Structural and magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth orthoferrite perovskite: TmFeO3

Structural and magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth orthoferrite perovskite: TmFeO3

Journal Pre-proofs Research paper Structural and magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth orthoferrite perovskite: TmFeO3 Poorva Sharma, R. Masrour, A...

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Journal Pre-proofs Research paper Structural and magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth orthoferrite perovskite: TmFeO3 Poorva Sharma, R. Masrour, A. Jabar, Jiyu Fan, Ashwini Kumar, Langsheng Ling, Chunlan Ma, Caixia Wang, Hao Yang PII: DOI: Reference:

S0009-2614(19)31038-3 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2019.137057 CPLETT 137057

To appear in:

Chemical Physics Letters

Received Date: Revised Date: Accepted Date:

28 October 2019 25 November 2019 21 December 2019

Please cite this article as: P. Sharma, R. Masrour, A. Jabar, J. Fan, A. Kumar, L. Ling, C. Ma, C. Wang, H. Yang, Structural and magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth orthoferrite perovskite: TmFeO3, Chemical Physics Letters (2019), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2019.137057

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© 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Structural and magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth orthoferrite perovskite: TmFeO3 Poorva Sharmaa,*, R. Masrourb,*, A. Jabarb, Jiyu Fana,*, Ashwini Kumarc, Langsheng Lingd, Chunlan Mae, Caixia Wangf, Hao Yanga,* a

Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016, China

bLaboratory

of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cadi Ayyad University, National School of Applied Sciences, PB 63 46000, Safi, Morocco

cSchool dHigh

of Physics, Southeast University, Jiangning district, Nanjing, 211189, China

Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, China

eJiangsu

Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Heat Fluid Flow Technology, School of

Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China fCollege

of Physics Science and Technology, Yangshou University, Yangzhou, 225002, China

Abstract: We presented the structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric data for perovskite TmFeO3. XRD revealed distorted orthorhombic structure (Pbnm) for TmFeO3. Spin-reorientation transition was confirmed through magnetic susceptibility. -ΔSM(max) is 13.72 Jkg-1K-1 at the temperature of 85 K under ΔH = 6 T, with the RCP value of 676 J/kg. -ΔSM(max) and RCP values were increased with the applied field, possibly due to the d-f exchange interactions. The magnetic hysteresis cycles are established for different values of temperatures. These properties make it a potential candidate used for magnetic refrigerants. For magnetic refrigeration application, very large refrigeration capacity is also required along with large entropy change value.

Keywords: Perovskite; Magnetocaloric effect; Magnetic refrigeration; Functional applications *Corresponding

authors: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected],

[email protected]

1.

Introduction

Currently, the aim of the search is to find efficient functional magnetocaloric materials that can show huge magnetocaloric properties with a change in applied magnetic fields at or near room temperature. Magnetic refrigeration (MR) techniques which are based on magnetocaloric effect (MCE) are more efficient as compared to conventional gas compression techniques and are received great attention for a long time which is a remarkable unconventional cooling and extremely efficient environment-friendly refrigeration technique [1-7]. The MCE generated when the materials may well be heated or cooled upon the applied magnetic field of the sample [5]. In the past decade, MR has set up extensive commercial and industrial applications, such as in large-scale airconditioners, chemical processing, gas liquefication as well as bulky refrigerators [2]. The main important parameters to evaluate the magnetocaloric properties of any magnetic material are the isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) and relative cooling power (RCP) [8, 9]. In the last few decades, many compounds have been reported which have second-order phase transition (SOPT), display the large MCE and RCP values [10, 11]. However, the first-order phase transition (FOPT) delivers a narrow ΔSM peak which reduces the effective RCP [12-14]. Also, several compounds with following second-order magnetic transitions have also been found to exhibit large MCE, exhibit ΔSM distribution over a wide temperature region, and have a large RCP [15-17]. In recent years, the rare earth orthoferrites, RFeO3 (R = rare-earth ions) have shown great interest, as their magnetic spin-reorientation transition (SRT) behavior may open new directions in the field of spintronics [18-20]. Moreover, these materials have been reported to unveil multifunctional properties due to the local structural inhomogeneity or complex magnetic interaction between the R and the Fe3+ cation [21]. RFeO3 with a general formula of ABO3 exhibits an orthorhombic distorted perovskite structure with a space group of Pbnm [22]. Source of magnetic behavior and magnetoelectric coupling in RFeO3 is not only the magnetic interaction between the 3d spins of the transition metals but also with and in between the 4f moments of the rare-earth ions such as Fe3+-Fe3+, Fe3+-R3+, and R3+R3+ as RFeO3 have two magnetic sublattices (R3+ and Fe3+) [23]. RFeO3 orders G-type antiferromagnetically due to the exchange coupling of Fe3+-Fe3+ below the Neel temperature. Whereas, the other two types of exchange couplings between Fe3+-R3+ and PS TFO MC November 2019

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R3+-R3+ account for various fascinating magnetic phenomena, such as spin reorientation, large MCE, and temperature-induced magnetization reversal [24]. For example, TmFeO3 and YbFeO3 exhibit SRT at the transition temperature of 85 K and 10 K, respectively [25]. Basically, perovskite TmFeO3 is an antiferromagnetic insulator and due to the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction, the spins are canted and result in a small magnetic moment [26]. The presence of spin reorientation transition in TmFeO3 was documented as second-order phase transitions at T1 ∼ 80K and T2 ∼ 91 K for Г4 → Г24 → Г2 [27-29]. The spin-reorientation transitions, complex magnetic interactions and large magnetic moments of Tm3+ ion are the main reasons to investigate the magnetocaloric effect in TmFeO3. As a result, interesting magnetic behaviors are strongly dependent on several external stimulations, such as applied magnetic field, temperature, and pressure, etc. To date, several prototype RFeO3 with impressive MCE properties have been reported [25, 30, 31]. The giant or very large magnetic entropy change was obtained in various kinds of magnetic materials, including rare-earth perovskite-type manganites, (La1-xMx)MnO3 (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba), La1.38Sr1.62Mn2O7, and Nd0.55Sr0.45MnO3, etc. [6, 32-35]. Hence, in this paper, we have presented an extensive investigation of magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of TmFeO3 using Monte Carlo simulations and along with we have kept the structural study details of TmFeO3. A theoretical work using Monte Carlo simulations on magnetization versus temperature has been done. It is used as phenomenological model for simulation of magnetization dependence on temperature variation to predict magnetocaloric properties such as magnetic entropy change and relative cooling power.

2.

Experimental details:

The polycrystalline sample TmFeO3 was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction route using Tm2O3 and Fe2O3 as starting materials. The starting materials were mixed with acetone and ground in an agate mortar than put into high pure alumina (99:99%) crucible to heat up to 450 and 650 C for 6 hours and 24 hours, respectively. The resulting powder was then ground and heated at 1250 C for 48 hours with several intermediate grindings. To confirm the purity of the sample, powder X-ray diffraction was performed at room temperature using Rigaku 18 kW D/MAX 2550 powder diffractometer and CuK1 PS TFO MC November 2019

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radiation ( = 1.5406 Å). The data were collected at room temperature with a step size of 0.02 over the angular range 2 (20 < 2 < 80). The crystal structure was refined by the Rietveld method on the powder XRD data by using FullPROF suite software [36]. Measurements of magnetization as functions of temperature and magnetic fields were performed using physical property measurement system PPMS-9, Quantum Design, Inc. using a 3He refrigerator. Zero-field-cooling (ZFC) process was used to acquire the temperature dependence of the magnetization.

3.

Theoretical model and simulation method

The system is defined by the Hamiltonian, in the presence of the magnetic field H, as follows:

H 



i, j

J ij Si S j 

   J H S       kl k l   i  i  k ,l i  i 

(1)

where i, j  and  k , l  , hold the first nearest neighbors (nn) and second nearest neighbors (snn) sites (i and j) and (k and l), respectively. The spin magnetic moments of Fe3+ and Tm3+ are S = 5/2 and =1; hence, we associate the 2S + 1 and 2+1 possible spin projections (-5/2; -3/2; -1/2; 1/2; 3/2; 5/2) and (-1;0;+1). The exchanges couplings Jij and Jkl represent nn and snn between the (Tm-Tm1, Fe-Fe1, Tm-Fe1) and (Tm-Tm2, Fe-Fe2, TmFe2), respectively in TmFeO3 such as represent in Fig. 1. The values of exchanges couplings JFeFe1, JFeFe2, JTmTm1, JTmTm2, JTmFe1, and JTmFe2 are: 6.1, 5.9, 5.1, 4.9, 5.2 and 5.3, respectively, and have been obtained via Full potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave method [37] which performs density functional theory calculations using the local density approximation. The positions of each atoms in TmFeO3 has been given in Table 2. TmFeO3 has been formed by Tm, Fe and O with the valence electron configurations 4f136s2, 3d64s2, and 2s22p4, respectively and it is assumed to reside in the unit cells and the system consists of the total number of spins N = NTm + NFe=3584 atoms (with NTm = NFe = 1792). The Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) update was performed by choosing random spins and then flipped with Boltzmann based probability using Fortran program. The cyclic boundary conditions on the lattice were imposed and the configurations were generated by sequentially traversing the lattice and making single-spin flip attempts. At each PS TFO MC November 2019

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temperature of the system, the Monte Carlo steps per spin, which are supposed to vary between 200000 and 400000, were used for computing the averages of thermodynamic quantities after 100000 initial MCS has been discarded to achieve the equilibrium. Internal energy per site of TmFeO3 is given follow equation: E

1 H N S  N

(2)

The magnetization per spin of Fe3+ and Tm3+ ions in TmFeO3 are: M S 5/2 

1 NS

S

i

and M  1 

i

1 N



i

.

i

The total magnetization M is also given by: M

N M   N S M S N  N S

(3) The magnetic entropy is given by: Cm 2  2 2 dT with Cm   E  E  is the magnetic specific. N  T  0

T

S m T , H   

The magnetic entropy change is given by: S m T , H  

H max

 0

 M    dh ,  T  Hi

(4)

where Hmax the maximum applied field T2

The relative cooling power (RCP) can be calculated as: RCP   Sm T  dT

(5)

T1

where, T1 and T2 are the cold and hot temperatures, respectively. We used the Eq. (5) of RCP given above to calculate the relative cooling power, RCP.

4.

Results and discussion

The crystal structure of the prepared polycrystalline TmFeO3 (TFO) sample was studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns followed by Rietveld refinement, as shown in Fig. 2. All the peaks observed in the XRD spectra match well with standard data PDF#741474 for TmFeO3. It has been found that TFO can be indexed as an orthorhombically distorted perovskite structure with the Pbnm space group. As predicted from XRD data, PS TFO MC November 2019

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the crystallinity and phase purity of the TFO sample is good as all the peaks are properly defined and correctly indexed. The powder XRD pattern [Fig. 1] is well refined according to the space group Pbnm, which demonstrates single phase of the sample without any impurities. The refinement results give the lattice constant a = 5.2555 (9) Å, b = 5.5783 (15) Å and c = 7.5945 (3) Å. In this orthorhombic structure, four formula units are present per unit cell where Fe3+ ion is surrounded and coupled by six neighboring O2− ions in a FeO6 octahedron. The Tm3+ is situated at a crystallographic position of 4c, magnetic Fe3+ ion is at 4b; and, oxygen ions are located at two different crystallographic sites at 4c and 8d, respectively. The refined lattice parameters (a, b, c, bond length, bond angles, unit cell volume, and goodness of fit) are presented in Table I, which are in good agreement with the earlier reported data [27, 38]. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility properties as a function of temperature (i.e. M-(T) and (T), respectively) measured for TmFeO3 are presented in Fig. 3(a). We have noticed the maximum change in magnetization is at a temperature of 85 K also a clear magnetic transition that represents a second-order magnetic transition from ferromagnetic (FM) to a paramagnetic (PM) phase [27, 39, 40]. Temperature and magnetic field induced spin-reorientation transition (SRT) occurred in between the temperature of 80 K and 95 K, where the magnetization decreasing abruptly with the increasing temperature indicated spin-reorientation of Fe3+ ions. Below 80 K, the magnetization arises with decreasing temperature due to the reorientation of Fe3+ and/or Tm3+ spin in the domain boundaries [41]. The obtained value of TSR is comparable with those obtained in earlier reported data [24, 40]. In Fig. 3(a), the theoretically observed temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibly χ(T) is also shown which revealed the spin reorientation temperature, TSR, of TFO in between 80-95 K, which is in good agreement with the dc magnetic results [40] and we can see that prominent spin reorientation transitions exist in this material. The observed d(χ)/dT ZFC curve for TFO shows a magnetic transition at a temperature of 80 K identified as TSR as shown in Fig. 3(b). The predicted and observed transition region is in well coincide with the calculated magnetization and magnetic susceptibility data [Fig. 3(a)]. The large value of spin entropy change (-ΔSM(max)) by varying applied magnetic field is desirable for any magnetic refrigeration technology and large efficiency, small volume, PS TFO MC November 2019

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non–pollutant, contamination-free, etc., are the appreciable advantages of magnetic refrigeration [42, 43]. The thermal variation of the magnetic entropy changes for TFO with the different external magnetic fields from H = 1 to 6 T is shown in Fig. 4a. The usual behavior of change of entropy is noticed, the magnitudes of -ΔS increase with an increase in the magnetic field since a larger magnetic field induces a larger magnetization thus leading to higher -ΔSM(max) according to the thermodynamic Maxwell relation. With an increase in the temperature from very low temperature, the magnitude of -ΔS of TFO first increases and exhibits maximum entropy changes at ∼ 85 K (TSR) and decreases thereafter. The maxima of magnetic entropy (-ΔSM(max)) changes were observed to originates from the spin-reorientation transition (TSR = 85 K) which was 13.72 Jkg-1K-1 under an external magnetic field of 6 T. Also, the broad magnetic entropy curves in Fig. 4a is seen as a noteworthy feature, indicating the second-order FM - PM magnetic phase transition. The width at a half maximum spreads up to a wide temperature range (of about 40 K) for a field variation equal to 6 T. Structural distortion could be a reason to increase in full width at half maximum (FWHM) of TFO with an increase in the applied magnetic field. In the surrounding temperature of spin reorientation for the TFO sample, we additionally observed a significant change in entropy at the low-temperature region with a variation in the applied fields of 1-6 T. The peak in a lower region of SRT may be responsible for the long-range spin reorientation of Fe3+ sublattice, whereas, toward the higher side might be described by the anisotropic magnetic interaction between Tm3+ and Fe3+ [44]. Furthermore, the antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions through the ferromagnetic (FM) mass is apparent as of the slight changes in the negative slope of -ΔSM values [45]. The similar behavior is observed in the experimental study of magnetocaloric and magnetic properties of other rare earth orthoferrites perovskite [30, 31, 42]. The large magnetic entropy changes in high fields make this compound important for potential applications in magnetic refrigeration. The sign of the –ΔSM concerning the T curve plays a vital role to identify the kind of magnetic transition occurred in the sample [46, 47]. To describe, a -ve sign (i.e inverse MCE) signifies an antiferromagnetic transition and a +ve sign (i.e. normal MCE) indicates a ferromagnetic ordering with the application of the magnetic field. Here, we have noticed the positive values in –ΔSM(max) vs. T curves as shown in Fig. 4a for TFO, clearly indicate PS TFO MC November 2019

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the ferromagnetic transition in this sample [48]. In the ferromagnetic section, the magnetic entropy changes improved until it reached its maximum value with the temperature increases because the spins became unsaturated due to an increase in thermal agitation. While the magnetic entropy was decreased with an increase in temperature in the paramagnetic region. The maximum in the -SM for the TFO sample was detected across their respective TSR values. Furthermore, there is a large magnetic entropy change at higher magnetic field values which, suggests that a robust spin-lattice coupling in the magnetic transition process would lead to an additional magnetic entropy change in the vicinity of TSR. The maximum magnetic entropy change (-SM(max)) of TFO for several external magnetic fields H=1 to 6T is shown in Fig.4b. The field dependence of -SM(max)(T, H) increases rapidly at TSR=85 K. This possibly reflects the anisotropy field in TFO at TSR such as

observed in previous work [25]. For practical applications, the wide range of temperature is also essential in addition to the high value of SM [49]. The relative cooling power (RCP) is a measurement of heat quantity transferred by the magnetic refrigerant between hot and cold sinks [50]. The RCP usually discriminates the magnetocaloric properties of a material and marks its forthcoming applicability in magnetic refrigeration technology. The field dependence of RCP values derived from the magnetic entropy curves for the TFO samples is plotted in Fig. 5 for TSR=85 K. We have noticed that the RCP values increase linearly with the applied magnetic field. In general, better the RCP for a given magnetic field the better the material’s ferromagnetic refrigeration. Fig. 6 represents the magnetic hysteresis curves for TmFeO3 at the temperature of T = 70, 85, and 95 K. Both the magnetic coercive field and saturation magnetization values decrease with an increase in temperature. This result is like that obtained in previous work [16, 51]. The coercive force (HC) reduced to a certain small value when the temperature near to TSR, which means there is a magnetic phase transition [46]. Finally, it is confirmed that this sample having ferromagnetic nature well below the temperature of transition (TSR) and becomes paramagnetic at a higher temperature region. As, TFO sample achieving the desirable conditions for a good magnetic refrigerant, thus, this material having the potentiality for future energy-efficient magnetic refrigeration applications

4.

Conclusions

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In conclusion, we prepared a perovskite TmFeO3 (TFO) sample using a conventional solidstate reaction route and then studied its structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties. Rietveld refined XRD patterns show that TFO possesses an orthorhombic symmetry with the Pnma space group at room temperature. The spin-reorientation transition temperature (TSR) was observed at a temperature of 85 K. Magnetic refrigerating performance of the compound was measured through the magnetic entropy change (-SM) and relative cooling power (RCP). The second-order nature of the magnetic transition was confirmed by the huge jump in magnetic entropy near TSR and -Smax was 13.72 Jkg−1 K−1 under 6 T field at TSR in the TFO sample. The -ΔSM increases with increasing the external magnetic field. Coercive field values were decreased with an increase in the temperatures (see the M-H curve). RCP values were observed to increase linearly with the increase in the applied magnetic field. The present reported large magnetocaloric effect, relatively high RCP, high magnetization, and low cost proved the potentiality of the TFO sample for future energyefficient magnetic refrigeration applications. Further research is also needed to get particle size and doping effect on magnetic entropy changes, shift in transition temperature as well as heat capacity in TmFeO3. Declaration of interest: None

Acknowledgments This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11974181, 11774172, 11650110433 and U1632122)

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Figure captions Fig. 1

TmFeO3 perovskite structure with the lattice parameters a = 5.3274, b =5.6019 and c =7.6478 Å. Schematic structure representing the exchange coupling also.

Fig. 2

Rietveld refined X-ray powder diffraction pattern for TmFeO3 sample. The open red circles represent the observed patterns; continuous black and olive color lines represent calculated and difference patterns, respectively. The blue tick marks correspond to the position of the allowed Bragg reflections.

Fig. 3

(a) Theoretically thermal variation of magnetization and magnetic susceptibility for TmFeO3, (b) The experimentally observed d/dT versus T(K) curve for TmFeO3.

Fig. 4

(a) Temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy change (-S) for TmFeO3 with different external magnetic field H =1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 T. (b) The external magnetic field dependence of the maximum magnetic entropy (-SM(max)) changes for TmFeO3.

Fig. 5

Field dependence of relative cooling power (RCP) for TmFeO3.

Fig. 6

The magnetic hysteresis cycles for TmFeO3 at different temperature of T= 70, 85 and 95 K.

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Table 1

Table 1: Rietveld refined structural parameters from XRD for TmFeO3 sample. The numbers in parentheses are the respective error bars. Sample

TFO

Space group

Pbnm

Cell parameters a (Å)

5.2555 (9)

b (Å)

5.5783 (15)

c (Å)

7.5945 (3)

V (Å3)

222.66

Important bond lengths (Å) and bond angles () Fe-O1

2.02

Fe-O1

1.96

Fe-O2

2.04

Fe-O1-Fe

148.38

Fe-O2-Fe

137.47

Conventional R-factors Rp (%)

29.5

Rwp (%)

20.5

2

5.09

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Table 2 Table 2: The position (x,y,z) of each atom, special sites and their symmetries in TmFeO3. Atom

x

y

z

site

symmetry

Tm

-0.0269

0.0664

0.2500

4c

m

Fe

0.5000

0.0000

0.0000

4b

-1

O1

0.2210

0.4790

0.2500

4c

m

O2

0.2640

0.2300

-0.0240

8d

1

Fig. 1 Exchanges couplings JFeFe1 JFeFe2 JTmTm1 JTmTm2 JTmFe1 JTmFe2

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Symbols

Figure 2

Figure 3

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2.0

M 

M(emu/g)

1.6

H=0

(a)

1.2 0.8 0.4 0.0

0

50

100 T(K)

150

200

150

200

0.05 (b)

d/dT

0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00

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100 T(K)

16

Figure 4 14

-S(J/kg.K)

H=1 T H=2 T H=3 T H=4 T H=5 T H=6 T

(a)

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0

100 T(K)

50

200

150

14

-SM(max)(J/(kg.K))

(b)

12 10 8 6 4 0

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1

2

3 4 H (T)

17

5

6

Figure 5 800 RCP

RCP(J/kg)

600 400 200 0 0

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1

2

3 4 H(T)

18

5

6

Figure 6

80

M(emu/g)

40

T = 70K T = 85K T = 95K

0 -40 -80

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-4

0 H (kOe)

19

4

8

Graphical Abstract Structural and magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth orthoferrite perovskite: TmFeO3 Poorva Sharmaa,*, R. Masrourb,*, A. Jabarb, Jiyu Fana,*, Ashwini Kumarc, Langsheng Lingd, Chunlan Mae, Caixia Wangf, Hao Yanga,* a

Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016, China

bLaboratory

of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cadi Ayyad University,

National School of Applied Sciences, PB 63 46000, Safi, Morocco cSchool dHigh

of Physics, Southeast University, Jiangning district, Nanjing, 211189, China

Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, China

eJiangsu

Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Heat Fluid Flow Technology, School of

Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China fCollege

of Physics Science and Technology, Yangshou University, Yangzhou, 225002, China

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Graphical picture represents the distorted orthorhombic perovskite structure of TmFeO3 (left) and Temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy change (-SM) for TmFeO3 with different external magnetic field H =1 - 6 T (right).

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Research Highlights:



Polycrystalline TmFeO3 successfully synthesized using solid-state reaction route.



The magnetocaloric properties of TmFeO3 have been studied.



Maximal entropy change increases with an increase in the external magnetic field.



RCP increases with increasing the external magnetic field.

• TmFeO3 is a potential candidate for energy-efficient magnetic refrigeration applications.

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Declaration of interests ☒ The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. ☐The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests:

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Author`s Contributions

Poorva Sharma: Conceptualization, Methodology, Data curation, Original draft preparation, Investigation, - Reviewing and Editing. R. Masrour: Software, Methodology, Validation, Reviewing and Editing. A. Jabar: Software, Methodology. Jiyu Fan: Supervision, Funding acquisition, Writing - Review & Editing. Ashwini Kumar: Data curation, Original draft preparation, Investigation, Reviewing and Editing. Langsheng Ling: Visualization. Chunlan Ma: Writing - Review & Editing. Caixia Wang: Writing - Review & Editing. Hao Yang: Supervision, Funding acquisition.

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