Book News Included in this section are those books and journals which have been received for review, or of which we have been otherwise informed. The mention of a book in this section does not preclude subsequent review in the Journal.
Human Evolution. An Introduction to the New Physical Anthrolwlogy By J. B. Birdsell, Chicago: Rand McNally & Company (1972). A vol. in-8”, xiv + 546 pp., many figs. and tabs., index, The evolution of the human species is described, not from the standpoint of relating fossil forms to living populations, but from the point of comprehending the process of general evolution as it applies to Man. The text leans heavily in the direction of topics such as human evology, primate and human behaviour, and the organization of contemporary human populations. Many chapters are followed by what the author calls “supplements”. These illustrate in depth points made within the chapter. In view of Birdsell’s work for many years among the Australian aborigines the later chapters deal with them as “reasonable and generalized models for the lives of men in the last half million years of the Pleistocene”. The book is uncommonly well-written and the publishers have demonstrated skill and expertise in the production of the book. contents (1) The Universe and ourplace in it. Supplement 1. On the nature of the viruses. (2) Darwin and the evolutionary revolution. Supplement 2. The basis for classification in the natural sciences. (3) Mendel’s discovery of the genetical basisfor variation. Supplement 3. The problem of the origin oflife. Supplement 4. Mitotic division: the how and why of nature’s cellular factory. Supplement 5. Some examples of simple Mendelian genetics. (4) The progressive evolution of functional systems. (5) The fossil record of evolution. Supplement 6. Ecological niches and animal diversity. Supplement 7. Adaptive radiation as illustrated by the Hawaiian honey creepers. Supplement 8. What the evolution of the horse really shows: a complex adaptive radiation. (6) The evolution of the Primates. (7) The record of earb Man. Supplement 9. The human numbers game. (8) Fossil Man at the second level of abstraction. Supplement 10. Some speculations on the origin of human speech. (9) The structure of simple human populations. Supplement Il. How do those old men get all the girls? (10) A variety of mating factors that structure human populations. (1 I) The forces of evolution. Supplement 12. More information on mutations. Supplement 13. Selection and city life. (12) Geographical variation in genetically simple and inrisible chrrmcteristics. (13) Geographical variation in visiblecharacteristics. (14) The pattern of racial distribution. (15) The relevance of race in the world today. Supplement 14. The impact of the new biology.
Textbook of Human Genetics By Max Levitan & Ashley Montagu. New York: Oxford University Press (1971). A vol. in-8’, xiv + 922 pp., many figs. and tabs., bibls., index. $16.50. (bound). This is a comprehensive textbook of human genetics with many examples and pedigrees. It is as up-to-date as any book in this rapidly burgeoning field can ever hope to be. Suggested exercises appear after each chapter. Journal of Human Evolution (1972) 1, 325-328
colttents (1) Mitosis. Introduction, mitosis, mitosis in reproduction. (2) Meiotis and the normal chromosomal compkment. Spermatogenesis, oogenesis, the normal chromosome set. (3) Chromosomal abcwations. Changes in number, Ploidy and Somy, autosomal trisomies, gonosomal abnormalities of number, sexual differentiation, sex chromatin analysis, mosaicism, gonosomalsyndromes of number, the XYY anomaly and behaviour, other disorders of sexual development, chromosomal rearrangement, interchromosomal exchanges, interchromosomal two-break aberrations, multiple-break aberrations, the causes of chromosomal aberrations. (4) Me&l’s laws and the structure of the genetic material. The chromosomal theory, the gene theory, the molecular concept. (5) Gene action and the Mend&an ratios: dominance; pleiotrophism. Dominance, how genes act, pleitrophism. (6) Gene action and the Mend&an ratios: uariable expressivityand penetrance; lethals. Variable expressivity, incomplete penetrance, age of onset, sex differences in gene expression, causes of variable expressivity, phenocopies, lethal genes. (7) Chance and the Mendelian ratios. Probability, what the genetic ratios mean, empiric probability, simplifying probability, calculations, significant deviation from expected ratios, special tests for significance, confidence intervals. (8) Special methods of genetic inference in human genetics; pedigrees. (9) Sex-related inheritance. X-linkage, terminology, some features of sex-related inheritance, Xlinked conditions, dosage compensation and the Lyon hypothesis, doubtful X-linkage, maternal inheritance. (10) Linkage. The types of linkage, informative matings for linkage study, modern methods of estimating linkage, known linkage groups, chiasma frequencies, autosomal chromosomai mapping, mapping the X-chromosome. (11) Special metho& of genetic inferencefrom @oled data. Methods of ascertainment, correction of truncate complete selection, correction for truncate single selection. (12) The random mating equilibrium as a special method of genetic ififmence; and the problem of associations. Derivation of the random mating law, random mating and multiple loci, genetic inferences from the random mating law, population associations. ( 13) Consanguinity and genetic infrence. Terminology, relationship and consanguinity, the general theory of inbreeding, calculating the inbreeding coefficient, uses of the inbreeding coefficient, consanguinity and recessive inheritance, general effect of inbreeding. (14) The s#udy of twins as a special method of genetic inference. Genes and environment, frequency of multiple births, the causes of twinning and other multiple births: dizygotic twins, monozygotic twins, the diagnosis of zygosity, by placentation by the similarity method, unknown parental blood groups, chimera twins, dermatoglyphics, skin grafting, satellite counts, genetic inference from twin studies. (15) Allelism. The problem, physiological insights: molecular, complementation the substitution principle, recombination, populational evidence. (16) Gene action and the Mendeiian ratios: genetic interactions. Complementary gents, epistatic genes, indirect epistasis, the Operon theory, duplicate loci, additive genes. (17) The origin of genetic polymorphism: mutation. Mutation, mutation rates, total mutation rates, reverse mutation, significance of the mutational equilibrium. (18) Induced mtiationr. Experimental mutagenesis, ionizing radiations. ( 19) Maintenance of polymorphti : selection and genetic drift. Natural selection, selection against a single allele, selection against one homozygote, selection favoring heterozygotes against both homozygotes, selection against heterozygotes only, genetic drift, which evolutionary forces are at work?, migration, mutation, drift or selection ?, the case for selection, malaria and selection, the Rh problem, other blood group problems, genetic loads. (20) Genetic counseling. Genetic prognosis, the family history, empiric risk figures, recurrence risks, mental retardation, abortions.
Genetic Counselling Edited by A. C. Stevenson & B. C. C. Davison. London: William Heinemann-Medical Books f 1970). A vol. in-8’, viii + 356 pp., figs., pls., tabs., index. E2-75. The purpose of this book is primarily to help general practitioners, paediatricians and other clinical specialists to give genetic advice to patients and their families. Many hundreds of diseases and disorders with some genetic component in aetiology are considered. contents Elementary gene&s. Princcipler of derivation of risk estimates. Risk es&a&s in respsrt of autosomal a%minant gene traits. Councciling X&ted recessive gene traits. Risk estim&es-autosomal recessive gene traits. Consosgui+. Disorders due & chronwsomal anom&s. Defects and disorders of the central nenmus system. Defects and disorders of the eyes. Mental defect and mental illness. Deajiwss. Disorders of muscles. Disorders predominantly affecting ihe skeleton. Defeccrf and disorders of the alimentary tract. Defects and disorders of the urogenital sptem. Defects and