Supervision in Teacher Education

Supervision in Teacher Education

Supervision in Teacher Education J McCarthy and L F Quinn, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA ã 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Supervi...

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Supervision in Teacher Education J McCarthy and L F Quinn, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA ã 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Supervision in Teacher Education Supervision in teacher education is meant to assist teacher education candidates preparing to enter the profession for the first time and to assist practicing teachers in the development of the skills necessary for effective teaching. Supervision is usually carried out through three separate processes: (1) observation, (2) analysis, and (3) discussion or sharing information collected and organized by the supervisor with the teacher education candidate or teacher. Teachers in the field often comment that they learned how to teach by practicing the act of teaching in actual classroom situations with a skillful supervisor to guide them and that student teaching is often viewed as the most useful part of the teacher education process (Roth, 1983). John Dewey (1963) speaks of experiences that are educative, and says that the direction in which growth takes place must be specified and indicated. Experience alone is not always a good teacher and teacher education programs around the world have implemented some form of supervision as a part of teacher preparation. Approaches to supervision have been described through various terms (some philosophical and some practical) as: essentialism, experimentalism, and existentialism (Glickman, 1990); positivism, phenomenology, and critical theory (May and Zimpher, 1986); and learner-centered (Paris and Gespass, 2001). Whatever the name given to supervision, observing, analyzing, and discussing the act of teaching is viewed as an effective way to improve teaching performance. Additionally, government departments of education exert a strong influence on supervision in teacher education by setting requirements for the amount of clinical practice a teacher must complete in order to be licensed. Historical Perspectives on Supervision in Teacher Education Supervision in teacher education is not a new component of preparing teachers or providing professional development opportunities for teachers already in the field. While reform efforts to improve the conditions of teacher education have proliferated in the past 40 years, the importance of a well-trained supervisor to facilitate the growth of a novice or an experienced teacher remains as central to the process today as it did nearly a century ago. Bulletin #14, The professional preparation of teachers for American public schools, a report issued by the Carnegie

Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in 1920, recommended that teacher education programs be clinically based, with ongoing opportunities for observation and supervised practice in real world settings (Imig and Imig, 2006). A little more than 50 years after the Bulletin #14 report, the AACTE Commission on Education for the Profession of Teaching determined that educators must develop teaching skills through practice in a controlled training environment accompanied by effective direction and supervision. The effective use of both laboratory and field-centered approaches has long been viewed as crucial to the development of the complex competencies of teaching. Early schools were often staffed by low-paid individuals with little formal education. The profession of teaching had yet to develop and supervising teachers was often left to local officials whose task was to visit schools and make recommendations for their improvement (Fuller, 1982). Supervisors may also appear in the form of educated individuals or a visiting committee whose mission was to see that the teaching was competent and the learning adequate. Even in the early stages of supervision in teacher education, it was understood that supervisors would be objective, draw conclusions based on the evidence, and give balanced feedback. An increase in the number of teachers required to meet the needs of the ever-growing number of students and schools resulted in more emphasis being placed on teacher preparation and supervision. Normal schools of the nineteenth century in the United States (US) gave detailed attention to supervised practice that followed a significant amount of time spent observing in classrooms (Clifford and Guthrie, 1988). Feiman-Nemser (1990) reports that James Earl Russell, dean of Teachers College (1894–1927), described a model laboratory school where exemplary teachers would oversee the training of novices. In the mid-1960s, the Harvard University Masters in Teaching Program initiated a clinical supervision process in which the teacher education candidates and teachers helped determine the focus of their own supervision (Goldhammer, 1969). We find similar stages of development in teacher preparation programs with regard to supervision practices around the world. There are numerous efforts underway at this time to standardize teacher education programs. The Bologna Accord (1999) in Europe and the Report of the House of Representatives Standing Committee

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(www.gmacbolognaproject.com/docs/BolognaCheatSheet– 2005) on Education and Vocational Training in Australia (Hartsuyker, 2007), as well as several national committees and commissions in the US (including a commission sponsored by the National Academy of Education) bear testament to this movement. The European Commission (2007) has also recently put forth proposals aimed at improving the quality of teacher education in member states and standardizing the guidelines. All of these reports and commissions have implications for the future supervision of teacher candidates. Supervision in Constructing a Professional Identity The practice of teaching and learning to teach are so inextricably connected that attempting to help someone learn to teach without actually critiquing their attempts at teaching seems pointless. Interactions between experts and novices in teacher education that focus on instruction have been the subject of numerous research studies. When the emphasis in supervision is on helping teachers develop skills in delivering instruction, helping the same teachers construct a professional identity may become secondary. Recent research on supervision has focused on teacher participation in their own development as teachers through collaboration with colleagues, peer feedback, reflective practice, and action research (Glickman, 1990; Holland et al., 1992; Yusko, 2004; Shin et al., 2006). One view of supervision as described by Glickman (1990) sees ‘‘the focus of supervision as a process of eliciting the teacher’s own thinking and planning.’’ (p. 550). Constructing a professional identity cannot occur in a vacuum. This process requires that quality leaders assist novice teachers in their journey towards a professional identity. The complex act of the construction of a professional identity by teacher education candidates during the transition from university setting to a school context is examined through a collaborative partnership utilizing Internet discourse among all participants (Dauvisis et al., 2005; The Association of Teacher Educators’ Commission on Quality Leaders for Novice Teachers, 2006). Dubar’s (1996) description of professional identity development as the simultaneously stable and provisional; individual and collective; subjective and objective; and biographic and structural result of different processes of socialization that build individuals and define institutions encompasses the many variables associated with learning to teach in a social environment. Research on Supervision Research on supervision in teacher education has demonstrated that supervisory observations alone are not sufficient to fully interpret and critique the experiences of

teacher education candidates and teachers. With this in mind, institutions of higher education around the world plan and implement strategies for improving supervisory practices in teacher education. In the University of Montreal’s 4-year teacher preparation program, at least 700 hours in a school setting are required. Supervisors and teacher education candidates in this program are taught the processes of practical argument (Fenstermacher, 1987), shared reflective practice (Tochon, 1996), and use of videotapes to gain a greater awareness of the relationship between feedback and action in the supervisory process (Gervais, 2005). The benefits of paired-placements and the power of communication within particular contexts to improve teacher education practice in collaborative settings are examined in detail by Sorensen (2005) at the University of Nottingham. The use of specific tasks to help preservice teachers in Santiago, Chile identify, interpret, and analyze professional performance within a specific institutional culture is discussed by Rittershaussen et al. (2005). This study examines the knowledge constructed by preservice teachers regarding professional performance and the challenges they perceive in becoming members of a professional context through dialog with supervisors. A study by Chan et al. (2007) looked at the preconceptions of teaching and learning held by preservice teachers in Singapore. Another study by de Leon-Carillo looked at the preconceptions of teacher roles held by preservice teachers in the Philippines. The preconceptions that students bring with them to the teacher preparation program can serve as guides for the field experiences they need to have in order to become effective professionals. Other studies, including one conducted by Ballard (2002), have shown that student teacher beliefs are greatly influenced by those of the cooperating teachers with whom they work. These findings indicate the need for careful selection and training of cooperating teachers. Supervision and Induction Supervision is a natural by-product of induction programs. Induction programs are designed to give new or experienced teachers support and assistance rather than simply assessing their work. As part of induction programs, mentors, that is, teachers with a record of success in their own classrooms, are assigned to guide other teachers in the acquisition of the skills of teaching and the professional tools necessary for a teaching career. Induction programs often include a form of clinical supervision for teachers who face trouble in the classroom. The school administrator plays an important role in establishing an environment that facilitates the supervision and the work of mentors. Experienced teachers are asked by their administrators to serve as mentors or cooperating teachers. Some teachers assume the mentor role eagerly as another step in their own professional

Supervision in Teacher Education

development. Others may be less than enthusiastic. Whichever way teachers approach the task of supervision, they have firm opinions about what conditions must be present for teachers to be successful. Many perceive the school administrator to be responsible for establishing an environment that supports both supervision and the mentoring process and that assists experienced teachers in their role as a professional guide. The support that cooperating teachers and mentors are able to offer teachers is strongly influenced by physical considerations such as the proximity of classrooms, the schedules, and the teaching assignments, all of which are ultimately controlled by the administrators (Quinn, 1994). The availability of such induction support and mentoring varies greatly among teacher education contexts, ranging from nonexistent to outstanding. There is a growing body of research to draw on regarding the value of such support for the beginning teacher. Darling-Hammond (2006) cites numerous studies that show that teachers who participate in a supervised student teaching experience are more likely to stay in the profession, as are those who participate in mentoring programs during their first 2 years of teaching (p.339).

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professional growth to reflect upon their instructional practices. Such discussions help them recognize the elements necessary to prepare their own classroom learning environments to accommodate the individual needs of learners. The purpose of supervision, whether it is to improve teaching behaviors, to increase teacher reflection and critical analysis, to increase skill in using a particular teaching strategy, or to improve general satisfaction with teaching, must be clear among all members of the supervisory triad for its greatest effect to be achieved. Participants in a supervision triad Teacher education candidate

The teacher education candidate or teacher seeking professional support is the purpose for supervision. Their role is to demonstrate knowledge, skills, and performance that meet expected standards in the areas of planning; instruction and management of the classroom environment; and management of the activities and behavior of students. In addition, candidates and teachers are expected to comply with all school and district policies. The cooperating teacher

The Supervision Triad The activities and processes of supervision in teacher education normally occur in a triad (teacher education candidate or practicing teacher; cooperating teacher or mentor; and university supervisor or administrator). While variations on the degree of involvement and classification of members of the triad do exist, the teacher education candidate or teacher is the purpose for the supervision, while another, more experienced teacher takes responsibility for observing and critiquing the necessary teaching activities. A university or college supervisor, whose responsibility is to guarantee that requirements of the institution are fulfilled, works closely with all other members of the triad as well as the school administrator to ensure that the supervision is being conducted in a purposeful and supportive manner. This triad formation is common to most, if not all, existing teacher education programs. It is expected that the supervision triad will create an effective learning environment for the development of practical knowledge, skills, and dispositions relevant to the professional growth of teachers. Through completion of specific assignments such as writing and implementing lessons for small groups or an entire class of students during field-based experiences, the teacher education candidate observes the complexities of classroom life and is able to analyze these observations through discussion with an experienced cooperating teacher and a university supervisor. Supervisory discussions encourage teacher education candidates and teachers seeking

The cooperating teacher is often viewed as the single most important influence by teacher education candidates in the process of learning to teach. Costa and Garmston (1987) list three contributions that a cooperating teacher or mentor can offer to others. They model best practices, they pass along the tools of the trade, and they encourage development of the intellectual process of teaching in others by articulating their actions and thought processes. Effective cooperating teachers and mentors become what Costa and Garmston (1994) refer to as cognitive coaches. At some point in the interaction with a practicum student, student teacher, intern, or beginning teacher, the cooperating teacher or mentor will have to give criticism or offer advice. Henry and Beasley (1989) offer suggestions for interactive practices by cooperating teachers and mentors that lead to effective supervisory experiences. Among these suggestions, clear and specific communication and feedback, modeling espoused behaviors, consistency, offering rationale for actions and suggestions, and using problem-solving strategies to guide professional growth are considered as most supportive of supervisory interactions. The university supervisor

The main role of the university supervisor in the supervision triad is to see that institutional requirements are completed by the teacher education candidate. The university supervisor must often assume roles other than that of observing teaching practices and providing constructive analysis of said practices. The university supervisor may find it necessary to facilitate relationships among

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teachers, to serve as a personal confidant when necessary, to provide individualized instruction, and to provide guidance in areas that may have been overlooked by other participants in the triad (Zimpher, 1980). The university supervisor may also serve as a seminar leader and a placement consultant. All participants in the supervision triad need to possess certain personal characteristics that help to prevent disharmony and discord. The characteristics most relevant to the supervision triad focus on interpersonal and communication skills. Before supervision in teacher education takes place, agreements must be established and guidelines set. It is imperative that all members of the triad become familiar with the supervisory process to be followed and be aware of the potential outcomes of the process. Supervision styles should accommodate differing stages of teacher development. Seminal development of frameworks for classifying supervisory behaviors and conferences were offered by Amidon and Flanders (1967) and Spaulding (1967). Variations on these frameworks have produced a variety of ways to conduct and assess supervision in teacher education. Changing Perspectives on Supervision in Teacher Education Supervision for social justice

Diversity in the school-age population is a major concern for educators in many nations. Changing demographics and increasing diversity have presented challenges for the majority of teacher education programs. Many nations have expressed concern that the needs of all students are not being met in schools as they are currently staffed with teachers who are not knowledgeable on working with diverse student populations. Some programs are trying hard to provide preservice teachers with the knowledge, skills, and experiences they need in order to provide all the students with quality education. The challenges are many. Han and Singh (2007) report on the difficulties in the recruitment and retention of student teachers and teachers from minority and immigrant groups in Australia. There is a mismatch between the type and length of the field experiences needed by immigrant education students who have had no experience with the culture of Australian schools and the generic model of field experiences offered by teacher preparation programs. The minority preservice teachers believe that their supervisors do not understand their needs. As a result, the increasing diversity of Australian students is not being met with an increase in teacher candidates from other ethnic or linguistic groups. Teacher education programs are currently seeking answers to questions related to preparing high-quality teachers for all student populations. Some of these questions are: (1) How can preservice teachers learn to

work with the strengths that diverse students bring with them to school rather than searching for reasons why they are deficient according to the teacher’s values and expectations? (2) How can supervisors facilitate the development of teachers who can be effective with all types of learners in a diverse classroom?, and (3) How can clinical supervision help preservice teachers provide a level playing field for all members of the classroom group? The answers to these dilemmas are critical at this time of increasing globalization. One elementary school in the southwestern US has more than 80 flags hanging in the lunchroom representing the homelands of the students in the school. The minority has become the majority in the Clark County School District. Yet the teaching force is predominantly Anglo and female. Teacher educators in many nations, such as England, Ireland, and the US to name a few, are grappling with these issues. Given the current political realities, supervisors and teachers alone cannot alter the reality of poverty, class, and language. What they are trying to do is equip preservice teachers with experiences that allow them to work in culturally diverse classrooms and begin to reflect on what skills and knowledge they will need to provide equitable learning experiences for all ( Jacobs, 2006).

Alternative routes to licensure There appear to be differences in the types and models of supervision provided for students in university-based teacher education programs and for those who come in through an alternative program or the normal school route. This seems to hold true globally. Some alternative programs shorten the field experience segment of the program. Some students do not have clinical experience until their last semester, or student teaching experience. The person actually supervising may differ as well. In some alternative teacher education programs there are no university supervisors, only cooperating teachers. Some programs in the US put college graduates immediately into a classroom before they have any pedagogy coursework. These novice teachers take classes while on the job and are assigned mentor teachers to work with them while they are teaching in their own K-12 classrooms. If the quality of the mentoring is good, many of these new teachers can do quite well. Other licensure programs that consist mainly of online coursework have only limited fieldwork. Their students have no preliminary practice or observations in classrooms, but hit the ground running during their student teaching experience. Again, the quality of the supervision and mentoring plays a big role in the success or failure of these teachers. We can expect to see more alternative routes to licensure developing around the world as large numbers of existing teachers retire and the populations in many countries continue to grow.

Supervision in Teacher Education

School university partnerships

A unique response to the challenge of university-based teacher education programs working closely with public schools has been that of the professional development school (PDS). In some places, these are called partner schools. In the US, PDSs were initiated in response to a recommendation of the Holmes Group, an organization of College of Education deans (Darling-Hammond, 2006). The purpose of the PDSs was to create partner schools that worked closely with teacher education faculty to create an environment conducive to learning to teach all children. Public school teachers were viewed as teacher educators and provided supervision of clinical experiences. Sometimes, the experience of the teacher education candidates in PDSs is modeled on medical education and preservice teachers actually do rounds similar to the practices of medical students in hospital rotations. Such arrangements require expert supervision. Teachers at PDSs often engage in graduate coursework in supervisory practices.

Variations on a Traditional Model of Supervision in Teacher Education Teacher education programs around the world are experimenting with new models of supervision. These models are sometimes driven by contextual variables and sometimes by sound pedagogical theory. For example, one program in the US is trying paired student teacher placements similar to other experiments. They have grounded their program in Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development and are trying to provide the teacher education candidates with peer support as they progress through the developmental levels of learning to teach (Baker and Milner, 2006). The newly adopted teacher education guidelines in Ethiopia call for five consecutive practicum courses in partner schools from the beginning of the program (Degago, 2007). One program in rural Australia has facilitated the placement of future teachers in remote rural schools by implementing a support system that incorporates face-to-face mentoring with innovative use of communication technology (see more about technology in the next section.). Some programs in European nations require 1 or 2 full years of clinical experience before licensure (Cobb, 1999). Others in some developing countries still rely on the normal school license rather than a degree program. Students in these programs rely on the teachers in the schools for supervision and mentoring.

Supervisory Assessment of Field Experiences This is an age of teacher accountability for student learning. Thus, many supervisors look for evidence that learning is taking place in the classroom of preservice

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teachers. Some programs use formalized data such as pre- and post-test scores. Others have students reflect, in their portfolios, on the effectiveness of the lessons they taught and an analysis of what worked and what did not work and why. Many accreditation bodies are demanding this sort of evidence before licensure of new teachers and many state and national legislatures are also demanding this type of evidence of teacher effectiveness at the preservice level.

The Use of Technology in Supervision The age of technology has influenced methods of supervision in teacher education. A variety of technological tools exist that can support supervision and student selfassessment in teacher education. Some teacher preparation programs provide preservice teachers with laptops to use for journaling their daily experiences in the classroom. Students can also utilize their laptops to communicate with their supervisors and peers on a regular basis, thus creating a community of learners. Electronic communication is especially helpful for students doing field work in remote or rural areas, but can be used by all preservice teachers. Some forms of supervision make use of videocams and electronic recording devices for students to utilize in the reflection and analysis of their teaching efforts. Technology can be seen as a tool to improve the quality of student practice and teacher mentoring. In the information age driven by technology, supervision in teacher education may become more self-directed than that in the past, as novices and experienced teachers alike turn to the Internet for advice and examples. Techniques for using technology in reflection/self-analysis

Technology has also provided preservice teachers with greater opportunity than ever before for self-analysis and reflection of their work. Students can even download demonstration teaching classes and watch expert teachers teach in real classrooms. They then can analyze their own teaching based on what they saw. Many teacher preparation programs are teaching their students the evaluation systems that will be used to assess their performance when they are teaching full time. Some programs are even using these systems to assess candidate skill and expertise, so as to better prepare the teacher for the expectations of the workplace. Many of these assessments are online and students can get immediate feedback from their supervisors. Portfolios have been used in teacher preparation programs for some time. Now, however, students are preparing electronic portfolios of their culminating field experiences and are including videoclips of their teaching. Not only are these portfolios used by supervisors to

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mentor future teachers, but they can also be used as part of an application package when the candidate applies for professional employment. Online supervision in teacher education

Online supervision in teacher education programs does exist, but even with online teacher education programs there is normally a full-time, supervised, in-classroom experience with a clinical supervisor to observe and evaluate performance based on acceptable professional standards. However, the use of webcams and other digital imaging in computers makes it easy to demonstrate teaching practice for someone not present in a specific classroom. Teacher education programs have long used videotape recordings of teaching practice as a form of self-analysis and discourse between supervisors and teachers. While the face-to-face interactions between supervisors and teachers have been the norm, it is possible that technologies to aid online interactions will influence changes in supervision in teacher education. The Future of Supervision in Teacher Education It is likely that supervision in teacher education will continue to be a critical element in learning to teach and to improve teaching skills. Presentations at international and national conferences attest the interest of individuals in creating meaningful supervisory practices that result in effective teaching. At the 2007 meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators held in San Diego, California, Dr. Fedotova, Director of the International Information Center in Russia, discussed the challenges of Russian education under the process of globalization and the world educational community. At the 2007 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Dr. Ping Deters, from the University of Toronto, presented a paper on internationally educated teachers. As research is shared among members of the global community of teacher educators, knowledge of what works in supervision will traverse international boundaries, become refined and adapted to individualistic contexts, and will continue to expand in concept and practice.

Summary Supervision in teacher education is an issue that is of major concern to educators all over the world. The articles discussed elsewhere in this encyclopedia will further refine and define the major issues raised in this article. In this age of teacher accountability, teacher educators are searching for effective and efficient ways to provide experiences that will prepare teachers to facilitate equitable opportunities for all students to learn and achieve success. While individual national contexts will

influence practice, there are many commonalities with regard to the challenges and implementation of effective supervision.

Bibliography Amidon, E. and Flanders, N. (1967). Interaction analysis as a feedback system. In Amidon, E. and Hough, J. (eds.) Interaction Analysis: Theory, Research, and Application, pp 121–140. MA: Addison Wesley. Association of Teacher Educators (2006). Special Panel 132. State of the ATE Commission of Quality Leaders for Novice Teachers. Philadelphia. Baker, R. S. and Milner, J. O. (2006). Complexities of collaboration: Intensity of mentors’ responses to paired and single student teachers. Action in Teacher Education 28(3), 61–72. Ballard, B. (2003). Preservice Teachers’ Beliefs about Classroom Management Before and After Student Teaching. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nevada. Chan, K., Tan, J., and Khoo, A. (2007). Pre-service teachers’ conceptualizations abut teaching and learning: A closer look at Singapore cultural context. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education 35(2), 181–195. Clifford, G. and Guthrie, L. (1988). Ed. School: A Brief for Professional Education. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Cobb, V. (1999). An International Comparison of Teacher Education. (ERIC Digest). Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education. Costa, A. L. and Garmston, R. J. (1994). Student teaching: Developing images of a profession. Action in Teacher Education 9, 5–11. Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Powerful Teacher Education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Dauvisis, M., Kaddouri, M., and Vandroz, D. (2005). A Project with Educational Intention: Methods of Acculturation and Development of Professional Competences. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Montreal. Degago, A. T. (2007). A first-timer’s impressions of engaging in action research: A case study in Ethiopian pre-service teacher education. Action in Teacher Education 29(1), 71–80. Dubar, C. (1996) The Formation of Professional Identity. La Decouverte, Reperes, Bricolage. The European Commission Press Release August 6, 2007. Teachers need good education too! The Commission proposes to improve the quality of teacher education in the European Union. Europa Press Release. August 6, 2007. Teachers good education too! The Commission proposes to improve the quality of teacher education in the European Union. Retrieved 12/2/07. Feiman-Nemser, S. (1990). Teacher preparation: Structural and conceptual alternatives. In Robert, H. W. (ed.) The Handbook of Research on Teacher Education, pp 212–233. New York: Macmillan. Fenstermacher, G. D. (1987). On understanding the connections between classroom research and teacher change. Theory into practice 26(1), 3–7. Fuller, W. E. (1982). The Old Country School: The Story of Rural Education in the Middle West. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Gervais, C., Desrosiers, P., Lepage, M., and Correa Molina, E. (2005). Explication of Pedagogical Knowledge of Experienced Teachers to Student Teachers in Preservice Training. Paper presented at the American Education Research Associat Annual Meeting, Montreal. Glickman, C. (1990). Supervision of Instruction, A Developmental Approach. Newton, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Goldhammer, R. (1969). Clinical Supervision: Special Methods for the Supervision of Teachers. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Han, J. and Singh, M. (2007). Getting world English speaking student teachers to the top of the class: Making hope for ethno-cultural diversity in teacher education robust. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education 35(3), 291–309. Hartsuyker, L. (House of Representatives Standing Committee on Education and Vocational Teaching.) (2007). Top of the class: Report of the inquiry into teacher education. Canberra, ACT: The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia.

Supervision in Teacher Education Henry, M. A. and Beasley, W. W. (1989). Supervising Student Teachers: The Professional Way, 4th edn. Terre Haute, IN: Sycamore Press, Inc. Holland, P. E., Clift, R., Veal, M. L., Johnson, M., and McCarthy, J. (1992). Linking preservice and inservice supervision through professional inquiry. In Glickman, C. D. (ed.) Supervision in Transition: 1992 Yearbook of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, pp 169–182. Reston, VA: ASCD Publications. Imig, D. G. and Imig, S. R. (2006). The teacher effectiveness movement: How 80 years of essentialist control have shaped the teacher education profession. Journal of Teacher Education 57(2), 167–180. Jacobs, J. (2006). Supervision for social justice: Supporting critical reflection. Teacher Education Quarterly, pp 23–39 Fall, 2006. May, W. T. and Zimpher, N. L. (1986). An examination of three theoretical perspectives on supervision. Perceptions of preservice field supervision. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision 1(2), 83–99. Paris, C. and Gespass, S. (2001). Examining the mismatch between learner-centered teaching and teacher-centered supervision. Journal of Teacher Education 52(5), 398–412. Quinn, L. F. (1994). The importance of structure in providing uniform quality in mentoring/induction programs. Mentoring, 2(1), 5–12. Rittershaussen, S., Suzuki, E., Montecino, C., and Solis, M. C. (2005). Identifying Professional Performance and Institutional Culture through Specific Tasks. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Montreal. Roth, R. A. (1983). The status of the profession: Selected characteristics of teacher education and teaching. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 233 988). Shin, E., Wilkins, E. A., and Ainsworth, J. (2006). The nature and effectiveness of peer feedback during an early clinical experience in an elementary education program. Action in Teacher Education 28(4), 40–52. Sorenson, P. (2005). Peer Learning in the Practicum: The Use of Collaboration and Dialogue in Preservice Teacher Development. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Montreal. Spaulding, R. L. (1967). A coping analysis schedule for educational settings (CASES). In Anita, S. E. and Gil, B. E. (eds.) Mirrors for behavior, pp 587–589. Philadelphia, PA: Research for Better Schools. Yusko, B. P. (2004). Caring communities as tools for learner-centered supervision. Teacher Education Quarterly Summer, 53–72. Zimpher, N. L. (1980). A closer look at university student teacher supervision. Journal of Teacher Education, 31 (Jul-Aug): 11–15.

Further Reading Acheson, K. A. and Gall, M. (1996). Techniques in the Clinical Supervision of Teachers: Preservice and Inservice Applications, 4th edn. Fresno, CA: Wiley.

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Acheson, K. A. and Gall, M. D. (2002). Clinical Supervision and Teacher Development: Preservice and Inservice Applications, 5th edn. Fresno, CA: Wiley. Dangel, J. R. (2006). Research on Teacher Induction: Teacher Education Yearbook XIV. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Education. Darling-Hammond, L. and Bransford, J. (eds.) (2005). Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. de Leon-Carillo, C. (2007). Filipino pre-service education students’ preconceptions of teacher roles viewed through a metaphorical lens. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education 35(2), 197–217. Gray, J. (ed.) (2006). Making Teaching Public: Reforms in Teacher Education. Proceedings of the 2006 Australia Teacher Education Conference. Perth, WA: ATEA. Harlin, R. P. (2000). Developing reflection and teaching through peer coaching. Focus on Teacher Education 1(1), 1–10. Henry, M. A., Beasley, W. W., and Brighton, K. L. (2002). Supervising Student Teachers, 6th edn. Terre Haute, IN: Sycamore Press, Inc. Knowles, J. G., Cole, A. L., and Presswood, C. S. (1994). Through Preservice Teachers’ Eyes: Exploring Field Experiences through Narrative and Inquiry. New York: Merrill. Little, J. W. (1982). Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal 19(3), 325–340. McInerney, P. (2007). From naı¨ve optimism to robust hope: Sustaining a commitment to social justice in schools and teacher education in neoliberal times. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education 35(3), 257–272. McIntyre, D. J. and Byrd, D. M. (eds.) (1996). Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers: The Field Experience. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Moore, R. (2006). Taking action: Assessing the impact of preservice learning on teaching. Action in Teacher Education 28(3), 53–60. Nelligan, P. (2006). Rural professional experiences supporting preservice teachers. In Gray, J. (ed.) Making Teaching Public: Reforms in Teacher Education. Proceedings of the 2006 Australia Teacher Education Conference. Perth, WA: ATEA. Newhouse, P. (2006). Mobile education devices for preservice teachers. In Gray, J. (ed.) Making Teaching Public: Reforms in Teacher Education. Proceedings of the 2006 Australia Teacher Education Conference. Perth, WA: ATEA. Oliva, P. F. (1988). Supervision for Today’s Schools, 3rd edn. New York: Longman. Stella, C. S. C., Forlin, C., and Lan, A. M. (2007). The influence of an inclusive education course on attitude change of pre-service secondary teachers in Hong Kong. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education 35(2), 161–179. Yee, A. (1969). Do cooperating teachers influence the attitudes of student teachers? Journal of Educational Psychology 60(4), 327–332.