The growth of single crystals

The growth of single crystals

Journal oJ Crystal Growth 11(1971) 358—359 North-Holland Publishing Co. BOOK REVIEW The Growl/i of Single Crystals, by R. A. Laudise. Published in...

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Journal oJ Crystal Growth 11(1971) 358—359

North-Holland Publishing Co.

BOOK REVIEW

The Growl/i of Single Crystals, by R. A. Laudise.

Published in the Solid State Physical Electronics Series. Editor Nick Holonyak. Jr. (Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1970) 352 pages, price $14.50.

The present book treats technology of crystal growth on a University Graduate level and it contains much of what is known nowadays on this subject. The introductory part which treats the physical background is written on a distinctly undergraduate level and is intended to assist those who have never heard about

the advanced technology used for experimental crystal growth. Chapter I describes the crystallographic aspects of single crystals, their defects and methods to study their perfection. Chapter 2 deals with crystal growth equilibriLini and

crystals, perfection and kinetics of crystallization, It is not surprising to see that it took about eight years from the publication of Gilman’s book till the appearance of a text dedicated mainly to the technology of crystal growth. The eight years represent a period of scientific maturity of both the experimental crystal growers and the sophisticated technology necessary to crystallize refractory or thermally unstable substances having well defined electronic properties. The title of the present book already indicates some first signs ofmaturity; the words “The Art and Science” used by Gilman were left out. Instead of a heterogeneous anthology written by several specialists, a single author, Dr. R. A. Laudise, who has been personally active in various methods of crystal growth has sueceeded to prepare a carefully written, concise and homogeneous text. Parts of the present text, particularly the technology part, has been used in various summer schools by Dr. Laudise and his colleagues to lecture graduate courses in Technology of Crystal Growth. As said before, the book is subdivided into two distinct parts: the first three chapters are intended to provide an elementary theoretical background and the remaining four chapters deal with the description of

the application of the knowledge of pha~cdiagrams to crystal growth. Chapter 3 describes briefly some elementary atomistic aspects of kinetics of growth and nucleation and some macroscopic features such as constitutional supercooling, cellular growth and roughness of surfaces during solidification. Chapter 4 which is the first of the advanced experimental part, reviews crystal growth from the solid phase including growth by polymorphic transforniation. This chapter and the remaining three list also some useful specific examples of sophisticated growth of elements or compounds by the various methods. Chapter 5 describes the solidification methods such as the Bridgman—Stockbarger, Czochralski, zone-melting, flame fusion etc. Chapter 6 deals with growth from the vapor phase. It describes evaporation, sputtering and chemical transport by reversible and irreversible reactions. Chapter 7 describes growth from liquid solutions, ineluding aqueous or gel media, hydrothermal conditions, molten salts, solvents, temperature gradient zone melting and the vapor—liquid--solid niethod. The book has only minor shortcomings and few typographical errors. The word “equilibria” which oc-

358

BOOK REVIEW

359

curs in the titles of the various chapters should perhaps

In conclusion it can be said that Dr. Laudise did a

be replaced by “reactions” or growth methods. One

very useful service to the scientific literature by writing

would have wanted perhaps Chapter 3 to be somewhat more mathematical and therefore more concise, but at

the present book. It is highly recommended to be used as a reference and text book for the technology of

the same time, one could argue that many chemists

crystal growth.

working in crystal growth lack the necessary mathematical physical background for a more rigorous des-

M.

cription of the growth phenomena.

Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

SCHIEBER