Textbook of Immunopharmacology

Textbook of Immunopharmacology

which several aspects of carbohydrate and energy metabolism are described along the lines of Sprinting and Marathon running, which should be not only ...

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which several aspects of carbohydrate and energy metabolism are described along the lines of Sprinting and Marathon running, which should be not only interesting to the students, but an assist to instructors in relating fundamental biochemical precepts to physiological situations. The correlation chapters describing integration of metabolism during starvation-refeeding, injury, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are also well written and complement the traditional chapters describing metabolic pathways. Unlike many popular texts in biochemistry, there are chapters in which nutritional concepts are integrated into the discussion of the primary metabolic descriptions rather than relegated to a final chapter, or worse yet, the appendix. From the very first chapter on methods and approaches to studying intermediary metabolism in the laboratory, through a discourse on thermodynamics in metabolism, to the concluding chapter regarding hormones and metabolism, this text is a tour de force of metabolic biochemistry. It should be used for courses for medical science students, especially a t those institutions with nondisciplinary basic science curricula. The deficiencies of this book are mainly in those areas of structural biochemistry in which many medical school biochemistry courses tend to allot considerable time, such as in protein and nucleic acid structure and biophysical behavior of macromolecules. Another minor problem, particularly with students less well versed in organic chemistry, is the use of the IUC nomenclature for metabolic intermediates e.g., 2-oxoglutarate is used where most texts generated in the United States use a-ketoglutarate. Although not improperly used, this chemical rigor could deter class acceptance, since lecturers will often use trivial terminology and thus may present a confusing situation for students. Nevertheless, every professor in a medical center should have this book on his or her bookshelf for reference, if not for use as a class text for didactic biochemistry courses in medical science programs. William Banks, Jr. Departments of Biochemistry and Surgery Medical College of Virginia Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond, VA 23298-0001

Edited by A. Experimental and Clinical Toxicokinetics. American PharmaceuticalAssoYacobi and H.Barry, Ill. ciation, Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2215 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC, 20037. 1984. 204 pp. 16 x 24 cm. ISBN 0-917330-51-X. $39.00. This book is a collection of 11papers that were presented a t a symposium sponsored by the APhA Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Section on Pharmacodynamics and Drug Disposition a t the 33rd National Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association in San Diego, CA in November 1982. These papers attempt to arrive a t a working definition of toxicokinetics by illustrating the application of pharmacokinetic techniques and principles to problems in toxicology. The variety in the scope of the material presented attests to the fact that toxicokinetics has not yet matured into a discipline of its own. In fact, it is clear from these papers that there is no agreement as to what legitimately falls within the boundary of toxicokinetics. From reading these contributions, this reviewer would define toxicokinetics as the application of pharmacokinetic principles and techniques to three distinct situations: (a> high-dose drug studies (kinetics in preclinical drug safety

evaluation, acute overdose); ( b ) clinical studies utilizing therapeutic drug doses in which the endpoint of concern is toxicological rather than therapeutic (aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity, defining the upper limit of the therapeutic ratio, identifying the mechanism of sensitive individuals); (c) studies of nonpharmaceutical xenobiotic absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (pesticides, commodity chemicals, environmental toxins). Viewed in this framework, this book provides examples of various studies which fall into the above divisions. The initial sections review the essentials of toxicokinetics from an industrial drug development perspective. Later contributions focus on xenobiotic studies and clinical perspectives. The editors and all contributors are well qualified in their respective areas and generally present informative reports. The book would not be recommended as a textbook for this emerging field but is effective as an overview of what constitutes the practice of toxicokinetics. As such it would be very useful in seminar courses and as supplemental reading in a graduate course in toxicology or pharmacokinetics. J. Edmond Riviere Laboratory of Toxicokinetics School of Veterinary Medicine and Interdepartmental Toxicology Program North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27606

Textbook of Immunopharmacology. Edited by M. M. Dale and J. C. Foreman. Blackwell Scientific Publications, 52 Beacon Street, Boston, MA. 1984. 407 + xv pp. 15.5 x 23 cm. ISBN 0-632-00859-8. Immunopharmacology was absent from the lexicon a mere 10 years ago, and the subject matter of this pharmacological speciality is still in the process of being defined. In this volume, the editors approach immunopharmacology by way of cellular physiology rather than classical pharmacology. Therein lies both the strength and weakness of the book. The book begins with an introduction to the immunology and pathology of host defense mechanisms; this sets the background for the four sections of the book. The first three sections provide a coherent development of the host immune response covering first “The Cells Involved” (6 chapters), then “The Mediators” (7 chapters), and finally putting the cells and mediators together to form an overview of acute inflammation entitled “The Phenomena of Inflammation” (5 chapters). The approach throughout these three sections is that of cellular biology and even the description of the phenomena of acute inflammation adheres closely to that perspective. By contrast, a synthesis of the chronic aspects of inflammation, asthma, or the host response to infectious disease is lacking. These three sections comprise approximately two-thirds of the book and provide a good introduction to acute inflammation. They are the strength o f the book. There is not, however, an introductory section which expounds upon the principles of pharmacology required for understanding drug action, i.e., dose response curves, absorption, distribution, metabolism, etc. The final third of the book, in which immunotherapeutic agents are discussed, consists of a 10-chapter section entitled “Drug Manipulation of Inflammatory and Immune Response.” The criteria for inclusion of a n agent is broad and encompasses not only drugs but immunological adjuvants and interferon. Still, the list is not comprehensive. AzathioJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences / 909 Vol. 74,No. 8,August 1985

prine, one of the most widely used immunosuppressants, is not discussed; neither are antibodies as drug delivery agents, drug-induced allergic reactions, xenobiotics in immunotoxicology, complex carbohydrates, or bacterial products used to enhance host defense against infectious disease. Whether these are appropriate topics for inclusion depends upon your definition of immunopharmacology. However, it is not whether particular agents are included that should give the reader pause, but the approach to the discussion of the agents. It is that of an immunologist writing about agents that affect the immune system; the principles of drug action are secondary. Specific pharmacological topics, such as tissue distribution, side-effects, half-life, and metabolism, are not consistently considered. Terms such as p-adrenergic receptor agonist, for example, are used without explanation. The book is unusual for an introductory textbook in so far as each chapter is written by a specialist who provides a 1012-page summary of a topic with a few selected references. The chapters are well written, generally do not get bogged down in detail and should be readily accessible to both the student and the general reader who needs a brief but accurate overview of a specific area. Because of the multiauthor format, each chapter is unique and stands apart from the others. They are integrated neither stylistically nor in subject matter. Thus, you cannot find a comparison of different immunosuppressants, but you can find a chapter on cyclosporine or on cyclophosphamide. This book can be recommended to the readers of this journal since they come to the discipline of immunopharmacology firmly grounded in the principles of drug action. Its exposition of immunology and inflammation is clear and the chapters are well illustrated. Its material should complement your own information. However, if your colleagues in immunology or pathology are looking for an introductory textbook of immunopharmacology, this is not it. Ivan Otterness Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases Pfizer Central Research Division Groton, CT 06340

Mechanism of Drug Action. Edited by Thomas P.Singer, Tag E. Mansour, and Raul N. Ondarza. Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, FL 32887. 1983. 405 pp. 15.5 x 23 cm. $45.00. This book is the proceedings of a symposium entitled “The Biochemical Basis of Drug Action” which was held a t Stanford University, Stanford, CA on June 20-23, 1983. The purpose of the symposium was to bring together scientists from a diversity of disciplines who had as a common goal the elucidation of rational approaches to the development of new therapeutic systems. The organizers appear to have accomplished their objective. The book consists of sections dealing with receptors, molecular and genetic analyses of drug action, antiparasitic agents, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, the biochemical bases of the action of toxic substances, and CNS-directed agents. Each section consists of several chapters by the leading scientists in the respective fields. In the section on receptors, the topics include the nicotinic and muscarinic acetylchoiine receptors, the p-adrenergic receptor, the kappa opioid receptor, and quantitative analysis of receptor stereoselectivity. The section on molecular and genetic analysis of drug action includes chapters on the mechanism of thyroid and glucocorticoid hormone action, glucocorticoid regulation of mouse mammary tumor virus 910 /Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol. 74, No. 8,August 1985

gene expression and drug resistance, and gene amplification in eukaryotic cells. In the section on antiparasitic agents, the topics include glycolysis as a target in the development of new trypanocidal agents, purine and pyrimidine metabolism in Trichomonadidae and Giardia, pyrazolopyrimidine metabolism in the pathogenic hemoflagellates, polyamine antagonists in the treatment of protozoan infection, the promotion and inhibition of the biosynthesis of cachectin, the action of praziquantel and the benzodiazepines on adult male Schistosoma mansoni, and serotonin receptors in trematodes. In the section on prostaglandins and leukotrienes, the topics include the formation, synthesis, and therapeutic potential of prostacyclins, the structural and functional diversity of the leukotriene mediators, cytoprotection with prostacyclin and with dual enzyme inhibitors, and in vivo and in vitro studies on eicosanoids and the endothelium. The section on the biochemical basis of the action of toxic substances includes chapters dealing with the purification and characterization of cytochromes PI-450, metal regulation and toxicity in aquatic organisms, activation of adenylate cyclase by toxincatalyzed ADP-ribosylation, the biochemical mechanisms of the cytotoxic action of the antitumor ellipticine derivatives, bacterial mercuric ion reductase, and the induction of cytochrome P-450. In the section on CNS-directed drugs, the topics include the coupling of the opiate receptor to adenylate cyclase, receptor-mediated control of cyclic nucleotide formation in the central nervous system, homologous and heterologous mechanisms of desensitization of adenylate cyclase, electrophysiological and receptor autoradiographic studies on rodent brain cholocystokinin, and the characterization of soluble benzodiazepine receptors. The spectrum of topics covered in this book is extremely diverse. The topics are so diverse that the book is not recommended as general reading material. Instead, the book is recommended for those individuals interested in comprehensive reviews of the topics mentioned above. Ronald T. Borchardt Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry The University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045

Multiple Dopamine Receptors. By Milton Titeler. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. 1983. 173 + xi pp. 15 x 22 cm. ISBN 0-8247-1735-X. $34.50. A current trend among scientific publishing is for the majority of scientific books to be compendia of chapters by specialists writing about their area of expertise. A book by a sole author has become increasingly rare as scientific specialization has become more and more common. Therefore, the arrival of a single author book on a topic of current interest is a relatively rare event in today’s academic environment. Titeler’s volume, Multiple Dopamine Receptors, is such a volume; its appearance is, therefore, a matter of some interest. The present volume attempts to introduce the topics of receptor binding studies, in general, and dopamine receptors, in particular, to an interested but naive reader. The topics are developed from “the ground up”: the basics of enzyme kinetics and receptor binding assays are presented in some detail. This basic material is adequate. An interesting feature of this book is its use of many of the original figures from the literature to demonstrate the points being made in the