The Effect of Certain Feedstuffs on the Flavor, Albumen Condition and Yolk Color of Eggs

The Effect of Certain Feedstuffs on the Flavor, Albumen Condition and Yolk Color of Eggs

284 RESEARCH NOTES A REPORT ON THE OBSERVATION OF A ONE LUNG CONDITION IN CHICKS* FIG. I-A.—Small lung bud. B—Beginning bronchus. No lung tissue ha...

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284

RESEARCH NOTES

A REPORT ON THE OBSERVATION OF A ONE LUNG CONDITION IN CHICKS*

FIG. I-A.—Small lung bud. B—Beginning bronchus. No lung tissue has formed.

ure in development. Patten (1929) describes the development of the lungs as budding processes from the embryological trachea. In the two cases examined, one had a small "bud" or embryonic lung. The other had a very short extending process of the trachea which would indicate that a bronchus had started to develop (Figure 1). In both instances the area in the thoracic cavity, normally occupied by the right lung, was empty. No other anatomical anomalies were found in examining the other organs of the two chicks. An attempt was made to determine if any inbreeding or genetic factors were responsible for the failure of one lung to develop. The history of the flocks supplying eggs to the hatchery from which these chicks came did not indicate that any particular factor could be suggested as a possible cause. The finding of three chicks in one flock with the same typfe of malformation suggests a common underlying cause, but no explanation can be offered.

of us (Miles) and it was observed that the chick had only one lung. Approximately a dozen birds were taken to the veterinary laboratory where two of this group were found to have only one lung. In both instances the right lung was the one missing. Dissection of the respiratory systems showed that in both of the chicks the absence of the lung was the result of fail-

Patten, B. M., 1929. The Early Embryology of the Chick.

* From the Department of Veterinary Science, North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. Published with permission of the Director.

We wish to thank Dr. J. A. Munro, Department of Entomology, who kindly photographed these specimens.

J. 0. Foss and ALICE I.

GOLDSBY Fargo, North Dakota with the cooperation of

J. V. M I L E S

Ellendale, North Dakota Received for publication, September IS, 1944. REFERENCE

THE EFFECT OF CERTAIN FEEDSTUFFS ON THE FLAVOR, ALBUMEN CONDITION AND YOLK COLOR OF EGGS In recent years much investigation has been carried out to determine the effect

of feed practices on interior egg quality, Much of this work has been on thickness

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Anatomical anomalies are not uncommon in the domestic fowl. Usually the observation of a sporadic case of a modified anatomical development excites little more than passing interest. However, the finding of only one lung in each of three chicks examined from one flock appears to be more than a chance coincidence. A chick dying from pullorum disease infection was examined on a farm by one



RESEARCH NOTES

Experimental.—Two groups of six R.I. Red pullets were placed in a laying bat-

tery and fed a normal "complete" laying ration for two weeks, during which time all eggs were broken and examined for flavor and odor. All birds were found to produce eggs of normal appearance, odor and flavor. Following this preliminary period the birds were divided as to feeding methods on October 12th; one lot being fed heavily on the feed tested, while the other lot received a lesser amount. Each test ran 28 days and was followed by a two week rest on laying mash and water. Odor was scored on a numerical scale of 1 to 5, #1 being normal, #2 having a very slight odor, #3 being discernible, etc. No eggs were found that warranted a #4 or #5. Interior quality was judged by the Van Wagenen-Wilgus photographic standards having nine numerical ratings from 1.0 through 5.0. Yolk color was scored with the Heiman-Carver color rotor. Cabbage Feeding.—in this part of the experiment, fresh cabbage was ground in a food chopper and mixed with mash. Six birds received a ration consisting of one part of cabbage to two parts of mash (by weight). The other six birds received a mixture of two parts cabbage and one part mash. The two parts cabbage ration was quite crumbly, and it was noted that the droppings were very moist. Garbage Feeding.—After a 14 day interval following the cabbage feeding the same birds were placed on the garbage experiment for 28 days. In this portion of the project miscellaneous kitchen garbage from a fraternity house, including such diverse and ill-smelling materials as coffee grounds, orange peel, potatoes, vegetable waste, meat, fish, etc., were used in the rations. This garbage was ground up in a food chopper and then stirred up so that each allotment was fairly homogeneous.

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of albumen, color of yolk, and storage qualities. Very little information is available on the matter of objectionable odors and flavors as affected by feeding. Many books and periodicals caution against excessive feeding of green feeds, garbage or fish products. Historical.—McCammon, Pittman, and Wilhelm (1934) working with common cereals found slight differences in egg flavor and odor. Ringrose and Morgan (1939) report that liberal amounts of green feed had no effects upon the height of firm albumen, percentage of firm albumen or yolk index. Robertson and Wilhelm (1940) fed a ration containing 28% salmon fish meal and found no effect on flavor or odor of the eggs. After storage for 60 days at 30°F. the eggs still did not have an undesirable odor or flavor. Thompson, Albright, Schnetzler and Heller (1932) report that hens fed a nitrogenous ration consisting of one- third part wheat bran, one-third wheat shorts, onethird cottonseed meal and two parts skimmed milk gave eggs having a disagreeable flavor and odor, watery albumen, an especially small, dark-colored yolk, with a tender vitelline membrane which turned black after being kept several weeks. Birds fed a carbonaceous ration of cracked corn and corn dough gave large eggs with rich, yellow yolks, fine flavor and good keeping qualities. Furthermore, the feeding of five grams of garlic pod daily to individual hens produced a distinct garlic flavor in the egg yolks after five days. Two #3 capsules of cod liver oil fed daily to individual hens produced a distinct fish flavor in the yolks after 30 days. Vondell (1933) found that certain hens laid eggs with a so-called "fishy" odor, but feed had no effect upon the production of such eggs.

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286

RESEARCH NOTES

Bird Odor

Cabbage feeding AlbuYolk men color

2.2 1.8 2.3 2.3 1.6 1.3

2.6 1.4 2.5 1.9 1.8 2.3

Ave.

1.9

7 8 9 10 11 12

1.8 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.8

Ave.

1.6

1 2 3 4 5 6

Interval Yolk Odor Albumen color

would be able to detect the slight differences. None of the eggs had the sicklysweet odor of the "fishy eggs" reported by Vondell, or the musty odor of storage eggs. The odor in the #3 eggs might be described as slightly sour. It was observed that during the two weeks rest period the odor score decreased. The results of cooking and tasting the eggs laid on the test rations were even less definite than of smelling the raw eggs. When test eggs were soft boiled and tasted by four different people none of the tasters could distinguish any marked or unpleasant differences between these eggs, or in comparison to eggs produced on normal rations. _ „ ». JOHN H. VONDELL JAMES N. PUTNAM*

Department of Poultry Husbandry, Massachusetts State College, Amherst Received for publication, November 13, 1944 .. REFERENCES

McCammon, Ruth B., Martha S. Pittman and L. A.

Garbage Interval feeding Yolk . Odor AlbuYolk Odor Albumen color men color 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.3 2.5 1.2

3.8 2.1 3.1 2.9 2.3 2.5

13.0 12.9 13.6 12.3 13.2 13.0

1.9 2.0 1.6 1.8 1.4 1.7

3.9 2.2 3.8 3.5 2.9 3.1

13.6 13.0 14.3 13.4 13.4 13.2

12.9

1.7

2.8

13.0

1.7

3.2

13.5

12.5 12.5 11.8 12.1 12.3 13.0

1.3 1.2 2.0 1.6 1.7 1.5

2.7 3.5 2.5 3.7 3.7 3.1

14.9 13.0 14.0 12.9 13.3 14.0

1.5 • 1.5 1.7 1.2 1.4 1.1

3.5 3.7 2.4 3.9 3.9 2.4

13.8 13.0 13.2 13.9 13.0 13.4

1.6

3.2

13.7

1.4

3.3

13.4

1.9 1.8 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.1

3.1 1.8 2.6 2.9 1.6 2.8

12.9

1.9

2.4

12.8 12.5 12.3 12.3 13.3 13.3

2.4 1.9 2.3 1.9 2.0 2.1

2.6 3.1 1.3 3.7 3.4 1.3

12.7

2.1

2.6

12.4

12.0 12.8 13.5 14.0 12.9 13.2

1.5 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.2 1.2

2.5 1.2 2.3 2.4 1.9 1.9

12.6 12.2 14.0 13.0 12.8 13.0

2.1

13.1

1.3

2.0

2.2 2.4 2.3 2.3 3.0 2.0

12.7 -12.7 11.4 12.1 12.9 12.8

1.5 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.1

2.1 2.4 1.7 2.6 2.9 1.1

2.4

12.4

1.4

2.1

Sardine oil feeding Yolk Odor Albumen color

13.2 12.1 13.7 12.7 13.1 12.7

Cabbage Feeding—Birds 1-6; 2 parts cabbage—1 part masb Cabbage Feeding—Birds 7-12; 1 part cabbage—2 parts mash. Intervals—all birds fed laying mash only. Garbage Feeding—Birds 1-6; 1 part garbage—3 parts mash Garbage Feeding—Birds 7-12; 1 part garbage—1 part mash Sardine Oil Feeding—all 12 birds fed 1 cc. oil daily.

Discussion.—The results of the experiment as" a whole were negative. Although some eggs were graded up to 3 on odor they were not in the least objectionable, and only one with a keen sense of smell

Wilhelm, 1934. The odor and flavor of eggs. Poultry Science 13:95-101. Ringrose, R. C , and C. L. Morgan, 1939. A study of the effect of green feed upon interior egg quality. Poultry Science 18—No. 2. * Now graduated and in the U. S. Marines.

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Two rations were fed: six birds receiving one part garbage to one part mash, and six birds being fed one part garbage to three parts mash. As with the cabbage rations the droppings were quite moist. Sardine Oil.—Again, following a 14 day interval from the garbage project the same birds were placed on a test involving the feeding of a strong smelling, low potency sardine oil with a high free fatty acid content. Each bird was given 1 c.c. of this oil daily from a medicine dropper for 30 days. The birds objected to the forced feeding of the oil. This amount would be equal to feeding 55 pounds of oil per ton of total feed. With the New England Conference laying mash using 12 pounds of oil per ton and the mash being one-third of the total intake the rate would be only 4 pounds of oil per ton total consumption. Thus, the feeding of oil in the experiment was 14 times over the normal amount. The data below summarizes the examination of the eggs from all birds: