The next 40 years in space

The next 40 years in space

Acta Astronautica Vol. 22, pp. 1-16, 1990 Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved 0094-5765/90 $3.00 + 0.00 Copyright © 1990 Pergamon Press pl...

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Acta Astronautica Vol. 22, pp. 1-16, 1990

Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved

0094-5765/90 $3.00 + 0.00 Copyright © 1990 Pergamon Press plc

THE NEXT 40 YEARS IN SPACE THOMASO. PAINE 2401 Colorado Avenue, No. 178, Santa Monica, CA 90404, U.S.A. Abstraet--I believe that our response to the challenge of space will determine the destiny of mankind. Confined to Earth, our descendants are doomed to zero-sum struggle for dwindling resources. But this evolutionary dead-end need not be our fate. We can open an unlimited future for humanity through a promethean endeavor to extend life beyond Earth. This paper reviews planned robotic exploration of each body in the Solar System, and provides an overview of NASA's initial strategy for exploring Mars via orbiting spaceports and lunar bases. Whether we become a multi-planet species with unlimited horizons, or are forever confined to Earth, will be decided in the 21st Century amid the vast plains, rugged canyons, and lofty mountains of Mars.

I. MARS: AN INTERNATIONAL CHALLENGE

As NASA sets its sights on Mars via orbiting spaceports and the Moon, European and Asian space agencies are moving toward piloted spaceflight, and Soviet leaders are calling for increased cooperation in space exploration. With military confrontation among major powers declining, economies burgeoning around the world, and astronautical proficiency rising, the next 40 years should see a global surge of investment on the space frontier. This should spur advances in international institutions, including the evolution of a 21st Century Space Federation to promote and coordinate pioneering societies beyond Earth. Some may question whether now is the time to invest in space exploration. Should we not first solve our problems on Earth? If that had been Spain's policy, Columbus would never have left harbor; if that had been colonial America's policy, the western border of the United States would be anchored in the suburbs of Boston. Resource-rich lands and abundant solar energy throughout the Inner Solar System challenge us to open the space frontier. We have the needed technology, resources, and pioneering spirit. America has declared its intention, in partnership with other nations, to begin the exploration and settlement of the Moon and Mars. The next 40 years will see people working and living on three worlds, as the expansion of life beyond Earth's biosphere becomes technically feasible, affordable, and a universally advocated human drive.

2. THE BASE: THREE DECADES OF SPACE ACHIEVEMENT

Thirty-two years ago, Sputnik thundered into orbit, opening the Space Age. Twenty-eight years ago, Yuri Gagarin's dramatic flight initiated human spaceflight. Twenty years ago, Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Mike Collins voyaged 400,000 km from Earth to pioneer human exploration of other worlds.

Apollo astronauts sent back close-up views of rugged lunar peaks and craters, and far-out views of our breath-takingly beautiful blue planet. During eleven Apollo flights, nine spacecraft circled the Moon, and a dozen astronauts landed to establish six base camps and explore the ancient surface. Their footprints and jeep tracks record humanity's first steps of evolution into the cosmos. The past 32 years have seen many other great technological and astronautical achievements, as we have: • developed new rocket propulsion systems, from solid propellants and liquid hydrogen/ oxygen to nuclear fission and solar electric drives; • launched payloads from a few kilograms to more than a hundred tons into space from every major continent and the Moon; • flown the U.S. Shuttle and U.S.S.R. Energia/Buran reusable space transportation systems; • created deep-space communication links capable of transmitting and receiving data from spacecraft beyond the edge of the Solar System; • discovered and mapped the fields and particles of interplanetary space; • carried out international spaceflights, such as the precedent-setting Apollo-Soyuz, the Comet Halley armada, and the International Ultraviolet Explorer; • conducted a broad range of manned scientific experiments during shuttle missions and longduration flight aboard the Skylab, Salyut and Mir Space Stations; • obtained substantial economic value from global weather, communications, rescue, navigation, marine, and Earth observation satellite systems; • increased international security through spacebased verification of arms control treaties;

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• explored the cosmos across the electromagnetic spectrum from orbital astronomical observatories above the Earth's obscurring atmosphere: and • launched robotic spacecraft throughout the Solar System that have landed on three other worlds, reconnoitered every planetary system but Pluto, and are now sailing into interstellar space. These accomplishments provide the advanced space technology base, seasoned institutions, and skilled spaceflight teams, to achieve far more challenging goals in the next 40 years. 3. PROJECTED ROBOTIC MISSIONS

The new decade begins auspiciously next year with initial operation of the shuttle-tended Hubble Space Telescope, Magellan charting Venus from orbit, Galileo flying by Venus and the Earth/Moon system en route to Jupiter, the Astro-I Spacelab Mission, and launch of the F.R.G. Roentgen Satellite, NASA's Gamma Ray Observatory, and the Ulysses spacecraft to fly above the ecliptic over the Sun's polar region. Orbital observatories ESA's Infrared Space Observatory will be launched in 1993. This will supplement NASA's four great orbital observatories: the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), and the Hubble Space Telescope. Together. these facilities will provide new information on the nature of the universe across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The critical wave lengths between 100 and 1200 ~, which fall between X-ray and optical observatories, will be covered by a Far Ultaviolet Spectroscopy Explorer. All of these facilities involve international cooperation. In addition, NASA and the F.R.G. plan to fly a 2.5-3 m i.r. telescope on board a Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) built into a Boeing 747; this airborne observatory will be capable of more than a hundred missions a year in the mid-90s. Three Soviet facilities will also be contributing vital astronomical data from orbit: the Kvant Astrophysical Laboratory on-board Space Station Mir, the Gamma-I Mission (in collaboration with France), and the planned Kvant X-Gamma Mission. The next 40 years will see continuing advances in orbital observatories, including astrometry (building on ESA's Hipparcos and Tycho), large-aperture multi-mirror instruments, long baseline interferometry, and new approaches to detecting planets circling neighbouring stars. A major challenge is to create instruments capable of locating biospheres beyond the Solar System by sensing the presence of water and excess oxygen on distant worlds. JPL's Circumstellar Imaging Telescope (CIT), proposed for launch about

1999, would represent a significant step toward this goal, as would a 21st Century high-resolution i,~ telescope on the Moon. Advances in high-sensitivity microwave detectors and supercomputer signal analysis will intensify the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Solar System exploration New exploratory missions al~c scheduled or in prospect to asteroids, comets and every planct~ Reconnaissance of the inner and outer Solar System will feature fly-bys, orbiters, optical and radar sensing, atmosphere probes, balloons, penetrators, landers, rovers, and sample-return missions. A fleet of smart robotic probes to the Moon, Mars, and accessible asteroids, will blaze the trail l\~r human exploration. Planetary research will be accelerated by technology advances such as solar and nuclear electric propulsion, rovers powered by I 30 kW nuclear generators, artificial intelligence, "brilliant'" autonomous microspacecraft, microwave power transmission, new sensors, laser data storage and communication, aerobraking, electromagnetic launch, and tether operations. Comets and asteroids will receive increased attention, as these small, primitive bodies encapsulate the history of the Solar System's birth. A brief overview of projected automated missions throughout the Solar System, and their approximate timing, follows. The Slcn

The European Space Research & Technology Center at Noordwijk is rebuilding the Ulysses solar polar mission team. This pioneering flight out of the plane of the ecliptic, originally scheduled for 1983, should shed new light on the structure and energy processes of our nearest star. Additional data will come from instruments on-board the proposed Orbiting Solar Laboratory in sun-synchronous orbit, and a future Solar Probe flying within 3 solar radii. Earth-based instrumentation, like underground neutrino detectors, will also contribute to a broader understanding of our life-sustaining Sun. Mercurl Despite the harsh thermal environment, t~ launch of two spacecraft to Mercury by 1997 is being studied. This would require gravity assists from 2 Venus and 2 or 3 Mercury swing-bys, after which the twin spacecraft would be injected into complementary elliptical orbits about 2002 for Hermean planetology and magnetospheric research. The solar neutron flux would also be monitored. The Soviet Institute for Space Research (IKI) is tentatively planning landers or penetrators after 2002 that would provide panoramic TV imaging and geochemical analyses of Mercury's rugged surface~

The next 40 years in space Venus NASA-JPL's Galileo and Magellan spacecraft will both encounter Venus next year. Galileo, a joint mission of JPL and the German Ministry for Research and Technology, will swing by the planet in February 1990, en route to Jupiter. It will scan Venus for deep cloud patterns and lightning with i.r., u.v. and radio sensors. The Magellan spacecraft, which was launched by the Shuttle Atlantis on 4 May 1989, will use high-resolution radar to map the cloudshrouded surface. On arrival on 10 August 1990, the spacecraft will drop into orbit and begin charting Venerian topography. Soviet scientists are studying a 1998 landing mission to study geochemistry with six to eight 50 kg penetrators. Asteroids Radar signals from earth have probed 33 mainbelt and 20 near-Earth asteroids. All future missions beyond Mars will attempt asteroid encounters. Galileo will fly by Gaspra in October 1991, and Ida in August 1993. The ESA-France-USSR Vesta mission to be launched in 1996 will probe 8 asteroid and comet targets. In January 1998, NASA's first Mariner Mark II spacecraft en route Comet Kopff is scheduled to fly within 3770 km of Asteroid 449 Hamburga. This Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Fly-by (CRAF) mission is awaiting congressional approval. NASA's second Mariner Mark II spacecraft, on the Cassini mission to Saturn, is scheduled by fly by Maja in 1997. These spacecraft will characterize the asteroids with remotesensing optical, dust, gas, plasma, and radio-science experiments. Another 24 asteroids which can be reached from Earth with low spacecraft velocity increments are under study for future rendezvous and sample-return missions. 21st Century human explorers will follow up these missions by prospecting nearby asteroids. Jupiter The Galileo spacecraft, probably the most complex spacecraft ever flown, will scan Venus, Earth, and the far side of the Moon, next year as it swings through the Inner Solar System to gain acceleration for a 6-year voyage to Jupiter. NASA substituted an arduous Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity-Assist (VEEGA) trek around the inner planets for the original 2½-year direct flight to Jupiter when the high-energy Centaur stage was banned from the Shuttle after the Challenger accident. The new trajectory takes Galileo closer to the Sun than originally contemplated, doubling the thermal stress on its systems. On arrival at Jupiter in December 1995, Galileo will deploy its atmosphere probe, perform atmospheric analyses, measure the giant magnetosphere and radiation belts, and begin a 20-month grand tour of the diverse Jovian moons for high-definition mapping and surface composition measurements.

Galileo will transmit data to Earth from Jupiter at a rate of 134kbps, and attain 20 to 1000 times the resolution obtained by the Voyager spacecraft. Galileo's photos at Jupiter will equal the definition of Landsat pictures of Earth. Saturn In April 1996, the second Mariner Mark II spacecraft is scheduled for launch on the Joint NASA/ESA Cassini mission. After a 6½year voyage the spacecraft will brake into the Saturn orbit in March 2003. During the first of 40 Titan fly-bys, ESA's 178 kg Huygens Titan prob e will be deployed to enter the moon's hazy nitrogen-methane--hydrogen atmosphere and parachute eight instruments on a 2-3 h descent to the surface. From 2002 to 2007 Cassini will cruise through the Saturnian system, exploring the magnetosphere, the spectacular ring structure, icy moons and organic-rich Titan. Uranus and Neptune A wealth of information from the Voyager fly-bys is raising fascinating questions about these planets and their rings, atmospheres, energy sources, magnetospheres and moons. Future orbiter missions are in prospect when nuclear electric propulsion becomes available. Triton will then be a primary target for orbiters, atmosphere probes, landers and penetrators. Pluto Several alternative missions are being considered to our Solar System's last unexplored planet. One would use a deep Jupiter gravity-assist to deliver a Pioneer 10/11-class orbiter after a 14 to 20-year flight; another (The "Fire and Ice" Mission) would swing by Jupiter and the Sun. A third approach proposes a threeyear, nuclear-electric-propelled, fly-by of Pluto and Charon as part of a deep interstellar space mission. Critical observations for comparative planetology include Pluto's and Charon's surface morphologies, interior structures, magnetospheres, evolutionary, chronology and atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. Comets The Giotto spacecraft, now parked in a heliocentric orbit following its successful Halley encounter, may be reactivated and retargeted by ESA to reach Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup in July 1992. In addition, NASA has worked out trajectories for a new probe to fly to Comet Honda-MrkosPajdusakova in 1996. Beyond this, the ESA-NASA Rosetta mission is designed to return a refrigerated comet nucleus sample to Earth. This is the planetary cornerstone of ESA's Horizon 2000 long-range plan; other targets are also being considered for this extended mission. Pristine material data back to the time the Sun was born would be of enormous value to both planetary scientists and astrophysicists.

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NASA's Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Fly-by (CRAF) mission, planned for launch in 1995 or 1996, will send the first Mariner Mark II spacecraft to rendezvous with the short-period Comet Kopff just inside the orbit of Jupiter in 2000 or 2001. While the comet is monitored from a distance of 20 5000 km during a 3-year swing around the Sun, a penetrator with 5 instruments will be deployed. The Kopff encounter wilt continue through the comet's perihelion at 1.58 AU in December 2002. Nine days later the spacecraft will fly out through the comet's plasma tail to a distance of 50,000 km: the mission will then end on 31 March 2003. A JapaneseAmerican spacecraft is also under discussion that would intercept comet Kopff during the CRAF mission in November 2002, pick up a sample, and return i~ to Earth orbit. Interstellar space beyond tile Heliopause

Pioneer and Voyager will be the first spacecraft to fly into interstellar space. JPL scientists have conceptually designed a 5000 kg probe for a voyage outside the Solar System using nuclear--vlectric ion propulsion and laser communication to Earth orbit. This Thousand Astronomical Unit (TAU) mission would cruise beyond Pluto for 50 years, flying into the Oort Cloud of comets, and outside the Heliopause. This bold mission would explore a new region of space, and give astronomers a unique extended baseline for more precise measurements of stellar distances within our galaxy and the Magellanic clouds. Earth

The International Space Year (ISY) of 1992 will honor Columbus's 500th anniversary with "'Mission to Planet Earth". including the U S . France ocean topography Topex/Poseidon mission, and the NASA E S A Japan Earth Observing System (EOS), proposed for the mid-1990s. Other programs include ESA's European Polar Orbiting Platform, Japan's Marine Observation Satellite-2, weather satellites, Spot, Landsat, and the Japanese JERS-1 and MOS-I. The data contributed to the ISY by remote sensing systems will be supplemented by human observations from the Shuttle, Buran and Mir In December 1990, and December 1992. Galileo is scheduled to fly by' Earth en route Jupiter on a VEEGA trajectory that mayr permit imaging of the Earth's Antarctic ozone hole and composition mapping of the far side of the Moon. JPL is proposing to launch two polar platforms with 16 sensing instruments in 1996 and 1998. and Explorer-class missions are in prospect. The next 40 years should see increasing monitoring from orbit of the Earth's biosphere. Phenomena to be studied include acid rain, ozone depletion, carbon dioxide build-up, global warming, glacier and polar ice pack retreat, E1 Nitro and other ocean currents, air and water pollution, deforestation, desertiflcation, insect infestation, crop disease, land erosion, urban

sprawl, and every other global change factor visible from space. More powerful application satellites are in prospect to provide new global services, such as TV distribution (Intelsat and Moskva-Globalnaya types), direct TV broadcast from orbit, mobile communications, low-cost navigation, and other applications. Expendable comsats will be supplemented b} large teleoperated, man-tended, multi-use platforms in geostationary orbit with high power, precision pointing, redundant systems, and reprogrammable software.

The Moon

Japan's National Space Development Agency ~s considering the launch of an H-2 vehicle in 1996 to place a Lunar Polar Observer into orbit around the Moon. This would pave the way for a 500 kg, sixwheel, two-manipulator surface rover about the year 2000. followed by a later automated sample-return mission. NASA is planning to assemble a 1997 Lunar Observer from back-up equipment and spare parts fi'om its 1992 Mars Observer. After several months in a 7-h elliptical polar orbit for gravity studies, Lunar Observer will be placed in a 100 km circular orbit to map and prospect the entire Moon in 12 months. Lunar Observer will search for frozen volatiles in sunless craters near the poles as part of a generai study of lunar geochemistry, elemental and mineralogical composition, topography, and gravity and magnetic fields. The emphasis will be on future site selection for human exploration.

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In 1992 NASA will launch the Mars Observer spacecraft to monitor the Red Ptanet's atmosphere, surface topography and resources for an entire Martian year (two Earth-years) Observations wilt be carried out from a nearly circular, sun-synchronous. 350-400km altitude, polar orbit. Mars Observer will also provide communication relay and location support for the two Soviet Mars-94 spacecraft to be launched in October 1994. These will deploy penetrator:,, or surface stations o~ arrival at Mars in September 1995 and launch French thermal gas balloons with TV gondolas and surface-contacting "'snakes." The ESA is studying future Mars orbiters, landers, rovers, and a network of small surface stations. A Soviet Phobos sample-return mission is under consideration for 1996. Planning is also under way' in the U.S. and U.S.S.R. for 1996 Mars penetrators, weather stations and rovers, and Rover SampleReturn (MRSR) missions about 2001. These costly Martian enterprises are prime candidates tk)r international collaboration, which would blaze a trail for multinational piloted missions to Mars about 2015

The next 40 years in space 4. T H E C O M I N G EXTRATERRESTRIAL CENTURY

In 1984, the U.S. Congress created the National Commission on Space to recommend a 20-year civilian space program. The Commission's final report, Pioneering the Space Frontier, proposed to the President and the Congress that America "lead the exploration and development of the space frontier, advancing science, technology and enterprise, and building institutions and systems that make accessible vast new resources and support human settlements beyond Earth orbit, from the highlands of the Moon to the plains of Mars". The acclaim that greeted this award-winning report made it clear that men and women of many nations would enthusiastically contribute to, and participate in, this inspirational endeavor. Five program elements were identified as critical for the future: (1) a highway to space to provide reliable, lowcost access to Earth orbit for passengers and cargo; (2) orbital spaceports circling the Earth, the Moon and Mars, to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, check-out, launch and recovery of robotic and piloted spacecraft; (3) a bridge between worlds to transport cargo and crews to the Moon, and to extend human spaceflight a thousand times the lunar distance to Mars, with cycling spaceships in permanent orbits between Earth and Mars; (4) prospecting and resource utilization systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons and asteroids, and learn how to "live off the land" using indigenous materials on other worlds; and (5) closed-ecology biospheres that enable pioneers to grow food and recycle air and water within secure habitats remote from Earth. Each of these five elements is challenging, and each requires technological advances across a broad front. Yet we know far more today about voyaging through space to establish a network of evolutionary outposts on other worlds than we knew about landing on the Moon when President Kennedy initiated the U.S. Apollo Program in 1961. We also have far greater astronautic experience, a broader base of international cooperation, and a larger gross world product. On the 20th anniversary of Apollo l l's lunar landing, President Bush delivered a historic address at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum. Standing before the 1903 Wright Brothers Flyer, Lindbergh's 1927 Spirit of Saint Louis, and the 1969 Apollo 11 Spaceship Columbia, he directed NASA to proceed with an orbital base, to prepare plans to establish permanent bases on the Moon, and to begin the exploration of Mars. Thus, Columbus's 500th anniversary will see the new world he discovered

preparing to set sail to other new worlds across the endless ocean of space. 5. RETURN T O T H E M O O N : 2004

Although Apollo demonstrated the feasibility of expendable spacecraft for flights to the Moon, NASA's Martian goal suggests using prototype cycling spaceships on the Earth-Moon run to gain operational experience. These large passenger transports would swing by Earth and the Moon in perpetual return orbits, with high-speed space taxis to ferry people from Spaceport Earth and Spaceport Moon to the cycling spaceships. These well-equipped spaceships would give scientists valuable research platforms for interferometry and other deep space experiments, and allow engineers to check out ferry operation, artificial gravity chambers, and closed-ecology biospheres illuminated 24 h daily. During solar flares and passages through the Van Allan Radiation Belts, lunar travellers would be protected by the massive shielding that will be mandatory aboard the cycling spaceships on the Mars run. Tentative NASA plans call for staffing the first lunar outpost with a crew of 4-6 people on 6-month tours of duty. Before they arrive, their habitats and workshops will be roboticaUy deployed, activated, and checked-out from Earth. An extended base would then be constructed on the Moon about 2008 to accommodate 8 people for 1-year tours of duty. From the first landing, science and exploration activities will accompany facility extension. By 2010 a crew of 12 will be enlarging the facilities, utilizing lunar resources to the extent practicable. Oxygen extracted from lunar rocks, for example, will provide atmosphere and propellant. An alternate plan involves an initial "Lunar Oasis" populated by 30 people with 3 year tours of duty. A 1 MW solar or nuclear electric plant would support lunar construction, research operations, and high-intensity agriculture for food production and air and water recycling. With NASA's sights set ultimately on Mars, all Lunar base prototype systems should be specifically designed for adaptability to Martian conditions. Multidisciplinary international laboratories and workshops should be functioning by 2015, and broad-spectrum astronomical observatories operating on the near and far sides of the Moon. The entire Moon should then be accessible through surface or ballistic transport, and the base designs and robotic construction techniques proven in lunar prototypes will start operating on Mars. 6. THE EXPLORATION AND SETTLEMENT OF MARS: 2015

Mars is a thousand times farther away than the Moon, and will therefore require a high degree of autonomous operation utilizing indigenous

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resources. Modular space transfer vehicles with hydrogen-oxygen engines and aerobraking shields are being developed for Earth-Mars cargo and passenger flights. Lower-cost cargo transport is in prospect using low-thrust, high-specific-impulse solar or nuclear-electric propulsion systems. Large cycling spaceships swinging permanently between the orbits of Earth and Mars appear promising for interplanetary passenger transport in the 21st Century. Aerobraking transfer vehicles would ferry passengers between the cyclers and Spaceport Earth at one end of the voyage, and Spaceport Mars at the other, eliminating the need to accelerate and decelerate the massive transports. President Bush's farsighted goal of Mars exploration gives NASA the rationale to develop the technology base and infrastructure for interplanetary transport systems, and facilitates planning for international collaboration in the settlement of Mars. The next 40 years will see the development of the broad technology base, transportation infrastructure, and network of self-sustaining bases beyond Earth orbit that will permit men and women to live and work on the space frontier. Bases will require solar or nuclear-electric generators in the I to 10 MW range, automated plants to process indigenous materials, robotic construction machinery, fabrication plants (with software links to twin factories on Earth), base maintenance shops, and transportation support facilities. With Mars so far from Earth in distance and travel time, air and water must be recycled, and nourishing food produced, within automated, closed-cycle lifesupport systems. Air and water have been successfully regenerated in prototype systems, and the problems are reasonably well understood. Little is known, however, about constructing artificial biospheres that can be depended upon to supply food and fiber on other worlds. The Earth's solar-powered biosphere is 24,000 miles in circumference and, except for occasional ice ages and meteorite impacts, has operated reliably for four billion years. Now we must learn how to compress our complex food chain into compact recycling conservatories capable of operating unfailingly aboard spaceships and at Lunar and Martian bases. Fortunately, rapid progress in the biological sciences and genetic engineering provides a host of new techniques to help develop reliable closed-ecology systems. Arid areas of Earth, like the American Southwest. the Middle East. Central Asia, and the interior of Australia, could benefit from space biosphere research. Where water is insufficient to support irrigation, a breakthrough in intensive closed-ecology agriculture could have a major impact. This is but one of the many potential benefits to be derived from space research. As Europeans gained from economic and social developments in the Americas. so will Earthlings benefit from human expansion into space.

7. CONCLUSION President Bush has challenged NASA to accomplish one of humanity's most exalted goals: the creation of a self-sufficient civilization "living off the land" on Mars. This great endeavor will attract international partners, encourage world peace, stimulate advances in science and engineering, generate broad economic benefits, inspire young people, and give our descendants a magnificant legacy of expanding horizons, Mars alone will double the land area available to humanity. All of the peoples of Earth should participate in the expansion of humanity to other worlds, but the industrialized nations must lead the way. With America's magnificent heritage from Columbus, our pioneering tradition, our population's multinational origins, our dynamic science and engineering, and our exponentially-growing five trillion dollar econom},, i~ is appropriate that the United States should make a leading contribution. Earthlings working together to open the Lunar and Martian frontiers will need to organize an advanced Space Federation to encourage and integrate the national efforts of America, Europe. Japan, the Soviet Union, and other countries, This 21st Century institution will build upon past international space organizations like IAF, ESA, lntelsat, Apollo Soyuz, and ISY. Like all federations, its goal will be to make our total global effort greater than the sum ,,l" its national parts. Eventually, the Space Federation will evolve into an extraterrestrial government, as Lunarians and Martians assume responsibility for their own destinies. Twenty years ago we watched the first men explore the Moon: among our children today are the first Martians. Supported by scientific advances and engineering breakthroughs. 21st Century space pioneers will be limited on13, bv their aspirations, resolution and courage, In at~other century, lhe human drive to project intelligent life beyond Earth will carry our descendants to the slars.

REFEREN( ES

Selected Visions q/ Man's Futur~ in Space: 1609 1989

Exponential growth m science and technology, and rapidly developing spaceflight experience, foreshadow widespread interplanetary travel in the 21st Century. By expanding life outward from its earthly cradle, human intelligence is activating the next phase in evolution. As piloted and robotic explorers sail further into the limitless ocean of space, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence is being extended far beyond Venus, Mars and the Moon, to Earthlike planets circling distant stars. The selected references that follow record humanity's expanding awareness of the vastness of the universe around us, our evolvingvision of the prospect of spaceflight to other worlds, and the steady improvement in our engineering capabilities. The works are listed chronologically, and arbitrarily divided into twelve periods that reflect our increasingly realistic extraterrestrial aspirations based upo~l our steady progress in astronautical proficiency:

The next 40 years in space 1. Advancing Science, Technology and Conjecture, 1609-1903 2. After the Wright Brothers Flight, 17 December 1903 3. After Lindbergh Flew from New York to Paris 21 May 1927 4. After the First V-2 (A-4) Rocket Flight, 3 October 1942 5. After Sputnik Orbited the Earth, 4 October 1957 6. After Yuri Gagarin's Spaceflight 12 April 1961 7. After Apollo Astronauts Landed on the Moon, 20 July 1969 8. After the Viking Spacecraft Landed on Mars, 20 July 1976 9. After The Case for Mars Conferences, 1981 and 1984 10. After the U.S. National Commission on Space Report, 1986 11. After President Bush's Mars Goal, 20 July 1989 12. After the First Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence Advancing

Science,

Technology 1609-1903

and

Conjecture,

Johannes Kepler, Astronomia Novo (1609). Galileo Galilei, The Sidereal Messenger: Unfolding Great and Marvelous Sights, and Proposing Them to the Attention of Everyone, but Especially Philosophers and Astronomers [English edition by E. F. Carlos, Dawsons of

Pall Mall, London]. Venice (1610). Sir Francis Bacon, The New Atlantis. London (1627). Galileo Galilei, Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo [Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems, Aristotelian and Copernican]. Accademia dei Lincei, Florence (1632). Bishop John Wilkins [A Founder and first Secretary of the Royal Society], The Discovery of a world in the Moone; Or, a Discourse Tending to Prove 'tis Probable there may be Another Habitable World in that Planet [The 3rd Edition, 1640, includes an Appendix: The possibility of a passage thither]. Sparke & Forrest, London (1638). Bishop Francis Godwin, The Man in the Moone: Or a Discourse of a Voyage thither, by Domingo Gonsales, the Speedy Messenger [Written about 1630, published 5 years

after his death]. Printed by John Norton for Ioshua Kirton & Thomis Waren, London (1638). Bishop John Wilkins, A Discourse Concerning a New Planet. Maynard, London (1640). Hevelius (Johann Hrwelcke), Selenographia siva lunae descriptio. Danzig (1647). Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac, Voyage dans la Lune [English edition: Voyages to the Sun and Moon, Routledge, London (1923)]. Chez Charles le Sercy, Paris (1649). Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac, L'Histoire comique des btats et empires de la lane et du soliel [English edition: The Comical History of the States and Empires of the Worlds o f the Moon and Sun, Rhodes, London (1687)], Chez

Charles le Sercy, Paris (1652). Christiaan Huygens, De Saturni luna observatio nova. Leiden (1656). Bernard le Bouvier de Fontenelle, Entretiens sur la pluralit~ des mondes [English edition: Conversations on the Plurality o f Worlds, Butterworth, London (1715)]. Paris (1686). Sir Isaac Newton, Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica. London (1687). Gabriel P. Daniel, Voiage du monde de Descartes [English edition: A Voyage to the World o f Cartesius, Bennet, London (1694)]. Chez la Veuve de S. Brnard, Paris (1691). Christiaan Huygens, Kosmotheoros [English edition: The Celestial Worlds Discover'd: Conjectures Concerning the Inhabitants, Plants and the Productions o f the Worlds in the Planets, Childs, London (1698)]. The Hague (1698).

David Russen, lter Lunare: Or, A Voyage to the Moon. Nutt, London (1703). Daniel Defoe, The Consolidator: Or Memoirs o f Sundry Transactions from the World in the Moon [See also: A Journey to the World in the Moon, Watson, Edinburgh (1705)]. Bragg, London (1705). Samuel Brunt, A Voyage to Cacklogallinia [--and home via the Moon--Reprint: Columbia University Press, New York (1940)]. Watson, London (1727). Anon., A New Journey to the World in the Moon. Containing, L A Full Description of the Manner o f the Author's Performing his Journey; and his Reasons Why Former Lunarian Travellers Could not Find their Way Thither . . . .

Corbett, London (1741). Thomas Wright, An Original Theory or New Hypothesis o f the Universe [Reprint: MacDonald, London (1971)]. London (1750). Ralph Morris, A Narrative of the Life and Astonishing Adventures o f John Daniel a Smith at Ryston in Herefordshire, for a Course o f Seventy Years Containing.., a Description of a Most Surprising Engine Invented by his Son Jacob, on which he Flew to the Moon, with some Accounts of its Inhabitants... Taken by his Own Mouth.

Cooper, London (1751). Franqois Marie Arouet de Voltaire, Le Microm~gas [Exploring the galaxy from Sirius--English edition: Micromegas: A Comic Romance, Wilson & Durham, London (1753)]. Robinson & Meyer, London (1752). Emanuel Swedenborg, Earths in our Solar System, which are called Planets, and Earths in the Starry Heaven, their Inhabitants, and the Spirits and Angels therefrom Things Heard and Seen [Reprint: Swedenborg Society, London

(1962)]. Upsala (1758). Louis Scbastien Mercier, Memoirs of the Year Two Thousand Five Hundred. New York (1771). Louis Guillaume de La Folie, Le philosophe sans prJtention [Mercurian electric spaceship]. Clusier, Paris (1775). Sir F. William Herschel, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. (1781-1822). Cornelie (Wouters), Baronne de Vasse, Le char volant, ou voyage dans la lune. La Veuve Ballard, Paris (1783). Anon., An Account o f Count d'Artois and his Friend's Passage to the Moon, in a Flying Machine, Called An Air Balloon, Which was Constructed in France. Collier &

Copp, Litchfield (1785). Johann H. Schr6ter, Selenotopographische Fragmente zur genauern Kenntniss tier Mondfliiche. Lilienthal (1791). Pierre Simon, Marquis de Laplace, M~c. C~lest. 5, (1799-1825). Sir William Congreve, A Concise Account o f the Origin and Progress o f the Rocket System. Whiting, London (1807). George Fowler, A Flight to the Moon. Miltenberger, Baltimore (1813). Joseph Atterley (Professor St George Tucker), A Voyage to the Moon with some Account o f the Manners and Customs, Science and Philosophy of the People of Morosofia and Other Lunarians [Reprint: Gregg, Boston (1975)]. Bliss,

New York (1827). Richard Adams Locke, Great Astronomical Discoveries Lately Made by Sir John Herschel, LL.D., F.R.S. etc., at the Cape of Good Hope, Reprinted from the Edinb. J. Sci. [Hoax[, New York Sun, August-September (1835). Edgar Allan Poe, Hans Pfaal--A Tale, or Lunar Discoveries, Extraordinary Aerial Voyage by Baron Hans Pfaal. Sth Lit. Mess. (1835). J. L. Riddell, Orrin Lindsay's Plan o f Aerial Navigation.., and his Wonderful Voyage Around the Moon. New

York (1847). William Griggs, The Celebrated "Moon Story", Its Origins and Incidents with a Memoir of lts Author. Bunnel & Price, New York (1852). William Whewell, The Plurality of Worlds. Gould & Lincoln, Boston (1854).

8

THOMAS O. PAINE

Sir David Brewster, More Worlds Than One, The Creed of the Philosopher and the Hope of the Christian. Carter, New York (1854). Richard Adams Locke, The Moon Hoax: Or A Discovery that the Moon has a Vast Population of Human Beings.

Gowans, New York (1859). Charles R. Darwin, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle Jor Life. London. (18593. Achille Eyraud, Voyage a Venus. Michel Levy Freres, Paris

(18633. Camille Flammarion. La pluralitb des mondes habit&. Didier, Paris (1864). Jules Verne, De la terra a la lune. Hetzel, Paris (18653. Edward Everett Hale, The brick Moon. Atlant. mon. 24, October, November and December (18693. Edward Everett Hale, L~fe in the brick Moon. Atlant. mon. 25, February (18703. Jules Verne, Round the Moon. Hetzel, Paris (18703. Alexander von Humbolt, Cosmos. Vols 1 5. Bell, London (18713. E. Nelson (Neville), The Moon and the Conditions and Configurations o[' its Surface. London (18763. Giovanni V. Schiaparelli, Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull' asse di rotazione e sulla topografia del pianeta Marte. Memorie R. Acead. Lincei (1877). Jules Verne, Hector Servadac, or Off' on a Comet. Hetzel,

Paris (18773. Percy Greg, Across the Zodiac [Spaceflight to Mars]. New York (18803. Jules Verne, Robur the Conqueror [Airplane and Helicopter[. Hetzel, Paris (1886). Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward: 2000-1887. Ticknor, New York (1888). Robert Cromie, ,4 Plunge into Space. Warne, New York (1891). Camille Flammarion, La PlanOte Mars et ses conditions d'habitilite. Didier, Paris (1892). Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky. Na Luna [On the Moon]. Concharov. Moscow (18933. Octave Chanute. Progress in Flying Machines (18943. John Jacob Astor. Journey to Other Worldi. Appleton. New York (18943. Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Dreams q[" Earth and Sky [Reprint edited by B. N. Vorob'yeba, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow (1959)]. Goncharov, Moscow (18953. H. G. Wells, The Tinle Machine. Heinemann, London ( 18953. Percival Lowell, Mars. Houghton Miflin, Boston (1895). M. Loewy and P. Puiseux, Atlas photographique de la lune. lmprimerie Royale, Paris (1896-19083. Kurt K. Lasswitz, Azl[ Zwei Planeten [English edition: On Two Planets, with Epigraph by Wernher yon Braun. Carbondal, IL (1971)]. Leipzig (1897). H. G. Wells, The War O['the Worlds. Heinemann, London (18983. Garret Putnam Serviss, Edison's Conquest of Mars [Reprint: Carcosa, Los Angeles i947]. N.Y. Evening J. (18983. H. G. Wells. The First Men in the Moon. Newnes, London (1901). H. G. Wells, The discovery of the future. Nature 65, 326 331 (1902). Georges M61i6s, Un voyage dans la lune. Silent Film, Paris (1902). William Wallace Cook. Round trip to the year 2000. Argosy July November (1903). J. Nasmyth and J. Carpenter, The Moon, Considered as a Planet, a World and a Satellite. London (1903). Alter the Wright Brothers flight, 17 December 1903

Orville and Wilbur Wright, Flying Machine. U.S. Patent No. 821,393. Application 23 March (19033.

Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Exploration of Planetary Space with Reactive Devices [Includes Rockets and Solar Sailing-Revised Edition: Kaluga, Moscow (1926); English edition: NASA TT F-243, (1965)]. Nauchnoye Obozreniye. Moscow (19033. W. H. Pickering, The Moon, trom photographs. New York (1904). Percival Lowell, Mars and its Canals. Macmillan, New York ( 1906). Edward S. Morse, Mars and its Mystery. Boston (1906). Alfred Russell Wallace, Is Mars Habitable? Macmillan, London (19073. Percival Lowell, Mars as the Abode of L!!~~. Macmillan. New York (t9083. Simon Newcomb, Mars: Planet. The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1lth edition, Vol. 17, pp. 761 765. New York (19113. Hugo Gernsback, Ralph 124C 4 l = Modern Electric~" (19113. Norman Bean (Edgar Rice Burroughs), Under the Moons o,C Mars [Book: A Martian Princess], All-Story (19123. Edgar Rice Burroughs, The Gods o[" Mars [see also: Ballantine Books, New York (19633, The Master Mind q/Mars [see also: Ballantine Books, New York (19633], and The Warlord of Mars, All-Story (I9133. Yakov 1. Perelman, Interplaneta o, Travels. Moscow (1915). Robert H. Goddard, The Ultimate Migration. Goddard Library Manuscript, 14 January (19183. Robert H. Goddard, A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes [Final section on the Moon], Smithson. misc. Collns 71, No. 2, Publication 2540 (1919). Robert H. Goddard, Importance qf Production o[' Hydrogen and Oxygen on the Moon and Planets. Manuscript in Goddard Library dated March (1920). J. B. S. Haldane, Daedalus, or Science and the Future. Folcraft Library, Folcroft, Pa (19233. Hermann Oberth. Die rakete zu den Planetenriiumen Oldenbourg, Munich (1923). Luigi Gussalli, Si pud gia tentare un viaggio dalle terra alia luna. Editrice Libraria, Milan (1923). Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, The Rocket into Cosmic Space [Revision of 1903 Work], Moscow (1924). Yakov 1. Perelman, Flight to the Moon. All-Union Society for the Study of Interplanetary Flight, Leningrad (19243. Max Valier, Der Vorstoss in den Weltenraum [The Advance into Space]. Oldenbourg, Munich (19243. John Boodin, Cosmic Evolution. Macmillan, New York I19253. Walter Hohmann, Die Erreichbarkeit der Himmelsk6rper !The AttainabiliO' of Celestial Bodies]. Oldenbourg, Munich (19253. Willy Ley, Die Fahrt ins Weltall [The Journey into £pace¢ Hachmeister & Thai, Leipzig (19263 Alter Lindbergh Flew Jfom :~et~ York to Paris, 21 May 1927

Sergei L. Grabe, Travel to the Moon [Juvenile]. Leningrad (19263. Sir Francis Younghusband, L~t? m 'he Stars. Murray, London ( 19273. Konstantin E Tsiolkovsky, Cosmic Rocket. Moscow t,19273. Robert Esnault-Pelterie, L'exploration par fus~es de la tres haute atrnosph&e et la possibiHt~ des voyages interplani,taires [Rocket Exploration of the Very High Atmosphere, and the Possibility qf Interplaneta O' Travel]. Soci6t6

Astronomique de France, Paris (19283. Philip Nowlan, Armageddon 2419 A.D. [see also: Collected Works of Buck Rogers in the 25th Century, Chelsea House, New York (1969)]. Amazing Stories August (1928). Willy Ley (Ed.L with Karl Debus, Franz von Hoefft, Walter Hohmann, Hermann Oberth, Guido yon Pirquet and Friedrich W. Sanders, Die M6glichketi der Weltraum[~zhrt. Hachmeister & Thal, Leipzig (19283

The next 40 years~in space

9

Felix Linke, Das Raketen- Weltraumschiff. Hamburg (1928). Eugen A. S~nger, Recent Results of Rocket Flight Technique [English edition of article comprising entire special issue Thea von Harbou, Frau On Mond. Seherl, Berlin (1928). of Flug, NACA Technical Memorandum No. 1012, April Fritz Lang (Producer), Thea von Harbou (Mrs Fritz Lang) (1942)]. Vienna (1934). and Hermann Oberth (Technical Advisor), Frau On Mond. Silent Film, Universum-Film-Aktiengesellschaft G. E. Langraark and Valentin P. Glushkov, Rakety, Ikh Ustroistvo i Primeneniye [Rockets, Their Construction and (UFA), Berlin (1928). Utilization]. ONTI, Moscow (1935). Robert Nast, Kosmische Hypothesen. Huber's, Leipzig M. K. Tikhonravov, Raketnaya Takhniya [Rocket Tech(1928). nology]. ONTI, Moscow (1935). Nikolai A. Rynin, Mezhplanemiye Soobshcheniya [Interplanetary Communications ("Communications" meaning Alexandre Ananoff, La navigation interplan~taires. Soci6t6 Astronomique de France, Paris (1935). "Spaceflight" )--English edition: NASA TTF 640-88], 9 A. A. Butlerov (Ed.), Reaktivnoe Dvizhenie [Jet Propulsion], Volume Comprehensive Encylopedia and Bibliography. 2 Vols. ONTI, Glavnaya Redaksiya Obshcheteknicheskoi Union of Scientific Technical Publishing Houses, Literatury, Moscow (1935-1936). Leningrad (1928-1932). J. D. Bernal, The World, the Flesh and the Devil; an Enquiry I. T. Kleimenov (Ed.), Raketnaya Tekhnika [Rocket Technology]. ONTI, Moscow (1936). into the Future of the Three Enemies of the Rational Soul [see also: Freeman J. Dyson (1972)]. Paul, Trench & Robert H. Goddard, Liquid-Propellant Rocket Development [Report to the Guggenheim Foundation]. Smithsonian Trubner, London (1929). Institution, Washington (1936). Hermann Oberth, Wege zur Raumschiffahrt. Oldenbourg, Phil E. Cleator, Rockets through Space: the Dawn of lnterMunich (1929). planetary Travel. Simon & Schuster, London (1936). Alexander B. Scherschevsky, Die Rakete fiir Fahrt und Flug. Alexander Korda (Producer) and H. G. Wells, Things to Volckmann, Berlin (1929). Come [see also book: Things to Come: A Film, Macmillan, Bernard de Fontenelle (translated by John Glanville), New York (1933). Film (1936). A Plurality of Worlds. Nonesuch Press, London Arthur C. Clarke, Into Space, Chequerboard (Gazette of the (1929). Exchequer and Audit Department Association) 13, October Hermann Noordung (Captain Potocnik), Das Problem der (1937). Befahrung des Weltraums [The Problems of Space Flight]. J. Happian Edwards et al., The BIS lunar spaceship design. Schmidt, Berlin (1929). J. Br. Interplanet. Soc. (1937-1939). Yuri V. Kondratyuk, The Conquest of Space. Novosibirsk H. G. Wells, The Fate of Man. Longmans Green, London (1929). (1939). Robert Esnault-Pelterie, L'Astronautique. Lahare, Paris (1930). Fletcher Pratt, The universal background of interplanetary After the First V-2(A-4) Rocket Flight, travel. Bull. Am. Interplanet. Soc. 1, June (1930). 3 October 1942 The Earl of Birkenhead, The Worm in 2030. Hodder & Stoughton, London (1930). G. Edward Pendray, The Coming Age of Rocket Power. Max Valier, Raketenfahrt [Rocket Travel]. Oldenbourg, Harper, New York (1945). Munich (1930). Arthur C. Clarke, Extra-terrestrial Relays: Can Rocket Yakov I. Perelman, Rocket to the Moon. Moscow (1930). Stations Give World-Wide Radio Coverage? [3 GeoDavid Lasser, The Conquest of Space. Penguin, New York synchronous Comsats]. Wireless Worm 51, 305-308 (1931). (1945). Artur von Baumgarten-Crusius, Die Rakete als WeltfriedenReinhold Niebuhr, The Nature and Destiny of Man. Scribstaube. Rossberg'sche Buchdruckerie, Leipzig (1931). ner's, New York (1945). Aldous Huxley, Brave New World. Doubleday, New York Harry Harper, Dawn of the Space Age. Low, London (1946). (1932). Arthur Wilcox, Moon Rocket. Nelson, London (1946). Fridrikh A. Tsander, Problems Poleta Pri Pomoshchi Raket- J. M. J. Kooy and J. W. H. Uytenbogaart, Ballistics of the nykh Apparatov [English edition: Problems of Flight by Future [V-1 and V-2]. N.V. de Technische Vitgeverij A. Means of Reactive Devices, Israel Program for Scientific Stare, Haarlem (1946). English edition, Jerusalem (1964)]. ONTI, Moscow Francis H. Clauser, David T. Griggs, Louis Ridenour et al., (1932). Preliminary Design of an Experimental WorM-Circling Raoul Marquis, Irons-nous dans la lune? Je sais tout, Paris Spaceship. Project Rand Report SM-11827, 2 May (1946). (1932). M. K. Tikhonravov (Ed.), Works on Rocket Technology. Werner Brugel (Ed), with C. P. Mason, Robert H. Goddard, Voenizdat, Moscow (1947). Willy Ley, Hanns-Wolf von dickhuth-Harrach, Robert J. O. Bailey, Pilgrims through Space and Time. Argus, New Estnault-Pelterie, Franz von Hoefft, Hermann Oberth, York (1947). Guido von Pirquet, Nikolai A. Rynin, Friedrich Robert A. Heinlein, Rocket Ship Galileo [see also: DestiSchmiedl, Johannes Winkler and Konstantin Tsiolnation Moon, Film (1950)]. Scribner's, New York (1947). kovsky: Manner der Rakete. Hachmeister & Thai, Leipzig Ernest H. Krause, High-altitude research with V-2 rockets. (1933). Proc. Am. phil. Soc. 91, No. 5 (1947). Yakov I. Perelman, To the Stars in a Rocket. ONTI, Robert Richard-Foy, Voyages interplanbtaires et bnergie Leningrad (1933). atomique. Michel, Paris (1947). Eugen A. S~nger, Raketenflugtechnik [English edition: Willy Ley, Vorstoff ins Weltall; Rakete and Raumschiffahrt. Rocket Flight Engineering, NASA (1965)]. Oldenbourg, Universurn, Vienna (1948). Munich (1933). L. W. Fraser and E. H. Siegler, High Altitude Research using H. G. Wells, The Shape of Things to Come, the Ultimate the V-2 Rocket. Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Revolution. Hutchinson, London (1933). Hopkins University (1948). Sergei P. Korolov, Raketnyi Polet v Stratosfere [Rocket G. Grimminger, Analysis of Temperature, Pressure and Flight in the Stratosphere]. Voenizdat, Moscow (1934). Density of the Atmosphere Extending to Extreme Altitudes. Alexandre Ananoff [an IAF Founder], Le problOme des Rand Corp., Santa Monica, Parts I and II February voyages interplanktaires. Soci6t6 Astronomique de France, (1947), Part III January (1948). Paris (1934). Marjorie H. Nicolson, Voyages to the Moon [Anthology Robert Esnault-Pelterie, L'Astronautique-Compl~ment. of lunar travel literature[. Macmillan, New York Lahare, Paris (1934). (1948).

I0

THOMAS O. PAINE

E. F. Bleiler (Ed.), The Checklist o f Fantastic Literature [5000 indexed books]. Shasta, Chicago (1948). Robert H. Goddard (Edited by Mrs Esther C. Goddard and G. Edward Pendray), Rocket Development. Prentice Hall, Englewood Ciffs, N.J. (1948), H. E. Ross, Orbital bases. J. Br. lnterplanet. Soc. 8~ No. ! (1949). George Orwell, 1984. Secker & Warburg, London (1949). Heinz Gartmann. Raketen yon Stern zu Stern. Lot, Worms (1949). Hans K. Kaiser, Kleine Raketenkunde. Mundus. Stuttgart (1949). Alexandre Ananoff, L'Astronautique. Librarie Arth6me Fayard, Paris (1950L George Pal (Producer), Robert Heinlein and Chesley Bonestell, Destination Moon [see also books: Rocket Ship Galileo, (1947), and Destination Moon, Gregg Press, Boston (1979)]. Film, Eagle Lion (1950). Wayne Proell and Norman Bowman, A Handbook o/Space Flight. Perastadion Press, Chicago (1950). Paul Kecskemeti, The Satellite Rocket Vehicle: Political and Psychological Problems. Rand RM-567, Santa Monica. 4 October (1950). Arthur C. Clarke, Electromagnetic launching as a major contributor to space flight. J. Br. h~terplanet Soe 9, 261 (1950). Arthur C. Clarke, Interplanetary flight. Temple, London (1950). Arthur C. Clarke, The Exploration O/ 5)race Temple, London (1951). L. J. Carter, The artificial satellite, Proceedings ~/ the 2nd International Congress on Astronautic.s. British Interplanetary Society, London ( 1951 ). John F. Marberger (Ed.), Space Medicine, the ltuman Factors in Flights Beyond the Earth. University of Illinois Press, Urbana (195i). Robert Heinlein, The Green Hills of Earth. New American Library, New York (1951). Heinz Gartmann (Ed.), Raum['ahrt F)~rschung. Oldenbourg, Munich (1951). Walter Dornberger, 1"-2: Der Schuss ins Weltall. Geschichte einer grossen Erfindung [later edition: Peenemiinde: Die Geschiehte der 1"- Waft?n, Bechtle, Esslingen (1981); U.S. Edition: V-2, Viking New York (1954)]. Bechtle, Esslingen (1952). Eugen A. S/inger and Irene Bredt, A Rocket Drive/or Long Range Bombers [the S/inger~ Bredt Report, translated by M. Hamermesh]. Dr Robert Cornog, Santa Barbara, Calif. (1952). L. R. Shepard, Interstellar flight. J. Br. hrterplanet. Soc. !1, (1952), Fletcher Pratt and Jack Coggins, By Space Ship to the Moon [Juvenile]. Random ttouse, New York (1952). Martin Caidin, Rockets beyond the Earth. McBride, New York (1952). Arthur C. Clarke. Islands in the Sky. Winston. Philadelphia (1952). V. A. Firsoff. Our Neighbor WorMs, Hutchinson, London (i952). Wernhcr yon Braun, Fred L. Whipple, Joseph Kaplan, Heinz Haber. Willy Ley and Cornelius Ryan, Man Will Conquer Space Soon: Crossing the Last Frontier What are we Waiting for? Colliers 22 March (1952). Wernher yon Braun, Fred L. Whipple, Willy Ley and Cornelius Ryan, Man on the Moon. Colliers 18 October (1952). Cornelius Ryan (Ed.), illustrated by Chesley Bonestell, Fred Freeman and Roll Klep, Across the Space Frontier. Viking, New York (1952). Wernher von Braun. Das Marsr)r(~jekt, Studie einer interplanetarisehen Expedition. Umschau, Frankfurt/Main (19521.

Werner von Braun, American Edition: The Mars Projecl, University of Illinois Press, Urbana (1953). Hugh k. Dryden, The next fifty years. Aero Digest July (1953) Homer E. Newell Jr, High Altitude Rocket Researe/~. Academic Press, New York (19531. Josef A. Stemmer (Ed.), Space-flight problems. 4th International Astronautical Congress l.aubscher, BieL Switzerland (1953). Heinz Haber, Man in Space [Aerospace Medicine]. BobbsMerrill, New York (1953). Phil E. Cleator, Into ,Space. Allen & Unwin, London ¢1953~ Jonathan N. Leonard, Flight into Space. Random House, New York (t953). Kenneth W. Gatland and Anthony M. Kunesch, Sp~,'¢ Travel. Philosophical Library, New York (t953) Cornelius Ryan (Ed,), Across tlre Space Frontier. Viking, New York (1953). Cornelius Ryan (Ed.), illustrated by (, hesley Bonesteli, l-:red Freeman and Rolf Klep, Man ~m the Moon [see also: Conquest o f the Moon, Viking, Ne~ York (1953). Sedgwick & Johnson, London (1953) Wernher yon Braun with Cornelius Ryan, illustrated by Chesley Bonestell, Can W'e Go to ,~ar~ " ('olliers 22 29, 30 April (1954). Arthur C. Clarke and R. A. Smith (Illustrator), 7he E:~pI,,. ration o[" the Moon [Juvenile]. Muller, London {t954). G. P. Kuiper, Origins Ol'the Moon. Proc natn. Acad. Sct 40, (1954). J. B. S, Haldane, The Origm qfLile. ,\ew Bioi. 16, !t954) Patrick Moore, Earth Satellite. Eyrc & Spotliswoode, London (t955). G. V. E. Thompson, The Adventure ~/ 5~,~acc l'raze/ i)~,hson, London (1955). Friedrich Hecht, Report on the 5th Avtronauttcai ( ongre:.~. Springer, Vienna (1955). Milton W. Rosen, The Vikmg Rocke.~ Stor~. HarpeL New York (1955), Isaac Asimov, 77re Martian 14'ay. aml Other Ste~ries. Doubleday, Garden City, N,Y. (t955) Earl Nelson, There Is L(fe on Mar.s Laurie, London (19551, Erwin Schr6dinger, What is Life? Anchor Books, New York (1956). Eric Bergaust and William Belier, Satellite.~Hanover House, Garden City, N.Y. (1956). Richard W. Porter, Lyman Spitzer ,Iv, Donald H. Menzei, Homer E. Newell Jr, Krafft A. Ehricke, George H Clement, John S. Burlew and John de Nike, Earth Satellites as Research Vehich, s, Symposium Proceedings, Monograph No, 2. The Franklin Institute, Philadelphia (1956), Heinz Gartmann, The Men Behind fhe ~pac~ Roc/
Willy Ley, Rockets, Missiles, and Space Travel [PostSputnik Revision with Comprehensive Bibliography[. Viking, New York (1957). Francis Crick, On protein synthesis, Syrup. Soc. e.~p. Biol. 12, 138 163 (1957). U.S. Congress, National Aeronautics and Space Act ot 1958, S.3609--HR.11881. 14 April (1958). President's Science Advisory Committee, Introduction o/ Outer Space. PSAC, Washington (19581. Eugen A. S/inger, Spacetravel-- Technotogy'x Elmnnation o/ War. Stuttgart (1958). A. 1. Oparin (Ed.), The Origin oy L!/e on the Earth, Oxford University Press, London (195~,~t.

The next 40 years in space Sir Charles P. Snow, The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1959). Guiseppe Cocconi and Philip Morrison, Searching for interstellar communication. Nature 184, 184-186 (1959). Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, L'Avenir de L'Homme [English edition by Norman Denny: The Future of Man, Harper & Row, New York (1964)]. Editions du Seuil, Paris (1959). P. B. Medawar, The Future of Man. Methuen, London (1960). Ronald N. Bracwell, The Galactic Club. Nature 186 (1960). Joshua Lederberg, Exobiology: approaches to life beyond the Earth. Science 132, 393-400 (1960). R. W. Bussard, Galactic matter and interstellar flight. Astronautica Acta 6, 179 (1960). Freeman J. Dyson, Search for artificial stellar sources of infrared radiation. Science 131, 1667 (1960). John B. Medaris, Countdown for Decision. New York (1960). Krafft A. Ehricke, Space Flight, 2 Vols. Van Nostrand, Princeton (1960 and 1962). After Yuri Gagarin's Spaceflight, 12 April 1961 President John F. Kennedy, Message to the Congress 25 May (1961). Gerard P. Kuiper and Barbara M. Middlehurst. The Solar System, Vols 1-3. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1961). Frank D. Drake, Project Ozma. Physics Today. 14, 140 (1961). Robert A. Heinlein, Stranger in a Strange Land. Putnam, New York (1961). Frank D. Drake, Intelligent Life in Space. Macmillan, New York (1962). Yuri Gagarin, Road to the Stars. Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow (1962). Gherman S. Titov and Martin Caidin, I am Eagle. BobbsMerrill, Indianapolis (1962). Dieter K. Huzel, Peenemfinde to Canaveral. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (1962). Frederick I. Ordway, III, James P. Gardner and Mitchell R. Sharpe Jr, basic Astronautics. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (1962). H. H. Hess (Ed.), Review of Space Research. National Academy of Sciences, Washington (1962). Ivan Southall, Woomera. Angus & Robertson, Sydney (1962). Arthur C. Clarke, Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible. Harper Row, New York (1963). Wernher von Braun: Space Frontier, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York (1963). I. M. Levitt and D. M. Cole, Exploring the Secrets of Space. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (1963). Carl Sagan, Direct contact among galactic civilizations by relativistic interstellar spaceflight. Planet. Space Sci. I1, 485-498 (1963). A. G. W. Cameron (Ed.), Interstellar Communication: The Search for Extraterrestrial Life. Benjamin, New York (1963). V. A. Firsoff, Life Beyond the Earth. Basic Books, New York (1963). George E. Mueller and Eugene R. Spangler, Communication Satellites. Wiley, New York (1964). N. S. Kardashev, Transmission of information by extraterrestrial civilizations. Soviet Astron. J. 8, 217-221 (1964). Dandridge M. Cole and D. W. Cox, Islands in Space. Chilton Books, New York (1964). Ernst Stuhlinger, Ion Propulsion for Space Flight. McGraw-Hill, New York (1964). G. M. Tovmasyan (Ed.), Extraterrestrial Civilizations [Israel Scientific English editions, Jerusalem 1967]. USSR SETI Conference Proceedings, Moscow (1964).

11

Walter Sullivan, We Are Not Alone: The Search for Intelligent Life in Other Worlds. McGraw-Hill, New York (1964). S. Dole and Isaac Asimov, Planets for Man. Random House, New York 0964). Frederick I. Ordway III (Ed.), Advances in Space Science and Technology, Vols 6 and 7. Academic Press, New York (1964 and 1965). Eugene M. Emme, A History of Space Flight. Holt, New York (1965). Maxime Faget, Manned Space Flight. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York (1965). John E. Naugle, Unmanned Space Flight. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York (1965). John W. Macvey, Journey to Alpha Centauri. Macmillan, London (1965). Freeman J. Dyson, Death of a project [Orion--propulsion by nuclear explosions]. Science 149, 141 (1965). Dandridge M. Cole and Roy G. Scarfo, Beyond Tomorrow: The Next 50 Years in Space. Amherst Press, Amherst Wis., (1965). Arnold W. Frutkin, International Cooperation in Space. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (1965). James A. Westphal and Bruce Murray, Infrared astronomy. Scient. Am. 20-29, August (1965). James D. Watson, Molecular Biology of the Gene. Benjamin, New York (1965). Loyd S. Swenson Jr, James M. Grimwood and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury. NASA SP-4201, GPO, Washington (1966). EUROSPACE, Toward a European Space Program. Fontenay-s-Bois (1966). R. E. Marshak (Ed.), Perspectives in Modern Physics: Essays in Honor of Hans A. Bethe. Interscience, New York (1966). G. Marx, Interstellar vehicle propelled by terrestrial laser beam. Nature 211, 22-23 (1966). Oriana Fallaci, If the Sun Dies. Atheneum, New York (1966). Roger A. MacGowan and Frederick I. Ordway III, Intelligence in the Universe. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (1966). Space Science Board, Space Research: Directions for the Future. National Academy of Sciences, NRC, Washington (1966). C. S. Pittendrigh, W. V. Vishniac and J. P. T. Pearman (Eds), Biology and the Exploration of Mars. National Research Council Publication 1296, Washington (1966). President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC), The Space Program in the Post-Apollo Period. GPO, Washington (1967). Iosif S. Shklovskii and Carl Sagan, Intelligent Life in the Universe. Dell, New York (1967). J. D. Bernal, The Origin of Life. Weidenfeld, London (1967). Raymond Alex, Flash Gordon. Nostalgia Press, New York (1967). Herman Kahn and Anthony J. Wiener, The Year 2000. Macmillan, New York (1967). Frederick I. Ordway III, Voyage to Jupiter, 21st Century Style [Movie "2001"]. Electronic Design I, 4 January (1967). Arthur C. Clarke, 2001: A Space Odyssey. New American Library, New York (1968). Stanley Kubrick (Producer-Director) and Arthur C. Clarke, 2001: A Space Odyssey. Film, MGM (1968). Arthur C. Clarke, The Promise of Space. Harper & Row, New York (1968). Wernher von Braun and Frederick I. Ordway III, History of Rocketry and Space Travel. New York (1968). Gerard K. O'Neill, A high resolution orbiting telescope. Science May (1968). Samuel Glasstone, Book of Mars. GPO, Washington (1968).

12

THOMAS O, PAINE

After Apollo Astronauts Landed on the Moon, 20 July 1969 John Noble Wilford, We Reach the Moon: The New York Times StoJ3, of Man's Greatest Adventure. Bantam, New York (1969). U.S. Space Task Group, Report to the President: The Post-Apollo Space Program: Directions for the Future. GPO, Washington (19693. J. Henrici, An Overall Coherent and Long Term European Space Program. Munich (1969). James E. Webb, Space Age Management. New York (1969). Harold Urey, Origin and history of the Moon. Bull. atom. Scient. September (19693. James D. Watson, The Double Helix. New American Library, New York (1969). Nell Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr, First on the Moon. Little, Brown, Boston (1970). John Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest. MIT Press, Cambridge (1970). President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC), The Next Decade in Space. GPO, Washington (1970). Philip Handler (Ed.), Biology and the Future (~fMan. Oxford University Press, Oxford (19703. Stephen H. Dole, Habitable Planets jbr Man. Elsevier, New York (19703. Jerome Agel (Ed.), The Making of Kubrick's 2001. New American Library, New York (1970). Frederick I. Ordway III, 2001: A Space Odyssey. Spaceflight 12, No. 3, 110 (1970). Evgeny Riabchikov, Russians in Space [translated by Guy Daniels, Garden City, N.Y. (1971)]. Moscow (19703. Michael Stoiko, Soviet Rocketo', Past, Present, and Future. New York (1970). John Logsdon, Selecting the way to the Moon: the choice of the lunar orbital rendezvous mode. Aerospace Hist. 18, June (1971). Krafft A. Ehricke, The extraterrestrial imperative. Bull. atom. Scient. 27, 18 26, November (1971). J. G. Kreifeldt, A formulation for the number of communicative civilizations in the galaxy. Icarus 14, 419 430 (197l). Bernard M. Oliver and John Billingham (Eds), Project Cyclops: ,4 Design Study o / ' a System for Detecting Extraterrestrial intelligent L!fe. NASA CR 114445. Ames Research Center (19713. Cyril Ponnamperuma (Ed.), Exobiology. North-Holland. Amsterdam (19723. Sir James Lighthill, Artificial Intelligence, A General Survey. Science Research Council Report, London (1972). Freeman J. Dyson, The World, the Flesh and the Devil [Included as Appendix D in the next reference] Third J. D. Bernal Lecture, delivered at Birkbeck College, London (1972). Carl Sagan (Ed.), Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CET1) MIT Press, Cambridge (1973). Carl Sagan, The Cosmic Connection. An Extraterrestrial Perspective. Doubleday, New York (19733. Richard Berendzon (Ed.), Life Beyond Earth and the Mind of Man [SETI Symposium, Boston University]. NASA STIO, Washington (1973). Ray Bradbury, Arthur C. Clarke, Bruce Murray, Carl Sagan and Walter Sullivan, Mars and the Mind (?[ Man. Harper & Row, New York (1973). Harold C. Urey, Cometary collisions in geological periods. Nature 242, 32 (1973). Valentin P. Glushko, Development of Rocketry and Space Technology in the U.S.S.R. Moscow (1973). G. I. Petrov (Ed.), Conquest of Outer Space in the U.S.S.R. Amerind, New Delhi (19733. Henry S. F. Cooper Jr, 13: The Flight that Failed. Dial Press, New York (1973).

Klaus Heiss, K. Knorr and O. Morgenstern, Long Term Projections of Power. Ballinger, Cambridge, Mass. (1973L W. H. Hartmann and O. Raper, The New Mars: The Discoveries of Mariner 9. NASA SP-337, GPO. Washington (1974). Gerard K. O'Neill, The colonization of space. Physics Today 32-40, September (19743. Michael Collins (Foreword by Charles A. Lindbergh), Carrying the Fire: An Astronaut's Journey. Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, New York (1974). S. L. Engdahl, The Planet-Girded Suns. Atheneum. New York (19743. S. L. Miller and Leslie E. Orgel, The Origins of LiJe on dw Earth. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (19743. Adrian Berry, The Next lO,O00 Years..4 l/Ision o/" Man~s Future m the Universe. E. P. Dutton, New York (t974). Richard S. Lewis, The Voyages ~?l'Apol/o NYT Quadrangle, New York (1974). Robert McCall and Isaac Asimov (Foreword by Buzz Aldrin), Our World in Space. New York Graphics Society, Greenwich (1974). Dodd L. Harvey and Linda C. (iccoritti, So,:ic: Cooperation in Space. Washington (19743. Robert Heilbroner, An lnquir.) into the Human Prospecz Norton, New York (1974). Carl Sagan, Life. Encyclopedia Brittan,'~.~. 15th edition, Voi. 10, Macropaedia (1974). R. Sakeld, Space colonization nov,. ~L~'ronaut..4~tronaut September (19753. Philip Morrison, John Billingham and John Wolfe (Edsk The Search fi)r Extraterrestrial Intelligence SETI. Ames Research Center. NASA SP-419. GPO, Washington (19753. Gerard K. O'Neill, Space colonization and energy needs on Earth. Science 5 December (19753. Edgar Cortright (Ed.), Apollo Expeditions to the Moon, NASA, GPO, Washington (19753 Wernher yon Braun and Fred I. Ordway Ill, History (6~ Rocketo: and Space Travel. Crowell, New York (19753 Arthur L. Levine, The Future o[" the US. Space program. New York (1975). Bruce Murray, Navigating the Future. Harper & Row, New York (19753. Alter the Viking Spacecraft Landed on Mars. 20 July 1976 Thomas A. Mutch, Raymond E. Arvidson, James W. Head, Kenneth L. Jones and Stephen R. Saunders, The Geology of Mars. Princeton University Press, Princeton (19763. NASA, On the Habitability of Mars NASA SP-414. GPO, Washington (1976). Richard S. Lewis, From Vinland to Mars" A Thousand ~ear.s of Exploration. New York (t9763. J. Hipolito and W. E. McNelly (Eds), The Book o/Mars Futura, London (19763. F. V. Bunkin and A. M. Prokhoro~. Use of a laser energy source in producing a reactive thrust. Soviet Phvs Usp. 19, 561-573 (1976). William Sims Bainbridge, The Space[@ht Revolution: A Sociological Study. Wiley-Interscience, New York (19763. Herman Kahn, William Brown and Leon Martel, The Next 200 Years. Hudson Institute, W m Morrow, New York (1976). George Lucas, Star Wars. Ballentine Books, New York (1976). George Lucas, Star Wars. Film, 20th Century--Fox (19771. Jacob Bronowski, A Sense of the Future. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1977). James R. Killian, Sputnik, Scientist~, and Eisenho~*er: A Memoir of the First Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (19773

The next 40 years in space Steven Weinberg, The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe. Basic Books, New York (1977). R. Cargill Hall (Ed.), Essays on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics: Proceedings of the Third to the Sixth History Symposia of the International Academy of Astronautics, Vols 1 and 2. NASA CP-2014, GPO, Washington (1977). Barton C. Hacker and James W. Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini. NASA SP-4203, GPO, Washington (1977). NASA, Skylab Explores the Earth. SP-380, GPO, Washington (1977). Richard D. Johnson, Charles Holbrow and Gerard K. O'Neill (Eds), Space Settlements--A Design Study [Ames Research Center 1975 Summer Study]. NASA SP-413, GPO Washington (1977). M. V. Keldysh, Venus exploration with the Venera 9 and Venera l0 spacecraft. Icarus 30, 605 (1977). Bruce Murray and Eric Burgess, Flight to Mercury. Columbia University Press, New York (1977). Charles A. Cross and Patrick Moore, The Atlas of Mercury. Crown, New York (1977). Mark Washburn, Mars at Last! Putnam, New York (1977). National Research Council, Post-Viking Biological Investigation of Mars. National Academy of Sciences, Washington (1977). Mars Science Working Group, A Mars 1984 Mission, Report of the Mars Science Working Group. NASA TM-78419, Washington (1977). Hans Mark, Space Shuttle--a personal view. J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 14, 1234 (1977). Jesco von Puttkamer, The next 25 years: industrialization of space--rationale for planning [see also: L-5 News, November (1976)]. J. Br. Interplunet. Soc. 30, No. 7, July (1977). Gerard K. O'Neill, The High Frontier, Human Colonies in Space. Morrow, New York (1977). Frederic Golden, Colonies in Space: The Next Giant Step. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York (1977). T. A. Heppenheimer, with Introduction by Ray Bradbury, Colonies in Space. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pa (1977). Harold Masursky, C. W. Colton and Farouk E1-Baz, Apollo Over the Moon: A View from Orbit. NASA SP-362, GPO, Washington (1978). Gerald J. Wasserburg et al., Strategy for Exploration of the Inner Planets. U.S. National Academy of Sciences, NRC, Washington (1978). Edward C. Ezell and Linda N. Ezell, The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program. NASA SP-4209, GPO, Washington (1978). Eric Burgess, To the Red Planet. Columbia University Press, New York (1978). John L. Sloop, Liquid Hydrogen as a Propulsion Fuel. NASA SP-4404, GPO, Washington (1978). Daniel J. Boorstin, The Republic of Technology: Reflections on our Future Community. New York (1978). Harrison Brown, The Human Future Revisited. Norton, New York (1978). N. Calder, Spaceships of the Mind [Daedalus Mission to Barnard's Star]. BBC, London (1978). R. M. Batson, T. M. Bridges and J. L. Inges, Atlas of Mars: The l:5,000,O00 Map Series. NASA SP-438, GPO, Washington (1979). William Gale (Ed.), Life in the Universe: The Ultimate Limits to Growth. Westview Press, Boulder (1979). M. Hart, Habitable planets around main sequence stars. Icarus 37, 351 (1979). Gene Roddenberry, Star Trek--The Motion Picture. Film, Paramount, (1979). Robert Heinlein, Destination Moon [see also: Destination Moon, Film 0950)]. Gregg Press, Boston (1979).

13

Isaac Asimov, Extraterrestrial Civilizations. Fawcett, New York (1979). Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Einstein and general relativity: historical perspectives. Am. J. Phys. 47, 212-217 (1979). J. Billingham and W. Gilbreath (Eds), Space Resources and Space Settlements. NASA SP-428, Washington (1979). H. Ehrenreich and J. H. Martin, Solar photovoltaic energy. Phys. Today 25, September (1979). Peter Nicholls (Ed.), The Science Fiction Encyclopedia. Dolphin Books, New York (1979). Tom Wolfe, The Right Stuff. Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, New York (1979). Courtney G. Brooks, James M. Grimwood and Loyd S. Swenson Jr, Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft. NASA SP-4205, GPO, Washington (1979). Roger E. Bilstein, Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo~Saturn Launch Vehicles. NASA SP-4206, GPO, Washington (1980). R. G. Brereton (Ed.), Discussion Meeting on Gossamer Spacecraft (Ultralightweight Spacecraft). Final Report, NASA JPL Publication 80-26, Pasadena, May (1980). Carl Sagan, Cosmos. Ballantine, New York (1980). George Lucas, The Empire Strikes Back. Film, 20th Century-Fox (1980). Luis W. Alvarez, Walter Alvarez, F. Asaro and H. V. Michel, Science 208, 1095-1108 (1980). Donald Goldsmith and Tobias {)wen, The Search for Life in the Universe. Benjamin/Cummings, Reading, Mass. (1980). Henry S. F. Cooper, Jr, The Search for Life on Mars. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York (1980). After the Case for Mars Conference, 1981 and 1984

Bruce Murray, M. Malin and R. Greeley, Earthlike Planets: Surfaces of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars. Freeman, San Francisco (1981). Ron Miller and William K. Hartmann, The Grand Tour: A Traveller's Guide to the Solar System. Workman, New York (1981). Riccardo Giacconi (Ed.), X-Ray Astronomy with the Einstein Satellite Observatory. Reidel, Boston (1981). Alexie Leonov and Andrei Sokolov, Life Among the Stars. Moscow (1981). Robert M. Powers, The Coattails of God [Interstellar Ark]. Warner Brooks, New York (1981). J. K. Beatty, Brain O'Leary and Andrew Chaikin (Eds), The New Solar System. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1981). John Billingham, Life in the Universe. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass (1981). Gerard K. O'Neill, 2081, A Hopeful View of the Human Future. Simon & Shuster, New York (1981). Harry G. Stine, Space Power [Solar Power Satellites[. Ace Science, New York (1981). U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Solar Power Satellites. GPO, Washington (1981). Arthur Kantrowitz, The Ming Navy and the U.S. Space Program. Aeronaut. Astronaut. ~ ~6, September (1981). James Michener, Space New York (1982). Eugene M. Emme (Ed.), with William Sims Bainbridge, Mark R. Chartrand, Thomas D. Crouch, J. Anderson Dorman, Ron Miller, Frederick I. Ordway III, Jesco von Puttkamer, Charles Sheffield and David C. Webb, Science Fiction and Space Futures: Past and Present. American Astronautical Society History Series 5, San Diego, Calif. (1982). Arnold Levine, Managing NASA in the Apollo Era. NASA SP-4102, GPO, Washington (1982). Ben Bova and Robert McCall, Visions of the Future: The Art of Robert McCall. Harry N. Abrams, New York (1982).

14

]'HOMAS0. PAINE

Frank H. Winter, Prelude to the Space Age--The Rocket Societies: 1924-1940. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington (1983). Solar System Exploration Committee, Planetary Exploration through Year 2000." Part One: A Core Program. NASA Advisory Council, GPO, Washington (1983). James E. Oberg, Mission to Mars: Plans and Concept.L/br the First Manned Landing. Meridian, New York (1983). Duncan Lunan, Man and the Planets: The Resources 01"the Solar System. Ashgrove Press, Bath (1983). Ben Bova, The High Road. Pocket Books, New York (1983). W. David Compton and Charles D. Benson, Living and Working in Space: A History of Skvlab. NASA SP-4208, GPO, Washington (1983). Marcia S. Smith, Alfred Hellman and Christopher H. Dodge, Manned Space Programs and Space Lifb Sciences. GPO, Washington (1984). European Space Agency, European Space Science: Horizon 2000. ESA SP-1070, Paris (1984). Ivan Bekey, Applications of Space Tethers. American Institute of Astronautics, New York (1984). William Hartmann, Ron Miller and Pamela Lee: Out qfthe Cradle. Workman, New York (1984). Michael Allaby and James Lovelock, The Greening o/Mars. St Martin's/Marek, New York (1984). Steven J. Dick, Plurality o1 Worlds: The Origins q/ the Extraterrestrial Lie Debate from Democritus to Kant. Cambridge University Press, London (1984). Jixing Pan, On the Origins of Rockets [Institute for History of Science, Belling]. E?:ploration qf Nature 3, 173 184 (1984). Fang-Toh Sun, On the early rocket weapons in China. 35th Congress q[' the International Astronautical Federation. Lausanne (1984). Robert L. Forward, Roundtrip interstellar travel using laser-pushed lightsails. J. Spacecraft 21, No. 2 (1984). Robert L. Forward, Starwisp: an ultra-light interstellar probe. J. Spacecraft 21, No. 2 (1984). Edward C. Ezell and Linda N. Ezell, On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet, 1958 1978. NASA SP-4212, GPO, Washington (1984). Marcia S. Smith, Mars: The Next Destination jor Manned Space Flight? U.S. Library of Congress CRS Report 84-20, Washington (1984). Leonard David. The Humanization of Mars, The Case ./or Mars (1981)(Edited by Penelope J. Boston), American Astronautical Society Science & Technology Series, Vol. 57, AAS 81-227. Univelt (for AAS), San Diego (1984). Christopher P. McKay and Carol R Stoker, Why Mars'? Ibid. AAS 81-228. S. Fred Singer, The PH-D proposal: a manned mission to Phobos and Deimos. Ibid., AAS 81-231. J. R. French, Report on the results of the mission strategy workshop. Ibid., AAS 81-232. P. D. Quattrone, Extended mission life support systems. Ibid., AAS 81-237. Thomas R. Meyer and Christopher P. McKay, The atmosphere of Mars--resources for the exploration and settlement of Mars. Ibid., AAS 81-244. Louis D. Friedman (Moderator), Should human colonization of Mars be the next major goal of the space program? Ibid., AAS 81-252. Thomas O. Paine, A Timeline Jor Martian Pioneers, The Case for Mars H (1984) (Edited by Christopher P. McKay), American Astronautical Society Science & Technology Series, Vol. 62, AAS 84-150. Univelt (for AAS), San Diego (1985). Christopher P. McKay, Antarctica: lessons for a Mars exploration program. Ibid. AAS 84-156. Douglas P. Blanchard, J. L. Gooding and U. S. Clanton, Scientific objectives for a 1996 Mars sample return mission. Ibid., AAS 84-158.

J. P. de Vries and H. N. Norton, A Mars sample return mission using a rover for sample acquisition. Ibid., AAS 84-159. Jesco yon Puttkamer, Beyond the Space Station. Ibid.. AAS 84-161. Michael B. Duke, Wendell W. Mendell and B. B. Robcrts. Lunar base: a stepping stone to Mars. Ibid., AAS 84-162 Carol R. Stoker. J. M. Moore, R. L. Grossman and P. J. Boston, Scientific program for a Mars base. Ibid., AAS 84-166. Penelope J. Boston, Critical life science issues for a Mars base. Ibid., AAS 84-167. George B. Field and Eric J. Chaisson. 77ze hwisible Umverse. Probing the Frontiers of Astrophysies Birkh/iuser. Boston (1985). Wallace H. Tucker and Riccardo Giacconi The X-Ra3 Universe. ttarvard University Press, Cambridge (1985). Walter A. McDougall, The Heat'ens and the Earth: 4 Political History off the Space Age. Basic Books, New York (1985). Louis D. Friedman and Carl Sagan, U.S.,U.S.S.R. Cooperalion in Exploring the Solar System. Special Report. The Planetary Society, Pasadena (1985) US. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, International Cooperation and Competition in Space Activities. OTA-ISC-239, GPO, Washington (1985). Mark K. Joels, The Mars One Cre;* Manual. Ballanti,e Books, New York (1985). Freeman Dyson, Infinite in All Directions [Harper & Rm~, New York (1988)]. Gifford Lectures, Aberdeen, Scothmd. April November (1985). Carl Sagan, Contact. Simon & Schuster, Nev, York (1985i Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan. Comet. Random House. Ne,a York (1985). Ivan Bekey and D. Herman (Eds), ,Stmcc Stations and 5)~ac~' Pla(/brrn.s Concepts, Desigm, h!/}'asrruetm'e, and ~.s'e, AIAA, New York (1985). Theodore Simpson (Ed), The Spaec ~Slatmn. ,4n Idea 14'ho.~ Time Has Come. IEEE Press, Ne,a York (1985). Marvin Minsky (Ed.), Robotics. Omni Press. Garden (_;it;~. (1985) M. A. (.7. Perryman, Ad Astra Hq)par~o~: The European Space .4genev's Astrometrv .14issio, ESA Report BR-24 (1985) Gregory L. Matloff and Charles Ubell. World ships: prospects for non-nuclear propulsion and power sources J. Br. lnterplanet. Soc. 38, 253 26! i985. M. Papagiannis (Ed.), The Search Jor E\traterrestrmt l.i/c Recent Developments. Reidel. Boston (1985). James Van Allen, Space Science, space technology, and the Space Station. Scient. Ant. 254, No. I. 32 39 (1986). Roald Z. Sagdeev, J. Blamont, A. A. Galee~.. V. i. Moro)'~ V. D Shapiro, V. I. Shevchenko and K. Szego. Vega spacecraft encounters with Comet Halley. Nature 321, 259 261 (1986). 4lter the U.S. National ('ommissi(m on Space Report, 1986 U.S. National Commission on Space. Pioneering zhe Space Frontier--Final Report o[' the National CommLssion ,n Space. Bantam Books, New York (1986). James Van Allen, Myths and realities of space flight. Science 2.32, 1075 (1986). Senator Spark M. Matsunaga, The Mars Pro,leer." Journe~.s beyond the Cold War. Hill & Wang, New York (1986) James E. Oberg and Alcestis R. Oberg, Pioneering Space: Living,, on the Next Frontier. McGraw Hill, New York (1986). Ben R. Finney and Eric M. Jones (Eds), Interstellar Migration and the Human Experience Universi'~y of California Press, Berkeley (1986). Michael J. Crowe, The Extraterre~tricd L~/e Debate I750 1900 Cambridge University Press, I_(mdon (1986)

The next 40 years in space Norman H. Horowitz, To Utopia and Back: The Search for Life in the Solar System. Freeman, New York (1986). Gerry Neugebauer, The infrared astronomical satellite Proc. Am. phil. Soc. 130, No. 2, (1986). Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, A Strategy for Exploration of the Outer Planets. Space Science Board, NRC, National Academy of Sciences, Washington (1986). Solar System Exploration Committee, Planetary Exploration through Year 2000: Part Two: An Augmented Program., NASA Advisory Council, GPO, Washington (1986). Joint Working Group of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the European Science Foundation (ESF), Report of the NAS /ESF Joint Working Group: A Strategy for U.S./European Cooperation in Planetary Exploration. NRC, National Academy of Sciences, Washington (1986). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, U.S. Civil Space Program: An AIAA Assessment. AIAA, Washington (1987). Don Wilhelms, John F. McCauley and Newell J. Trask, The Geologic History of the Moon. USGS Professional Paper 1348, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington (1987). Hans Mark, The Space Station--A Personal Journey. Duke University Press, Durham (1987). Committee on Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, LongLived Space Observatories for Astronomy and Astrophysics. Space Science Board, NRC, National Academy of Sciences, Washington (1987). Sally K. Ride, Leadership and America's Future in Space, A Report to the Administrator. NASA, Washington (1987). James Burke et al., Mars balloon system study. 38th International Astronautical Congress, Brighton (1987). Harry L. Shipman, Space 2000: Meeting the Challenge of a New Era. Plenum Press, New York (1987). Thomas R. McDonough. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Listening for Life in the Cosmos. Wiley, New York (1987). Solar System Exploration Committee, Planetary Exploration through Year 2000: Scientific Rationale. NASA Advisory Council, GPO, Washington (1988). John Allen and Mark Nelson, with Introduction by Margret Augustine, Space Biospheres (Revised Edition). Synergetic Press, London (1988). U.S. House of Representatives, The Space Settlement Act of 1988. 100th Congress, H.R. 4218, March (1988). John Noble Wilford, Destination: Mars. The New York Times Magazine 20 March (1988). Michael Collins, Liftoff: The Story of America's Adventure in Space. Grove Press, New York (1988). Frank Borman and Robert J. Serling, Countdown: An Autobiography. Morrow, New York (1988). Thomas O. Paine, Humans in space: getting them there, supporting them, and enabling them to do things. International Symposium on Technologies for Living on Frontiers, Australian Academy of Technological Sciences, Sydney (1988). David Morrison and Tobias Owen, The Planetary System. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. (1988). Louis Friedman, Star Sailing: Solar Sails and Interstellar Travel. Wiley, New York (1988). NASA, Office of Exploration, Beyond Earth's Boundaries: Human Exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century. Annual Report to the Administrator of NASA, Washington (1988). NASA, Office of Exploration, Exploration Studies Technical Report, Fiscal Year 1988 Status. NASA Technical Memorandum 4075, Washington (1988). Task Group on Fundamental Physics and Chemistry, Space Science in the 21st Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015--Fundamental Physics and Chemistry. Space

15

Science Board, NRC, National Academy of Sciences, Washington (1988). Ronald M. Jones, Integrated Space Plan [Space Exploration into the 22nd Century]. ISP Version 1.1, Rockwell International, Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, Calif. (1989). Buzz Aldrin and M. McConnell, Men From Earth. Bantam, New York (1989). Bruce Murray, Journey into Space. Norton, New York (1989). After President Bush's Mars Goal, 20 July 1989 G. Schwebm, R. Reinhard and M. Hechler, The Giotto extended mission. Paper presented at A1AA/JPL 2nd International Conference on Solar System Exploration, Pasadena, Calif. (1989). S. Saunders, Magellan Venus radar mapping mission. Ibid. D. Eaton and E. Page, Ulysses launch readiness report. Ibid. L. Couch, NASA's space research and technology program and solar system exploration. Ibid. J. Mankins, A. Dula and W. Weber III, Research and technology for solar system exploration: robotic and piloted mission needs and plans. Ibid. A. Atzai, J. de Lafontaine and M. Hechler, Novel techniques and technologies under development for the Rosetta/Comet nucleus sample return (CNSR) mission. Ibid. D. Lavery and R. Bedard, Planetary rovers: mission needs and technology plans. IbM. D. Usikov, Stereo vision for Mars rover operations. Ibid. J. Elliot, Pluto's atmosphere. Ibid. B. Clark, M. Thornton and W. Kelliher, X-ray spectrometry system for planetary exploration. Ibid. D. MeCleese and F. Taylor, An investigation of the atmosphere and climate of Mars using the infrared limb sounder on Mars observer. Ibid. H. Wanke, Galileo operations at GSOC [German Space Operations Center]. Ibid. A. Albee, The Mars observing system. Ibid. A. Ammar and J. Runavot, CNES participation in the Soviet Mars 94 mission. Ibid. C. Tarrieu, J. Blamont, J. Runavot, R. Kremnev, K. Pichkhadze, V. Linkin and V. Kerzhanovich, The Soviet/ French Mars 94 balloon. Ibid. A. Ribes, The Mars balloon relay on-board the NASA Mars observer spacecraft. Ibid. D. Rea, Mars Rover sample return--a status report. Ibid. G. Scoon, A. Chicarro, M. Eiden and M. Coradini, Mars exploration--an ESA view: results of ESA's Mars exploration studies. Ibid. S. Wander, J. Arnold, R. Reid, L. Wood and G. Walberg, Interplanetary aerobraking: program status report. Ibid. A. Schnyer and R. Sovie, Nuclear reactor power for solar system exploration. Ibid. G. Bennett and J. Stone, Nuclear electric propulsion technology. Ibid. J. Graf and R. Jones, Microspacecraft technology for solar system exploration missions. Ibid. B. Wilcox and D. Miller, Micro-Rovers for solar system exploration. Ibid. James Head III and A. Basilevsky, Venus geology: key to comparative planetology and the early history of the Earth? Ibid. D. Muhleman, B. Butler, A. Grossman and M. Slade, Global radar mapping of Mars and the subsurface. Ibid. V. Moroz, Phobos mission: the first results of Mars studies. Ibid. Christopher P. McKay, The early environment of Mars: implications for life. Ibid. M. Scholl, D. Bernard, J. Ayon and J. Randolph, Site certification imaging for mars sample return mission. Ibid. H. Nelson, Measurement of the upper atmospheric composition and haze of Titan. Ibid.

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THOMASO. PAINE

S. Miller, Comet rendezvous asteroid flyby [CRAF] mission overview. Ibid. L. Jaffe, Science payload of the CRAF mission. Ibid. R. Farquhar and K. Uesugi, Low-cost cometary sample return. Ibid. G. Schwehm and J. Wood, Rosetta--joint ESA/NASA comet nucleus sample return mission. Ibid. D. Stetson and R. Stoller, The Cassini mission to Saturn and Titan. Ibid. J. Lebreton, G. Scoon and W. Flury, The Huygens Titan probe in the Cassini mission. Ibid. D. Collins, G. Tsuyuki, A. Yen and C. Yen, Mercury orbiter: a unique spacecraft design challenge. Ibid. S. Stern, Mission concept and scientific rationale for a spacecraft mission to Pluto, Ibid. K. Nock, Lunar observer: a close polar reconnaissance orbiter. Ibid. F. Martin, Overview of U.S. planning for human exploration of Mars. Ibid. C. Boehmer, Manned mission to Mars--revised [NERVA Nuclear Rocket Engine]. Ibid. A. Moriyama and Y. Miyachi, The scenario for Japan's lunar and planetary exploration. Ibid. R. Terrile and T. Reilly, Circumstellar imaging telescope. Ibid. J. Van Zyl, R. Korechoff and S. Macenka, Engineering concepts and optical designs for extra-solar planet detection using astrometric and direct imaging methods. Ibid. A. Meinel and M. Meinel, Space voyages beyond the planets: TAU [thousand astronomical unit]. Ibid. H. Hirabayshi and T. Nishimura, VSOP, a dedicated Japanese space-VLBI programme [30,000 km aperture]. Ibid. M. Shao, Space-based long baseline imaging interferometers. Ibid. J. Van der Ha, Hipparcos mission concepts and initial operations report. Ibid. J. Beerer and R. Roncoli, Design of the first close Mars orbiting mission [Mars observer]. Ibid. C. Yen, Mercury space physics orbiter mission design. Ibid. E. Burt, Space maneuvers with electrical propulsion. Ibid. A. Sukhanov, R. Nazirov and N. Eismont, Interplanetary trajectories using gravity assist maneuvers, Ibid. O. King and G. Avvento, "Strap-hanging" to the planets-the feasibility and application of using gravitational energy to control interplanetary travel between Earth and Mars [cycling spaceships]. Ibid. C. Pilcher, Overview of U.S. planning for human exploration of the Moon. Ibid. Y. Kaneko, T. Iwata and K. Okuda, Precursors to lunar bases. Ibid. M. Duke, Initial definition of a self-sufficient lunar outpost ["lunar oasis"]. Ibid. J. Burke, R. Staehle and R. Dowling, A study of locations for bases near the lunar poles. Ibid. B. Burke, Astrophysics from the Moon. Ibid. Eugene Shoemaker, Human missions to near-Earth asteroids. Ibid.

M. Belton and G. Neukum, "Planeten Teleskop'--an Earth-orbiting telescope for solar system exploration. Ibid. W. Boynton, R. Reinert and E. StogsdilL The comet rendezvous asteroid flyby (CRAF) penetrator instrument complement: unlocking the secrets of the comet nucleus, Ibid. G. Neukum, A. Drescher, G. Enderlein, M. Gonano, K Hiller, H. Hoffmann, R. Jaumann, M. Lehner, P. Regner, K. Schmidt, G. Schwarz, J. Albertz and H. Ebner, High resolution stereo camera (HRSC) experiment for the Soviet Mars 94 mission. Ibid. T. Heinsheimer, Alternative concepts for the exploration o~ Mars by balloon. Ibid. J. Cantrell, K. Adams and J. Burke, Design and development of "snake" payloads for the wind-driven, mobile scientific exploration of Mars. Ibid. F. Redd, J. Cantrell and C. Christensen. Surface contacting balloon payloads for Mars. Ibid. S. Stern. Mars exploration by tethered sample return. Ibid. D Pivirotto and W. Dias. U.S. Mars Rover status Ibid. S. Ostro, Radar reconnaissance of mainbelt and near-Earth asteroids. Ibid. Rober E. Bilstein, Orders of Magnitude: A Histo o, o / t h e NACA and ,NASA, 1915-1990. NASA SP-4406, GPO, Washington (1989). S. K. Atreya, J. B. Pollack and M. S. Matthews (EdsL Origin and Evolution of Planetary and Satellite Atmospheres. Space Science Series, University of Arizona Press~ Tucson (1989). U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Round Trip to Orbit: Human Spaceflight Alternatives -Special Report, OTA-ISC-419, GPO, Washington (1989), D W. Ming and D. L. Henninger (Eds), Lunar Base Agriculture: Soils for Plant Growth. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America & Soil Science Society of America, Madison (1989). Committee on Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution, Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution: Progress and Future Directions. Space Science Board, NRC, National Academy of Sciences, Washington (1989), Carol R. Stoker (Ed.), The Case for Mars II1: Strategies Jot Exploration--Volume 1. General Interest and Oven,qe, ....... Volume 2. Technical, American Astronautical Society Science & Technology Series, Vols 74 and 75. Univelt (for AAS), San Diego (1989). James C. Fletcher, A strategy for Mars, the case for Mars III--Keynote Address. Ibid. Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, A Strategy for the Detection of Extra-Solar Planetao' Material. Space Science Board, NRC, National Academy of Sciences, Washington (1989). After the First Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence [To Come]