-home and services offered by commercial foodservice operations. Focus groups were conducted at six different sites in Texas and Louisiana to assist in questionnaire development. The validated questionnaire was administered to members of 120 chapters of the American Association for Retired Persons in Louisiana and Texas who meet study criteria. Two hundred and forty usable questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS. The majority of respondents were retired, female Caucasians who had above average income and education level. Cleanliness and other factors related to food safety and sanitation were identified as the most important in selection of a foodservice establishment. The respondents indicated that the following services need to be improved or added: healthier menu choices (59.0%), variety of vegetables offered (58.6%), smaller serving sizes (59.4%), stricter adherence to sanitation standards (54.7%) and quieter dining area (56.6). Respondents indicated that operations should provide explanation of menu items (50.61), use nutritional symbols (23.2%), and use simple print style (16.7%). Results indicate the importance of assessing the needs and expectations for products and services offered by commercial operations prior to consulting with this segment of the foodservice industry.
A-1i 14 / SEI'TEMBER 1993 SUPPLEMENT VOLUME 93 NUMBER 9