Strategies for education for sustainable development – Danish and Australian perspectives

Strategies for education for sustainable development – Danish and Australian perspectives

Accepted Manuscript Strategies for Education for Sustainable Development – Danish and Australian perspectives Jette Egelund Holgaard, Roger Hadgraft, ...

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Accepted Manuscript Strategies for Education for Sustainable Development – Danish and Australian perspectives Jette Egelund Holgaard, Roger Hadgraft, Anette Kolmos, Aida Guerra PII:

S0959-6526(15)01290-1

DOI:

10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.063

Reference:

JCLP 6152

To appear in:

Journal of Cleaner Production

Received Date: 30 March 2015 Revised Date:

28 July 2015

Accepted Date: 16 September 2015

Please cite this article as: Holgaard JE, Hadgraft R, Kolmos A, Guerra A, Strategies for Education for Sustainable Development – Danish and Australian perspectives, Journal of Cleaner Production (2015), doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.063. This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Strategies for Education for Sustainable Development

– Danish and Australian perspectives Jette Egelund Holgaard a,1, Roger Hadgraft a,b, Anette Kolmos a, Aida Guerra a a

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Aalborg University, Centre for Problem Based Learning in Engineering Science and Sustainability under the auspices of UNESCO, Aalborg, Denmark Central Queensland University, School of Engineering and Technology, Mackay, QLD, Australia.

Abstract

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If engineers are to provide sustainable innovations for future societies, engineers should be able to think and act beyond pure technical competence. This is stressed in political and accreditation frameworks all over the world, and universities are trying to respond to this demand. However, in many cases, sustainability practices seem fragmented and there is a lack of knowledge of strategies and few clear examples of good practice.

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In this paper, activities to integrate sustainability in two engineering institutions, one in Denmark and one in Australia, are systematically compared to provide an understanding of different kinds of activities and their internal as well as external enablers. A conceptual framework to provide overview of education for sustainability activities and their enablers has been proposed, where activities are related to actors and resources at both university and national levels. The conceptual framework has been developed iteratively – moving back and forth trying to find a suitable structure to capture the contextual pillars of the activities in the two cases, using state-of-art within the research field of education for sustainable development to fill out potential blind spots in the case-material, and finally continuously shaping the storylines in the two cases to provide the needed overview and understanding of the similarities and differences of the approaches.

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The interplay between the framework and the case-stories provides a platform for change, as the framework does not only create an overview of activities, it also points out potential routes not taken, and the case studies provide examples of activities, which can be transferred with careful consideration to the internal as well as external context.

Keywords: Engineering Education, Sustainability, problem based learning, system thinking, capabilities.

Introduction

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The overall sustainability challenge facing our post-modern society in the 21st century calls for a paradigm shift in higher education (Orr and Sterling, 2001). This new paradigm is characterised by development and action-orientation; critical and creative inquiry; reflective and iterative learning; an indicative and open curriculum; learning in groups, organisations and communities; and a democratic and participative environment (ibid). A decade after this statement and at the end of the United Nations declared decade for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), different approaches and integration strategies for ESD have developed slowly, and in a fragmented manner, throughout the world. In 2009 Ferrer-Balas et al (Ferrer-Balas et al., 2010) could conclude that half way through the Decade for ESD, related actions had not yet influenced the educational programs worldwide in a significant manner, and in 2014 Wals (Wals, 2014) could conclude that Higher Education Institutions are in the beginning to make more systematic change. (Dowling et al., 2009) link the understanding and learning of sustainability to a new interdisciplinary approach using systems engineering. As systems engineering provides a ‘whole systems’ perspective, integrating different disciplines and requirements (Shamieh, 2011; Stasinopoulos et al., 2011), it serves a purpose of contextualising engineering products beyond Corresponding author. Tel: +45 99409811 Email: [email protected]

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the technical problem to be solved – to include the larger and more complex societal systems and complex challenges such as sustainability of society, the environment and the economy. At the same time, systems engineering allows for subsystems to be designed in a disciplinary fashion – with clear interfaces to other subsystems (Shamieh, 2011). Experiences from Australia shows that systems engineering, as a strategy, provides a framework for bringing sustainability cases into the classroom, and lets the students address these cases with a clear distinction and link between interdisciplinarity and the engineering discipline (electrical, mechanical, civil, etc.).

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Another new and more trans-disciplinary approach to respond to the sustainability challenge is presented by (Jamison et al., 2014) arguing for hybrid learning and an integrated mode of engineering education implying increasing emphasis on contextual knowledge, cultural awareness and sustainability agency as well as professional identity and scientific-technical competence.

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Experiences from Aalborg University, Denmark, have shown that problem based learning (PBL) can be used as a platform for this integrative mode with its focus on real-life problems and selfdirected project work, as it calls for contextualisation, collaboration and agency. Students are not only getting prepared for agency, they practise agency, as they interact with surrounding stakeholders and thereby contribute to the development of society in general (Graaff and Kolmos, 2006).

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The differences in approaches to Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (EESD) are not surprising due to different political and institutional frameworks, which provide different conditions for the way educational practitioners integrate sustainability into different educational programs. However, as these strategies have more recently emerged, as a mix of reflections on institutional practices and prescriptive stands towards EESD, more comparative research is needed to clarify specific institutional practices as well as potential synergies and degrees of transferability across institutions. This paper therefore seeks to develop a conceptual framework for characterising ESD activities within engineering education. For this purpose a comparative case-study approach has been applied to provide an overview of the different kind of ESD activities carried out at institutional level and point to synergies, even across continents, with the intention to clarify previous and future strategic trajectories for the field. In the literature, ESD is a broader concept that EESD that is focused on engineering education, however in this article only ESD will be used to describe the field to avoid confusion as the theoretical framework will be based on broader societal approach.

Materials and methods

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The objective of this study is first of all to provide an overview and understanding of the different type of ESD activities taking place in higher education institutions, and secondly to use this overview to point out potential future strategic directions on program as well as institutional levels. The materials and methods used for this purpose have three basic dimensions: ESD case-stories, an ambition of providing a conceptual framework moving beyond the cases investigated and, finally, inspiration from the ESD literature. In the following, these dimensions of the methodological approach will be described independently. However it is important to stress that the case-stories and the conceptual framework have been developed in parallel, as an iterative process moving back and forth to find a suitable structure to understand the nature of the ESD activities and continuously shaping the storylines as new perspectives arose working with the conceptual framework. 2.1

Case-story approach

To provide such an overview a case-story approach has been applied to present two cases, which are exemplary in the sense that they have a vision for ESD and have initiated different activities, yet still with a rather unclear strategic trajectory. However, in theory, any crossnational comparison could be of interest. The reason for the choice of Denmark and Australia, of Aalborg University and RMIT (the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology), was a shared

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interest in the research objective, familiarity with the two universities, as well as an appropriate research foundation to provide the needed overviews. This paper has gathered a range of previous studies, which the authors have been engaged in, to collect the pieces prompted by the conceptual framework for an ESD-network. These include: • •

Studies related to capability based curricular development and ESD teaching at RMIT (Goricanec and Hadgraft, 2008), (Hadgraft and Goricanec, 2007), (Hadgraft and Muir, 2003), (Hadgraft et al., 2004a), (Hadgraft et al., 2004b) and (Jollands et al., 2005). Studies related to the Aalborg model of Problem based learning and ESD (Guerra, 2014), (Guerra and Holgaard, 2013), (Hansen et al., 2014) and (Holgaard et al., 2013).

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Furthermore, document analysis has served to include information from institutionalised documents e.g. declarations, accreditation schemes and curricula from the two universities have been added. Conceptual framework

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After having an overall impression of the cases, the challenge then was to find a framework to capture not only the type of activity but also the enablers of these activities, which hold the opportunities for change. For that purpose Håkan Håkansson and his theory of industrial technological development has been found appropriate, as he in all simplicity related activities to actors and resources. According to Håkansson (1989:3) “An innovation cannot be seen as the product of only one actor but as a result of an interplay between two or more actors; in other words as a products of a ‘network’ of actors”. This can be argued for technological development, educational change and other kind of systemic innovations. The basic classes of variables: actors, activities and resources are linked together, as actors perform activities and/or control resources, whereas activities link resources together and change or exchange resources through the use of other resources (Håkansson, 1989:17).

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The focus on getting an overview of the type and enablers of ESD activities have led to the choice of Håkansson as a starting point for creating a conceptual framework, but at the same time the weaknesses in capturing the comprehensive nature embedded in ESD are recognised.

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First of all, the socio-political processes, which will evidently have influence on the strategic formations, are not captured in this perspective. Hadgraft and Goricanec (2007) have used Latour’s model of socio-technological change in an educational context especially considering the formation of alliances to embed the development of ESD practices in the broader social, economic and political contexts, to influence and respond to the corresponding actors, activities and resources available in the political and institutional context.

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Secondly, as the purpose is to provide an overview, a closer look at the dynamic learning processes, or as Wenger (2008) would call them the dynamic of established communities of practice, will not be provided in this analysis. Together with the socio-political processes, the learning processes and establishment of appropriate communities of practices should not be overlooked in strategic considerations of ESD; however, these aspects are not a part of the objective for this study as the objective is to provide overview of the type of ESD activities initiated and the future possibilities to develop similar activities elsewhere. Third, the way sustainability is approached in the different strategies is another blind spot in the analysis, which should be supplemented with an analysis and reflection on how the three pillars of sustainability: the economic, social and environmental pillars are addressed, e.g. based on the STAUNCH© tool, which is developed with the specific aim of assessing systematically how a university’s curricula contribute to sustainable development and facilitate comparable auditing efforts across institutions (Lozano, 2010). 2.3

Inspiration from “state-of-art”

To make sure that the cases presented in fact are representing key activities, actors and resources in the internal as well as external context of the higher education institution, ESD literature has been consulted to support the development of the conceptual framework, and reduce the risk of re-introducing possible blind spots presented by the cases. The use of state

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of art has been selective in the way that only sources that clarify constitutive elements of the framework in an ESD context have been taken into consideration. For a more substantial literature review, please see Guerra, 2014. This inspiration from “state-of-art” is further elaborated in the following section.

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A conceptual framework for understanding ESD

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Based on the arguments presented in the previous section (2.2) and with the aim of facilitating change in engineering education institutions by reflecting on a dense overview of existing ESD practice, a conceptual framework for ESD in higher education institutions is proposed based on a simplistic network approach, emphasising internal as well as external activities, actors and resources having an impact on ESD at the institutional level (Figure 1).

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In the following, the framework is related to the field of ESD in and outside the HE institution by reference to current research.

Figure 1: Conceptual framework for understanding ESD in higher education institutions. The external context for universities integrating ESD

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3.1

In the context of corporate Environmental Responsibility within the education sector, (Alabaster and Blair, 1996) pointed to the relation between universities and the growing legal responsibilities and compliance with international policies, regulations and standards and, as well, the growing community empowerment and partnerships with “local authorities, technical and national councils (TECs), enterprise agencies, statutory bodies and NGOs” (Alabaster and Blair, 1996, p. 92). (Jones et al., 2010) furthermore stress the role of the international declarations and charters, which offer opportunities for declared commitment to sustainability related policy and practice.

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However, besides authorities, standardisation bodies and NGOs, research communities and cross-institutional knowledge networks of practitioners are important drivers for ESD initiatives. (Gough and Scott, 2008, p. 122) argue that “learning (however conceptualised) within and between networks of individuals, groups and organisations is likely to be an important feature of any successful initiative linking higher education and sustainable development”. With reference to 7 different case studies, (Gough and Scott, 2008) stress the importance of linking institutions (and individual academics) to create research communities as well as a network of ESD practitioners across institutions.

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In a life-long learning perspective, such ESD community should also bring together practitioners from primary, secondary and higher (tertiary) education institutions, as well as work based learning practitioners. Likewise, the network can include local communities and civil society groups. (Bawden et al., 2007) stress the critical role of civil society in fostering societal learning for a sustainable world, including civil society initiatives to interact with educational institutions. It is about using the community as a living laboratory to foster sustainability along with the education for sustainability – what (Orr and Sterling, 2001) would call learning as sustainability. From an employability perspective, the increasing role of sustainability in the visions and missions of private as well as public companies also has an impact on the motivation, the resources as well as the possible learning environments for ESD. Environmental management, life cycle assessment, eco-design, user-driven innovation, corporate social responsibility, supply chain management and sustainability reporting are increasingly becoming a part of everyday business discourse. 3.2

University ESD-network of actors, activities and resources

Without students, there is no education, and without students that are motivated to be educated for sustainable development, there will most likely be no useful outcomes from ESD. In this

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perspective, engineering students, as individuals and as student organisations, are central actors in ESD. A Danish, nationwide investigation of newly enrolled engineering students and their approaches to sustainability showed that it might be a challenge to put sustainability on the agenda among math/science focused students, as their intrinsic motivation is not closely aligned to other motives to study engineering (Haase, 2013). Thereby, it is not at all a given that every engineering student will welcome the emphasis on sustainability, making it more of a challenge for educational designers.

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The commitment of program leaders is a considerable driver for ESD – not only in a rhetorical sense, but also by taking the lead in making the curriculum changes needed to respond to what has been termed a needed paradigm shift in HE towards an ecological paradigm. (Johnston and Johnston, 2012, p. 2) point to the lack of such incentive from faculty management as a considerable barrier for ESD:

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“Often times, in spite of institutional demand, faculty members seem reluctant to cede control over the curriculum to make possible more innovative curricular developments. It is their notoriously conservative and slow response to social and market needs that results in this dearth of graduates who have a vision of what a sustainable career, much less a society, looks like.”

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University management (Heads of School, Deans of Faculty, Rectors/Vice Chancellors/ Presidents) also play a leading role in “walking the talk” making comprehensive strategies for a sustainable university including environmental management, corporate social responsibility and a healthy economy as well as supporting ESD activities, including sustainable campus activities and support for ESD development projects and research. At a more local level, the commitment from schools and program leaders is necessary if ESD are to be integrated formally into curricula with or without incentives for the faculty, and make sure that the staff are sufficiently trained to cope with the integration of ESD.

The integrated approach to ESD – the Danish case

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Last but not least, the teachers that formally or informally educate for sustainable development and who have the direct relationships with the students, are essential gatekeepers for the realisation of ESD. However, due to the complex and integrative nature of ESD, teachers may have to move or collaborate in an interdisciplinary mode covering the field of sustainability as well as the specific engineering domain.

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In the following the Danish case story is presented with the purpose of capturing the type and enablers of the ESD practices. In section 6 the case story will be synthesised into the proposed ESD framework and compared with the Australian case (section 5). The external context for ESD in Denmark

In Denmark, the regulatory framework and demands from accreditation bodies to integrate sustainability in HE is weak. The Ministry of Higher Education and Science have presented no specific strategies, policies or legislations for ESD in Higher Education, beyond a reference to the Copenhagen Declaration from 2002 stating the aim of “transition towards a knowledge based economy capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion brings new challenges to the development of human resources“ (Ministry of Higher Education and Science, 2013). The Ministry of Education, having authority over primary, secondary and high school education, however, have formulated a strategy for ESD. Experiences with ESD at primary school and high school levels offers inspiration for HE institutions, and prepares students to develop knowledge, skills and competencies related to sustainability before entering HE institutions. Some HE engineering institutions in Denmark have mentioned sustainability in their institutional profile (typically universities), but there are few guidelines to promote ESD. One example is

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from the student associations, e.g. Green Roskilde University Centre (GRUC), who have formulated input to the University’s ESD strategy. Another example is Aalborg University, where the UNESCO Chair in PBL in Engineering and Science made a study of the ESD practices at the Faculty of Engineering and Science, and will use this as a platform to develop institutional guidelines on how to proceed with the integration of ESD.

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International actors have framed the institutionalisation of ESD in Denmark. The acknowledgement from the United Nations of the Danish Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) in Education for Sustainable Development provides a platform for collaboration for HE institutions in Denmark, where 4 out of the 16 university educators have membership (in the first three years, 10 out of 16 were members). In the first three-year period, the state funded project activities. After the three year period, the funding from the state came to an end, and on 25 February 2013, the RCE Denmark network was formally constituted as an association with the new name: Learning and Education for Sustainable Development – RCE Denmark.

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Another example is UNESCO establishing Chairs and Centres related to ESD under the auspices of UNESCO. The national government has offered political and, to some extent, financial support, whereas HE institutions have also taken the initiative to allocate resources for ESD activities. Whereas the Danish Regional Centre of Expertise for Sustainable Development has focused on creating a national network including all disciplines and levels of education, the newly established (on 26 May, 2014) Aalborg Centre for Problem Based Learning in Engineering Science and Sustainability under the auspices of UNESCO reaches out to global communities and focuses their activities on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development.

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Embedded in such collaborations are the research communities, which combine sustainability and educational research. There is a strong discourse, both in the media, in business relations and also in the research communities, related to sustainable development as well as to education, but the linking of the two is still at an early stage. There is a SD perspective on education, which has been focused on disciplines within the domain of sustainability science, and an educational perspective on sustainability, where the focus has been on integrating sustainability across disciplines by a more comprehensive view of curriculum change.

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In university-business relations, which are strong in Denmark in relation to engineering education, the sustainability perspective has been strong, focusing on business processes and, to some extent, work based learning, whereas not much emphasis is put on sustainable development from an educational perspective that moves beyond disciplinary programs. Even though the sustainable development discourse represented by the users of technology can find its way to business processes in conceptual frameworks such as user centred design, the push from citizens and users of technology for ESD is limited as well as fragmented.

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Furthermore, there is no tradition to provide specific staff training on ESD in Danish HE institutions moving beyond pedagogical training and courses in Human Resource Management (HRM). However, few examples have been identified, e.g. seminar activities at the Danish Technical University in 2010 and 2011, Aalborg University in 2012, 2013 and 2014, a few development projects have been carried out, providing international courses on sustainability (e.g. University College Northern Jutland, University College LilleBaelt). What characterises these and other good examples is that it is seminars, workshops or collaborations, with the main purpose of establishing interest or mutual inspiration about ESD that works, and not formalised staff training (Mader et al., 2014, p. 41). This does not mean that ESD is not practised, as there are examples of integration of sustainability in courses and projects. The Danish way is to create interdisciplinary staff teams. Where there is strong collaboration among those teachers, this can be very effective – however, when this is not the case, there is a risk that sustainability is seen as an add-on, which is not really related to the wider institutional strategy. 4.2

ESD at AAU – an integrative PBL approach

In the following, internal enablers for ESD will be presented by emphasising the importance of the educational model (4.2.1), the approach to ESD at university and faculty level (4.2.2) as well

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as on formal school and program levels (4.2.3) and, last but not least, examples of ESD practice. 4.2.1

Educational model and alignment with ESD

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All educational programs at Aalborg University are based on the Aalborg model of problemoriented, project based learning, with emphasis on interdisciplinary, team-based and participant directed learning. The Aalborg model takes its point of departure as real/life authentic, practical or purely theoretical problems depending on the overall objective of the learning process (Kolmos and de Graaff, 2014). In the Faculty of Engineering and Science, problem based learning is structured as a combined 50/50 lecture courses and projects. In the projects, the students work in self-selected and self-directed groups of up to 8 persons. The courses are taught courses but, whenever possible, are in an inductive and active mode, where the students are actively engaged.

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In every case the problem has to be analysed in the context in which it has evolved and is to be addressed. A problem can arise from the fact that some people consider a certain situation as unsatisfactory (aligned with a common-sense understanding of a problem), but a problem can also be to identify by the lack of attention/action to a yet unexplored potential or opportunity, a vision or a lack of knowledge (Holgaard et al., 2013).

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Whatever the point of departure, the students have to analyse the problem and align the problem with possible contributions in their field of study. In this way they narrow down the problem and formulate a concrete problem related to their engineering and science field without neglecting the context in which their techno-scientific solutions are to be appropriated. This problem oriented and project based learning model offers an appropriate platform for integrating ESD considering the interrelated primary requirements for education for sustainability summarised by (Sterling, 2014, pp. 22–24). This call for contextual, learningcentred, socially orientated learning and the specific reference to experiential learning cycles and democratic ownership are directly aligned to the problem based learning principles above. 4.2.2

University and faculty ESD strategy

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Aalborg University is committed to the COPERNICUS Charta where sustainable development has to be given fundamental status in the university strategies and promote comprehensive and integrated sustainability actions in relation to its functions (Copernicus Alliance, 2011). This is supported by Green campus initiatives and specific faculty strategies for ESD.

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Although the main activities in the Green campus initiative have been related to environmental management of campus operations, initiatives have started to grow by supplementing the concept of a green campus activity with a concept of ”Green Knowledge” focusing on integrating sustainability into research and educational programs and ”Green minds” with special attention to the attitudes and behavioural patterns of employees and students in relation to environment and sustainability (Aalborg University, 2014). At the Faculty of Engineering and Science, the Dean has allocated strategic funds to support the development and continuation of the problem based and project based learning (PBL) model in the engineering and science domain alongside an increasing focus on integrating sustainability in the educational programs. This cross-faculty organisation and global network under the UNESCO Chair of Problem based learning in Engineering was, in 2014, further institutionalised into the Aalborg Centre for Problem Based Learning in Engineering Science and Sustainability under the auspices of UNESCO (UCPBL). The Aalborg Centre embraces and aligns Engineering Education Research (EER), PBL as well as ESD, reaching internally into the faculty as well as externally out to the global Engineering Education research community by, PhD-training, staff development activities, consultancy and network activities (UCPBL, 2014). 4.2.3

Strategy at formal school and program level

The Faculty of Engineering and Science at AAU includes three Schools, and the Heads of Schools are active players in a taskforce initiating implementation and development of

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sustainability in existing programs under UCPBL. The strategy has been to investigate already existing ESD initiatives in the institutions, and build on those experiences to plan for the implementation of further activities. Based on the recommendations from this analysis, the next step is to initiate concrete experiments in three programs at Aalborg University, where sustainability is neither integrated in the formal curricula nor have best practices been reported.

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In the study of existing ESD initiatives at AAU, funded by the Faculty of Engineering and Science, a document analysis of 111 study programs showed that in more than half of the programs there was no mention of sustainability indicators extracted from the Global Report Initiative (Hansen et al., 2014, p. 24). However, a follow-up study, including in-depth interviews with chairpersons of study-boards and a questionnaire identifying good examples of teaching that integrate aspects of sustainability, revealed that even though sustainability was not integrated in the formal curricula, ESD was practised occasionally and personal interest and commitment to sustainability was one of the strongest drivers (Hansen et al., 2014). Examples of ESD practice





The integration of sustainability was initiated by presenting a semester theme that related to sustainability, for example, sustainable lifestyles. As a part of the introduction to the semester theme, a workshop on sustainability was held. Within this theme, students themselves identified and analysed a problem and argued for different solutions that would foster a more sustainable lifestyle. They combined knowledge in the domain of media-technology with sustainability science, facilitated by two supervisors from each of these domains. The students were strongly encouraged to use contextual inquiry to explore attitudes and behavioural patterns related to sustainability, and their media-technology product was targeted to make a change of these patterns.

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One of the examples of the integration of sustainability in the PBL learning environment is from the Bachelor program of Media Technology. Some of the characteristics from this case were that (Holgaard et al., 2013):

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The interdisciplinary staff-team, the open-ended thematic frame, the design methods calling for contextual inquiry and students agency to foster change is aligned with the hybrid and integrated model of engineering education and the emphasis on contextual knowledge, cultural awareness and sustainability agency (Jamison et al., 2014). However, the study of the case in media-technology also showed that the students found it very hard to address sustainability without a defined platform of subject knowledge as the students experienced a scope which was too large for them to cope with in the learning situation. This reinforces the call for a common understanding of sustainability that both students and teaching staff can use, as noted in the study at the faculty level (Hansen et al., 2014).

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A case-study of the integration of sustainability in the specialization Urban Planning and Management in the Master of Urban, Energy and Environmental Planning at Aalborg University (Guerra, 2014) also brought attention to the challenge students face when addressing the complex and ambiguous concept of sustainability. Even though students struggle to select an appropriate sustainability approach for their profession, the self-directed way of constructing an understanding of sustainability in relation to different projects motivate students to reflect, take a stand and discover potential relations between the sustainability literature and their own field of practice (Guerra and Holgaard, 2013). As one of the students stated: “I’ve been working with sustainability at least two semesters, and I know I have a very clear and comprehensive understanding of what sustainability is, but it would be very interesting if this institution kind of have its own official understanding of sustainability. That also would have limited us in some of my project, because there was this one semester where I, myself, used a lot of time describing what sustainability could be in an urban planning context. And I would not have done that if they had an explicit explanation of what it was. Then… OK, we may have used our time in something else but however this was the way we learned what sustainability is, or at least how we see it”

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As noted by (Guerra and Holgaard, 2013) it is a balance in the curriculum process to make the curriculum so open that the students can in fact construct their own view and select the most relevant aspects of sustainability in relation to the problem they are studying, and at the same time make sure that all students are guided through all relevant aspects of the multidimensional concept of sustainability.

5.

The system engineering approach to ESD – the Australian case

5.1

The external context for ESD in Australia

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In the following, the Australian case story is presented with the purpose of capturing the types of and enablers of the ESD practices. In section 6, the case story will be synthesised into the proposed ESD framework and compared with the Danish case (section 4).

5.1.1

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Four main external enablers will be emphasised as important for the ESD activities at RMIT University, considering the government context (5.1.1), Engineers Australia’s accreditation framework (5.1.2), specific government funded projects (5.1.3) and finally the importance of universities themselves (5.1.4) when entering into cross-institutional collaborations. Government context

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Since the election of the Liberal-National government in 2013, there has been a reduction in support for sustainability in Australia. The new government has been steadily removing support for renewable energy and other responses to climate change, such as abolishing the ‘carbon tax’. The government also appears to be reducing its support for renewable energy targets, which are modest by Danish standards: 20% of Australian energy from renewables by 2020. In Denmark that figure is 50% by 2020 and 100% by 2050. So, the long-term support for ESD from this government looks bleak.

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Nevertheless, good work has been done in the last decade by previous governments, particularly in encouraging the efficient use of energy (Department of Environment, 2010)(Department of Industry, 2014) and website eex.gov.au. One aspect of this work in higher education was to convene a higher education Energy Efficiency Advisory Group that would develop means to increase education around energy efficiency, particularly in engineering programs. This work eventually led to two contracts to develop resources to support teachers in universities in energy efficiency. Queensland University of Technology and the Australian National University are leading these two projects. The resources are expected to be available in late 2014 or early 2015.

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The government has also been active in supporting education for sustainability across K-10 school education by providing a curriculum framework (Department of Environment, 2010). The downloadable framework for curriculum developers and policy makers establishes a national curriculum in sustainability. State governments have also been active, for example, the New South Wales, (NSW Dept of Education and Communities, 2014). The Department has established 25 Zoo and Education Centres to help school children learn about sustainability and the environment: “learn about the environment, investigate and solve issues in the environment, acquire attitudes of care and concern for the environment, adopt behaviours and practices which protect the environment, and understand the principles of ecologically sustainable development”. In higher education, the New South Wales Government has also funded a range of training courses to help business to become more energy efficient (NSW Environment & Heritage, 2014). Another is the Energy Efficiency Training Module from The Australian Research Institute for Environment and Sustainability (ARIES, 2011). These initiatives are, overwhelmingly, centred on environmental issues and, specifically, climate change issues. Addressing climate change on the driest continent on Earth, with its implications for food security and water availability, is likely the most pressing social dimension of sustainability in Australia.

5.1.2

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Engineers Australia’s accreditation framework

Engineers Australia accredits engineering programs in Australia by specifying the Stage 1 Competency Standard (Engineers Australia, 2011), which defines those outcomes that a graduate should be able to demonstrate at the end of their university education. Engineering programs must demonstrate how these outcomes are achieved in order to achieve accreditation. Australia is a signatory to the Washington Accord, which ensures international recognition for graduates of Australian programs (International Engineering Alliance, 2007). The elements of competency relevant to ESD are elements 1.5a, 1.6c, 1.6d, 2.1g, 2.3b, 2.4e, 2.4f and 3.1c (below). Knowledge of contextual factors impacting the engineering discipline:

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1.5

a) Identifies and understands the interactions between engineering systems and people in the social, cultural, environmental, commercial, legal and political contexts in which they operate, including both the positive role of engineering in sustainable development and the potentially adverse impacts of engineering activity in the engineering discipline. Understanding of the scope, principles, norms, accountabilities and bounds of contemporary engineering practice in the engineering discipline:

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1.6

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c) Appreciates the principles of safety engineering, risk management and the health and safety responsibilities of the professional engineer, including legislative requirements applicable to the engineering discipline. d) Appreciates the social, environmental and economic principles of sustainable engineering practice. Application of established engineering methods to complex engineering problem solving: g) Identifies, quantifies, mitigates and manages technical, health, environmental, safety and other contextual risks associated with engineering application in the designated engineering discipline. Application of systematic engineering synthesis and design processes:

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b) Addresses broad contextual constraints such as social, cultural, environmental, commercial, legal political and human factors, as well as health, safety and sustainability imperatives as an integral part of the design process. 2.4

Application of systematic approaches to the conduct and management of engineering projects:

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e) Is aware of the need to plan and quantify performance over the full lifecycle of a project, managing engineering performance within the overall implementation context. f) Demonstrates commitment to sustainable engineering practices and the achievement of sustainable outcomes in all facets of engineering project work. Ethical conduct and professional accountability

c) Understands the accountabilities of the professional engineer and the broader engineering team for the safety of other people and for protection of the environment. Despite this substantial collection of required outcomes, it would be fair to say that the demonstration of the outcomes by engineering schools at accreditation time is weak, though improving. There continues to be an over-focus on technical outcomes through the four year programs with a few exceptions, e.g. (Hadgraft et al., 2004b). One project that has attracted Engineers Australia’s support over several years is the Natural Edge Project (TNEP, 2014). This group of young engineers, founded in 2002, have been resolute leaders in the field, producing 5 books and 10 sets of learning resources, including Whole System Design, which sets out a 10 step process for the design of engineering systems incorporating a whole systems approach (Stasinopoulos et al., 2011). TNEP has attracted funding from a range of national and international funding agencies.

5.1.3

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Government funded learning and teaching projects

Over the last 25 years, the Australian Government has funded innovation in learning and teaching in Australian universities through a succession of agencies, the most recent of which have been the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the current Office for Learning and Teaching (OLT) in the Federal Department of Education. Both of these groups have funded several projects on sustainability (Office for Learning & Teaching, 2014).

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Many of these projects are also reported on the Sustainability.edu.au website, which has been developed through at least two projects, with the purpose of building a community of practice around the teaching of sustainability. Each academic can establish their own profile and use it to make teaching materials available to others. Each institution can also highlight the programs that they teach with a significant sustainability focus. The site can be searched to find materials and also people who can assist in the further development of teaching practices. Universities themselves

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The Talloires Declaration (University Leaders for a Sustainable Future, 2001) was composed in 1990. Universities around the world have become signatories, including 60% of Australian universities (University Leaders for a Sustainable Future, 2014). One tangible outcome from these efforts has been the establishment of the International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education (Emerald Publishing, 2014).

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In 2000, the Global Sustainability Institute was established at RMIT University in Melbourne, to encourage the development of sustainable practices within the University and in partner organisations. This institute has now closed though replaced by several other centres at RMIT focussed on sustainability. The National Centre for Sustainability at Swinburne University of Technology was established in 2002 and continues to work across organisations to provide education for sustainability services, including its Education for Sustainability Hub (National Centre for Sustainability, 2014).

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Another initiative is the Australasian Campuses Towards Sustainability (ACTS, 2014) originating in 1990. “ACTS aims to inspire, promote and support change towards best practice sustainability within the operations, curriculum and research of the Australasian tertiary education sector. We do this by providing resources, knowledge, developmental and networking opportunities for members and by critically challenging and supporting collaboration with stakeholders to lead sustainability innovation in the sector.” ACTS runs the Green Gowns Awards, Australasia to acknowledge good practice in the field.

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In June 2013, a National Forum for Sustainability in Engineering was organised in Sydney, with the sponsorship of the Federal Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism. The intent was to bring together thought leaders from government, industry and academia to discuss the role of sustainability in educating graduates for the workforce. Industry representatives outlined current and recent projects that were transformed by a focus on sustainability. In 2012, a new program in sustainable systems engineering was established at RMIT University to embody a new combination of systems engineering (INCOSE, 2006) and sustainability. This program draws from the mechanical engineering program, with core studies in energy, systems engineering and mathematical modelling and with options in sustainable energy systems and in sustainable transport and logistics. The program includes a project sequence that focuses on a systems approach to solving engineering problems. It begins with Engineering, Society and Sustainability in semester 1 and is followed by Engineering Design for Sustainability (semester 2), Sustainable Systems Design (semester 3), … Students undertake an additional mathematics course in Systems Dynamics and a specific Systems Engineering course. During 2009-2011, the ALTC funded a national Academic Standards Project to develop Threshold Learning Outcomes across the nine discipline clusters represented in higher education (Discipline Scholars Network, 2013). This project is similar to the European Tuning Project (Tuning Project, 2012). Current work is addressing threshold learning outcomes for Environment and Sustainability (McBain et al., 2014). The key outcomes developed so far are: Trans-disciplinary Inquiry; Understanding Complexity; Skills for Environment and Sustainability;

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and Professional, Civic and Personal Responsibility. Each of these meta-skills is divided into finer grained outcomes in the draft standard at the above website. 5.2

ESD at RMIT – a capability and systems approach

Similar to the Danish case the internal enablers for ESD are presented, by addressing the importance of the educational model (5.2.1), the approach to ESD at university and faculty level (5.2.2) as well as at the formal school and program level (5.2.3) and last but not least examples of ESD practice (5.2.4). 5.2.1

Educational model and alignment with ESD

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In 2001, RMIT University started a transformation of all engineering degree programs from traditional content-based curricula to capability-based curricula (Jollands et al., 2005). The focus shifted from a conceptual concern to teach the theory and methods within specialised technical domains, to a professional concern to provide students with the capabilities needed in their future professional practice.

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RMIT has had a long tradition of Program Advisory Committees (PAC) and these committees were used as the focus for setting up industry forums in 2002 to develop the capability based curricula (Hadgraft and Muir, 2003). Through several industry meetings, the diversity and variability of views on engineering capabilities were explored. A Teaching and Learning Director from RMIT facilitated the group discussions and RMIT staff were invited to probe responses. This change from content-based to capability-based curricula had a great impact on the integration of sustainability in the engineering curricula at RMIT, as noted by (Hadgraft et al., 2004a, p. 33): “Working with industry partners to gain a contextualised perspective of engineering for the twenty-first century, we found the traditional view of the engineer as technical problem solver with economic, social and environmental awareness was challenged in favour of a clear focus on sustainability, highlighting the need for trans-disciplinary approaches.”

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The call for a trans-disciplinary approach that moves beyond awareness about sustainability, led to a socio-ecological approach based on the work of (Trist et al., 1997). The socio-ecological approach is “an open system approach based on an appreciation of the levels of interdependence, measured by connectivity and dynamism) between systems and the environments in which they are embedded” (Hadgraft and Muir, 2003, p. 3).

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This open system approach has been influential both in the transformation process of the curricula as different partner perspectives on engineering capabilities have merged, but it has also been influential in terms of changes in the pedagogical approach. Together with an explicit call for capabilities related to teamwork, communication and problem-solving (Hadgraft and Muir, 2003), the pedagogical approach was adapted to capture systems thinking by a blended curriculum including process/project courses as well as technical/technology courses (Hadgraft and Goricanec, 2007). University and Faculty ESD strategy

In more recent times, RMIT has established a Sustainability Committee to provide “leadership, coordination and guidance to the University for integration of sustainability principles and practices throughout the University’s core teaching and learning, research and operational activities.” (RMIT, 2014a). In part of the sustainability policy, tertiary education is required to (RMIT, 2014b): •



Engage students at all levels in learning about relevant sustainability concepts (knowledge, skills and values/attitudes), identifying issues of importance and taking actions in order to empower them as future leaders in industry and society in their chosen field. Embed sustainability capabilities/competencies within disciplinary and professional contexts, including where relevant challenges from beyond narrow or chosen discipline(s).



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Support academic and teaching staff to develop high levels of discipline relevant sustainability literacy so that they are able, competent and confident to facilitate sustainability learning.

However, in reality, little of this staff development occurs except within the initiative of individual academics seeking their own professional development through specialised workshops and conferences, usually related to their research interests.

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Strategy at formal school and program level

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In total, there are 24 courses (units) listed as Sustainability courses on the “Think green at RMIT” website (RMIT, 2014c). The sustainability campus activities are supported by in-house research, primarily related to sustainability science. The Global Cities Institute, for example, embodies a range of research programs related to the sustainability of cities. Other sustainability research is not gathered in a single cross-disciplinary Centre but rather it is a patchwork of research activities related to different disciplines across the university.

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Out of the 23 schools at RMIT, there are 5 engineering and ICT schools: 1) Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, 2) Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering 3) Computer Science and Information Technology 4) Electrical and Computer Engineering and 5) the School of Vocational Engineering (two year qualifications).

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Even though the learning outcomes are aligned with the national accreditation of Engineers Australia, as explained above, the overall learning objectives from the courses that can be seen in the program handbooks of the different engineering degree programs (RMIT, 2014d) are rather broadly related to sustainability. A standard formulation in the knowledge and skill base is for example a) referring to knowledge of contextual factors impacting the engineering discipline and b) understanding the scope, principles, norms, accountabilities and bounds of contemporary engineering practice in the specific discipline.

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However, when specific programs choose to elaborate on the overall Program Learning Outcomes, there are examples of explicit emphasis on sustainability. One example is the Bachelor of Industrial Design where it is stated that on completion of the program the student will be able to “Demonstrate through practice-based design research an advanced knowledge of the socio-technical, environmental and economy eco-systems of industrial design both locally and globally” (RMIT, 2014d).

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The ESD strategy is strongly attached to the change from content-based to capability-based curricula. The focus on professional capabilities has on the other hand not initiated more crossdisciplinary courses. (Goricanec and Hadgraft, 2008, p. 123) argue that there is a lot of sustainability expertise spread across RMIT, but much is “trapped” in the disciplines and furthermore, (Hadgraft et al., 2004a, p. 47) note that engineering programs at RMIT are still trapped in the ‘teach the fundamentals’ model. There is, however, one compulsory crossdisciplinary course, a first year engineering practice course, in each of the three higher education engineering schools. Each of these courses uses a humanitarian engineering project designed by Engineers Without Borders – the EWB Challenge (Engineers Without Borders, 2014) Examples of ESD practice

One example of a blended curriculum is the renewed Bachelor of Chemical Engineering from 2004. In the first year, new project based learning courses were introduced to develop a “capability set made up of personal and professional development, sustainability, problem solving and decision-making, technical competences (engineering analysis), teamwork & leadership and communication” (Jollands et al., 2005, p. 1). One of the project based learning courses is Sustainable Engineering for first year Chemical Engineering students, which is designed to allow a stronger focus on problem based learning, including an increased focus on problem-identification, alternative applications and self-directed teamwork in smaller groups of four students (Jollands et al., 2005).

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Despite developments to provide more blended curricula on the horizontal level (integrating a new type of ESD activity during a semester), the integration of sustainability was also considered in the vertical dimension to address the progression throughout the study in students’ capabilities to address sustainability. For example, in the Civil and Infrastructure Engineering program, introduced in 2003, the progression of sustainability capabilities (Hadgraft et al., 2004b, p. 43) is as follows:

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Year 1. Students study environmental principles for sustainable design and perform a conceptual design project to put these principles into action. Year 2. Students focus on economic principles and project evaluation. Year 3. Students design an eco-home, applying the full range of sustainability principles. Year 4. Students tackle an infrastructure project (rather than a design project) extending the system view. They also study sustainability and lifecycle principles in an accompanying course called Infrastructure Management.

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This way of gradually increasing students’ sustainability capabilities provides possibilities for students to handle the complex nature of sustainability “in parts” and at the same time relate sustainability to professional practice.

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Results and Discussion

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Furthermore, recognising that less-recent engineering graduates will not necessarily have the same system view including not only technical and economic, but also environmental and social aspects in a life cycle perspective, RMIT has introduced a Master of Sustainable Practice, using project based learning methods (Goricanec and Hadgraft, 2006) and adult learning principles (andragogy). Besides, echoing the story of a blended curriculum with focus on continual development of capabilities, this Master’s degree also exemplifies the way that academic and professional practice interact to move the focus from content to capabilities.

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In the following, the results from the comparative case studies as well as the use of the conceptual framework in the case analysis are presented and discussed. Comparing cases – and potentials for change

When the two types of ESD networks are mapped (see figures 2 and 3) some interesting questions and potentials for further development arise.

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Figure 2: Danish context for HE institutions integrating ESD.

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In the Danish case, a lack of focus on ESD in HE from government as well as from accreditation bodies has led to a limited push on universities to integrate sustainability across engineering programs. The Danish government supports ESD initiatives such as the Danish Regional Centre of expertise for ESD and the Aalborg UNESCO centre for Problem Based Learning in Engineering Science and Sustainability, but economic funding is primarily driven by private funds or allocated in university budgets. Therefore, the examples of integration of sustainability into the engineering curricula are mostly due to first movers among educational staff having personal commitments to SD and/or to ESD research. In the Australian case, although there is recently little support from the Australian Government for sustainability efforts, there has been much activity over the last 15 years across governments and universities. Universities themselves have often taken a leading role to champion conversations around sustainability, with a growing focus on climate change. The impact on curricula, despite the focus on sustainability from accreditation bodies has, however, been slow. Although some universities list sustainability as a required graduate outcome, it is often difficult to find clear evidence of explicit sustainability outcomes in program descriptions. Like the Danish case, the ESD integration is fragmented and based on personal commitment rather than a comprehensive strategy.

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For the Danish case, one potential compared to the Australian case is to experiment with vertical integration of ESD in specific programs, and a corresponding question for reflection is, how a call for vertical integration in the curricula corresponds with the open problems and selfdirected learning embedded in the Aalborg model. Another potential is to investigate whether employers in the Danish context emphasise sustainability to the same extent as has been the case in Australia, and how this can be used to motivate students to engage in sustainability in relation to their problem based learning projects. And, last but not least, the systems engineering approach could be explored as a way to integrate the Science, Technology and Society discourses into the engineering way of acting and being.

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For the Australian case, the possibilities of responding to the closing down of centres for ESD in Australia could be to team up with international networks as, for example, the global network related to the Aalborg Centre for PBL in Engineering Science and Sustainability. Another potential is to explore how interdisciplinary staff teams together can facilitate student learning for sustainability and ensure an integration of disciplinary and contextual knowledge.

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This might even implicitly provide technical staff with training about sustainability, and staff with expertise in sustainability science with enough technical knowledge to bridge the two subjects, or rather mind-sets. And as the systems engineering approach has shown, its worth as a conceptual framework for introducing sustainability, as an integrated part of engineering systems, the problem based learning philosophy might be able to lead the way through a focus on problem analysis using collaborative and self-directed learning. Expanding the framework beyond the case studies

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The developed framework includes mapping and stories of ESD activities in the institutions as well as their internal and external enablers. The way the developed framework is brought into use will depend on the state of ESD at institutional level. However, based on experiences with the use of the suggested framework, to analyze the two cases presented, we recommend the following “step-wise-model” consisting of 5 steps. STEP 1: Internal activities

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If not already established, an overview of the different type of activities taking place in an institution can be provided by addressing the following types of ESD activities: 1) university and faculty strategy; 2) sustainability management; 3) development projects; 4) in-house research, 5) staff-training; 6) curricula development (see figure 1). The two case studies show that this “patchwork of practice” offers insight into the informal and maybe not that coordinated strategic trajectory of an institution. The cases brought forward, e.g. the survey to staff, which is further elaborated in Hansen et al (2014), offers possibilities for the screening of internal activities. STEP 2: Enablers of internal activities After identifying core types of activities, the enablers of the activities can be analyzed in order to unfold internal strategic sources. In the cases brought forward in this study, the analysis has been based on both scientific research using both qualitative and quantitative methods. However, both cases point to workshops/seminars as a way to move behind activities and explore enablers. The developed mapping framework (figure 1) provides a possible tool to be used in such workshops – which could also include internal considerations to be made in the following steps. STEP 3: Institutional activities in context The case studies, as well as state of the art, supports the importance of international political or regulatory activities (see for example Alabaster and Blair, 1996) as well as cross-institutional collaboration (see for example Gough and Scott, 2008). The framework offers an overview of

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contextual boundaries experiences as well as previous explored strategic sources for developing ESD. A possible structure of analysis is exemplified in the two case studies presented. STEP 4: Strategic considerations

STEP 5: Establish strategic partnerships

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When the overview of what could be considered as the institutional ESD network (see figures 2 and 3 for examples), a synthesis of the strategic trajectory can be made as exemplified in the case studies presented in this paper. To question and develop this strategic trajectory, the overall conceptual framework for understanding ESD in higher education institutions (Figure 1) can point to actors/resources/type of activities not yet emphasized or connections between variables not yet made – e.g. between students and curricula-development, between specific actors and the potential for partnerships etc.

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When the strategic trajectory is clear, the case studies presented in this paper show clear potential to seek and establish more long-term strategic partnerships for mutual developments. The experience of the authors is, however, that a comparable overview of the situation (as obtained in steps 1-3) and clear objectives (as obtained in step 4) at each of the institutions can foster a more qualified dialogue and possibilities for cross-fertilization.

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For strategic considerations and the establishment of partnerships, the analysis should take into consideration the limitation of the chosen network approach (see section 2.2), and additional attention to socio-political processes as well as the chosen sustainability discourse is recommended.

Conclusion

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In this paper, a conceptual framework for creating an overview of ESD activities has been introduced and, by comparing different ESD institutional profiles, we have pointed to potential change strategies.

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The proposed conceptual framework provides a mapping tool to get an overview of actors, activities and resources and offers the opportunity to question the constellation of these. What characterises the landscape of activities? Should other actors be involved as enablers as specific disciplines? Are the connection between resources and activities optimal in terms of getting the best out of the available resources? What strategic trajectory can be interpreted from the way activities, actors and resources are tied together – and is this the way we want to go? Such reflective questions point to a clarification of present and future ESD trajectories of universities and we have done that in a comparative analysis of Danish and Australian case studies.

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The comparative analysis shows two different approaches to integrate sustainability into engineering education, considering external as well as internal enablers. In the Danish case, the main external enablers have been the growing research communities, which from an academic position, explore different models and potentials for integrating sustainability into engineering education. Support from UNESCO to explore and develop problem-based learning (PBL) in an education for sustainable development perspective in combination with strong faculty support has played a pivotal role. In the Australian case, the enablers have been more related to political and accreditation frameworks providing minimum requirements for integration of sustainability into the curricula, whereas capability studies have increased the incentive for ESD from an employability perspective. Whereas the type of activities in the Danish case has been more research based in relation to PBL, the starting point in the Australian case is case-examples of curriculum changes initiated by capability studies and pockets of staff engagement that move selected curricula beyond the requirements from accreditation bodies. The potential synergy is revealed and future research will show the strength of integrating PBL with a more capability-based curricula.

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Based on the interplay between the conceptual framework for understanding ESD activities and enablers at institutional level and the case-examples, we have proposed the following five-step model:

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1. Get an overview of different types of ESD activities taking place in an institution, identifying actors and resources. 2. Identify the internal enablers of the ESD activity in order to unfold the use of internal strategic sources. 3. Provide an overview of the national context for ESD to clarify contextual boundaries as well as previous explored strategic sources. 4. Make a synthesis of the strategic trajectory for ESD and use this as a platform to question and develop a more explicit strategy by reflecting on the actors/resources/type of activities not emphasized or connections between those that are not made. 5. Seek and establish more long-term strategic partnerships for mutual developments to support the strategy for engineering education for sustainable development.

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The findings provided in this paper show that there is considerable potential for crossfertilisation when comparing different ESD-networks and potentials for rethinking the current approach to ESD. Looking for the exceptions (the black swan among the whites) can provide inspiration for further development of an ESD strategy that exemplifies the path from rhetorical statements to practical implementations.

8.

References

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In doing so, however, one has to be careful, as the framework is focused on activities and possibilities for change – not so much on the change processes themselves. Therefore, future research on how to link the proposed framework to research on change processes draws attention, including different types of collaborative learning, socio-political dynamics as well as selection processes considering the inter-linkages between different perspectives on sustainability and the engineering discipline. The puzzle is far from complete and this article only represents a modest attempt to provide a suitable piece to the picture – we hope it will find a purpose in the development of ESD strategies around the world.

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University Leaders for a Sustainable Future, 2014. Talloires Declaration Institutional Signatory List [WWW Document]. URL http://www.ulsf.org/programs_talloires.html (accessed 8.20.14). Wals, A.E., 2014. Sustainability in higher education in the context of the UN DESD: a review of learning and institutionalization processes. J. Clean. Prod. 62, 8–15.

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT ACTIVITIES(

EXTERNAL(

Regula2on *Standardiza2on******Stakeholder*engagement** Commitment*to*interna2onal*declara2ons,*charters*etc.**

University*and*faculty*ESD*strategy* Sustainability*management* Development*projects*on*ESD* In;house*ESD*Research* Staff;training*for*ESD** ESD*curricula*development*

ACTORS(

RESOURCES(

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ACTIVITIES(

INTERNAL(

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ACTORS( * Authori?es *Accredita?on*bodies ** Employers*********************NGOs*related*to*ESD* Pre;*and*high*schools****Other*HE*ins?tu?ons****ESD*research*communi?es* *

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Internal*funding* Documented*ESD**results* Documented*student*outcomes* Physical*facili?es*

Engineering*students* University*and*faculty*management* School*and*program*management** Interdisciplinary*scien?fic*staff***

RESOURCES(

Documented*ESD*research*and*prac2ces** Out*of*university*sites*of*learning* Economic*funding*

 

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT POLITICAL(AND(INSTITUTIONAL(CONTEXT(FOR(HE(INTEGRATING(ESD( No$regula.on$and$standardiza.on$for$HE$ Commitment$to$interna.onal$frameworks$ $$

AAU(

Commitment(to(COPERNICUS(Charta( PBL(framework(aligned(with(ESD( Green(Campus(acBviBes( ESD(Research(and(Development(projects( UpEcoming(staffEtraining(for(ESD(( Lack(of(formal(curriculaEintegraBon(

ACTORS(

RI PT

ACTIVITIES(

RESOURCES(

Key(actors:(( Faculty(&(school(management,(( Aalborg(Center(under(UNESCO,(( InternaBonal(partners,(( ESD(pioneers(among(staff(((

HE$and$SD$research$plaCorm$–$newly$joined$ Tradi.on$for$company?Engineering$HEI$collabora.on$

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Key$actors:$Interna.onal$organisa.ons$like$UNESCO,$HEI$$ Emerging$ESD$communi.es,$Pre?$and$high$schools$

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Faculty(support( Documented(cases(of(ESD( InterEdisciplinary(staffEteam( Out(of(classEroom(learning(

 

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT EXTERNAL(CONTEXT(FOR(HE(INTEGRATING(ESD( No(regula3on(of(ESD(in(HE( Sustainability(in(the(accredita3on(framework(

RMIT(

Sustainable+Campus+strategy+ Capability+and+system+approach+ Limited+in7house+ESD+Research+ Up7coming+staff+training+ Up7coming+staff7training+for+ESD++ Integra?on+of+ESD+in+formal+curricula+ Examples+of+horizontal+and+ver?cal+curricula+ integra?on++of+ESD+

ACTORS(

RESOURCES(

University+support+for+sustainable+ campus+ac?vi?es+ Documented+capability+research+ Cases+of+curricula+integra?on+ Business+engagement+

SC

Key+actors:++ Sustainability+CommiEee+ Business+partners+ School+and+program+management+ ESD+pioneers+among+staff+++

Engineers(Australia,(( Front(runner(Universi3es,( Business(partners.( ((

RI PT

ACTIVITIES(

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Government(funds(to(projects(–(however(decreasing( ESD(knowledge(plaCorm(from((mostly(previous)(centres( Tradi3on(for(companyHEngineering(HEI(collabora3on(