interaction of trophic substanceswith the surtace memhrane of muscle may induce aheration in intracellular leveisof particular meta~iites or ions which produce subseqiient effects on cellular metabolism. Cyclic nucieotides” and calcium ions’5 seem to be suitable candidates for the iu~aceiiui~ messenger of ne~tr~ control. The tong-term influences of the trophic substancesmight be modulated by the alteration in ACh release, muscle activity or nerve-muscle transmission.
Concludingrelnrlrks Several unidenti~~ active substan~s hsvc been proposed to be responsible for the tong-term effect of nerves on muscles. it remains to be determined whether lhese putative trophic substances are actuaiiy mvolved in a physiological neurotraphic control of muscle, since tissueculture sys
in v&o conditions.The trophic mechanism by which innervatingnervescontrol muscle properties and its metabolism wilt be understoodat the moiecui~ kvei only after these substancesare purified and chemicatty identified. Readbg Rat
Lemo. T. and Wcst$.wd. R. H. (IYlbt Co/d SpringIfttrborSw~p. &ant. Biol. 40,263-274 2 HII& A. 1. (1974) Atwu. Rev. Physied. 36, bl-305 3 Cangiano.A. and Lutrcmtwger, L. (1977) Sri. mcv 196.542~545 4 Bray.1.1.. Huhbard.1. I. andMills, R. G. ( 1979) 1. P&h& (Lottdott) 297.479-491 5 Len% T. L. (1974) Ann. N.t: Acad. Sci. 228. 323-337 6 Oh. T. H. and Markelonk G. 1. (19801 Prw. Ned Arod. sci. U.SA. 77.6922~5 7 Pcdleski. T. R.. A~elnxl. D.. Rwdin. P.. Greenbert&I., Johnson.M. M. and So&w. M. M. (I978)t’rixc. NCI~ Acad.Sri, U.S.A. 75. 203.5-2039
Texthook of Clinical Neurophrrmacology bv Harold L. KImsam and Wields Weiner, Raven Press, l981.$44.20(( 3 71 pages) ISBN 0 89004 430 9
This is neur~~acofogy for the practis irlg neurologist. The book consists of 35 chapters which differ from conventional pharmaeoiogytexts in that here the presentittion is. in general, in terms of individual disorders rather than classesof drugs. The chapterstherefore cover topics suchas Parkznsonism. Dystonia, Spastic&y, Mycr c.lonus, Affalive disorders. Anxiety, L~creasedimracranial pressureand Periodic p NaiYseS. with a final chapter on &urologic side effects of ~ycho~pic Drugs. The information covered in each +:haptervaries enormously, there being 36 rages on Parkinson&m. while Chapter 20 on Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Chorelr a:hetosisoccupies half a page! Within each chapter there is a discussion of the relevant physiology and basic mechanisms underlying the particular dis c&r, which will 1~ invaluable to practis. ing physicians wishing IO refresh or i:npmve their u~rstandin~ of the basis of neurological or psychiatric disturbances. This is followed by 3 disc&on of the relevant pharmacology. Ample tables showing usefui dogs, drug effects, disease ciasGficationand won highlight important pointsin each chapter.
The authors justify their exclusion of infectiousdiseases,deficiency diseasesand systemic diseaseson the grounds that the treatment of thesegroups does not involve specifically neuroph~acoiogicai agents. This attitude is curiously at odds with the overall concept of the book and I cannot help feeling that the value of the book as a reference work to people ?ooking up the t.rei.:mentof nervous disorders will be greatly lessenedby omission of any reference to &se conditions. Similarly I feet it was a mistake to exclude any mention of those drugs which are not used as specific therapeutic.zgents,suchas anaest~tics and
anzJgesics. Ail in all. this is a welt-presentedbook with a good index, which with the resewations noted above should be a useful addition to the reference &Ives of physicians. As an integrated text for the revision of neurology, pychiatry and pharmacology it would also be a highly suitable volume for reading by senior medical students.
The evils of drink
they wilt and it must be expected that they wilt continue to take the same equivocal stand to atcohoi as they have done to tobacco. There are, however, many workers in the medical and ancillary professions who have conscicnees, and to them this bea;ltifuiiy produced volume must be highly recommended. it is perhapsthe outstandingadvantageof this book &at it lives up to its title and dis. tinguishes clearly between alcohol toierante and dependence. White the authors make it clear in lheir preface that &hemajority of the work has been carried out on animais, even in this work there are obvious and wide implications for humans. One of tire most insisting chaptersin the book is that by Reitz and Schiiiing on the effects of ethanol on brain metabolism. This is not a long chapterbut it providesa very extensive
Alcohol Tolerance and Dependence edited by tienk Rigter and John C. Crabbe, Jr, ElfrvirrlNurril-Holfand 3io~~t~d~~~Press, 1980. Dj?. 19.5 ~xix + 4SS pages) ISBN 0 444 80212 6 From the Point of view of the U.K. this book could hardly have appeared at a more suitable time, when the government has finally acknowledgedthat its policy is that it is more important to keep up employment in the aicohofindustryand thuspreservethe consequenthigh exports and taxation than to save the countless lives of its citizens threatened by a most dangerous drug. Though one would like to think that Mrs Thatcher, Dr Vaughan and Mr Finesburg might read this book, it is very unlikely that