The peruvian upwelling ecosystem: Dynamics and interactions

The peruvian upwelling ecosystem: Dynamics and interactions

Fisheries Research. I 3 ( I992 ) 199-200 Elsevier Science Publishers R.V., Amsterdam 199 Book Review THE PERUVIAN UPWELLING ECOSYSTEM The Peruvia...

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Fisheries Research. I 3 ( I992 ) 199-200 Elsevier Science Publishers R.V., Amsterdam

199

Book Review THE PERUVIAN

UPWELLING

ECOSYSTEM

The Peruvian Upwelling Ecosystem: Dynamics and Interactions. D. Pauly, P.

Muck, J. Dendo and I. Tsukayama (Editors), International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) Conference Proceedings 18,instituto de1Mar de1 Peru (IMARPE), Callao, Peru, Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH, Eschbom, Germany, and ICLARM, Manila, Philippines, 1989,438 pp., US%15.00 (surface mail), ISBN 971-1022-47-8. This book is the Proceedings based on a workshop on models for yield prediction in the Peruvian ecosystem held in August 1987 at the Institute dei Mar de Peti. It reflects inter alia the results of international synergism between Peruvian marine science (IMARPE), German technical cooperation (GTZ), and ICLARM. The 32 scientific papers comprising the book which solidly focuses on the vastly productive upwelling system of Peru especially with regard to the importance of the anchoveta, are grouped under seven major headings: ( 1) Oceanography, primary production and zooplankton off Peru (seven papers); (2) Food and feeding habits of the Peruvian anchoveta (four papers); (3) Reproduction of the Peruvian anchoveta (five papers); (4) Other studies on the Peruvian anchoveta (seven papers grouped under this lamentably uninformative heading, providing a valuable assortment of contributions on demographic and fisheries related parameters, as well as methodology); (5) Ecology, dynamics and anchoveta consumption of Peruvian hake (three papers); (6) Ecology and exploitation of large vertebrates off Peru (three papers); (7) Syntheses: towards management of the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem. There are also four Appendices providing overviews of scientific data on anchoveta, and reports and publications by author, species, and geographic area. The book is attractively presented, with a large number of generally clear and informative figures. The majority of papers are quite brief, but have a respectable information content. The accent of the papers is primarily on long time-series, and underlines the substantial efforts and quality of the engagement of Latin American scientists, supported by foreign experts, on the Peruvian ug welling ecosystem. The papers pr&de a good documentation of research developments and the present status of knowledge concerning one of the potentially most productive of marine ecosystems. As suggested in the overview of the contents, the papers provide the necessary range of trophic levels, factors and processes to justify the inclusion of the wo:ds ecosystems, dynamics, and interactions in the title. The contributions towards the end of

the book, dealing with syntheses and retrospective analyses of “cause-andeffect” regarding events leading to the collapse of the anchoveta fishery, highlight the dangers of applying unwarrantably high exploiiation to this type of temporally and climatically variable upwelling-ecosystem. Several contributions draw attention to the manner in which old as well as new anchoveta data can be treated using newer developments of length-frequency based techniques (e.g. the more recent ELEFAN versions), which also include VPA and various forms of extended empiricism. Although these have to be applied with caution, the parameters and knowledge when so extracted frequently provide substantial advances compared with previous analyses. Perhaps the most novel and appealing of all, is the documentation of the 14 available MSDOS data diskettes which contain the bulk of the data used for or derived in the various contributions to this book and its predecessor (The Anchoveta and its Upwelling Ecosystem: Three Decades of Change, Pauly and Tsukayama, 1987). The diskettes include hydrographic/abiotic factors, anchoveta catch and VPA-biomass data, predator and predation of anchoveta, egg survey/ distribution maps, raw-data matrices regarding food, feeding and reproduction of nearly 10 000 individual anchoveta, and a preliminary bibliography of reports and papers on anchoveta. These open up the possibility for scientists and students alike, who have never directly worked in the region, to explore and examine the data on their own. Thus the book is eminently suitable as both literature and database for courses on marine ecosystems analysis. Hopefully more books and proceedings will generate similar collective databases. The reference lists and general bibliography, covering both the “grey” and peer-reviewed literature, are comprehensive. Despite contributions from most of the pertinent disciplines and subjects for study in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem, little space has been devoted to the role of marine mammals, white seabirds are noted for their absence. It is also apparent from this book that more expansive systems modelling is being conducted but it was perhaps considered premature at the time, to include the results in this volume. Hopefully these aspects will be redressed in future volumes, of what has become a worthwhile series. This book can be recommended to those concerned with upwelling ecosystems and marine ecosystems analysis in general, both at the graduate student and appointed scientist levels. It is a worthwhile addition to marine research laboratory and university librarits. CHRISTOPHER C.E. HOPKINS The Norwegian College ofFisheries Science Universify of Tromo Norway

REFEKENCE Pauly, D. an:l Tsukayama, 1.. 1987. The Anchoveta and its Upwelling Ecosystem: Three Decades of Change. ICLARM Sludies and Reviews, IS, 351 pp.