The Relative Flavin (Vitamin G)1 Content of Dried Skimmilk, Dried Whey, and Dried Buttermilk*

The Relative Flavin (Vitamin G)1 Content of Dried Skimmilk, Dried Whey, and Dried Buttermilk*

T h e Relative Flavin (Vitamin G) 1 Content of Dried Skimmilk, Dried Whey, and Dried Buttermilk* VICTOR HEIMAN AND J. S. CARVER State College of Wash...

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T h e Relative Flavin (Vitamin G) 1 Content of Dried Skimmilk, Dried Whey, and Dried Buttermilk* VICTOR HEIMAN AND J. S. CARVER

State College of Washington, Pullman, Washington (Received for publication June IS, 1937)

HE need for vitamin G by poultry, particularly during the growing and breeding period in the life cycle, has been established by Hauge and Carrick (1926), Norris et al (1933-36), Bethke (1933), Heiman (1935), and others. In poultry feeding, the flavin requirement may be met by feeds from several sources, among which are dairy by-products, yeast products, dry or succulent green feeds, and, under some conditions, by certain packing house and

1 The use of the term flavin is reserved here to identify the growth-promoting phase of the vitamin-G complex. * Published as Scientific Paper No. 365, College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, State College of Washington, Pullman, Washington.

marine products. Dairy by-products especially are used extensively to supply flavin. Heiman, loc. cit, demonstrated the differences which exist in the relative vitaminG content of various dairy products, particular emphasis having been given to dried skimmilk and dried whey, which are extensively used as poultry feeds. The principal purpose of the study reported here was to determine the relative flavin content of dried buttermilk, another dairy by-product, often used in poultry feeding. PROCEDURE

A group of 500 day-old White Leghorn cockerels was placed in battery brooders

TABLE 1.—Composition of experimental rations* Groups


2, 7, 12

3, 8, 13

4, 9, 14

5, 10, 15







63.2 20.0 5.0 8.1

53.9 20.0 5.0 7.7 10.0

61.3 20.0 5.0 7.2

60.4 20.0 5.0 8.1 3.0

61.2 20.0 5.0 7.3

— —


— —

0.6 2.1 0.5 0.3

3.0 0.4 2.3 0.5 0.3





Ground yellow corn meal Wheat flour middlings White wheat bran Purified casein Dried neutralized whey Dried skimmilk Dried sweet cream buttermilk Ground oyster shell Steamed bone meal Salt Concentrated cod liver oil Total

— — —

0.2 2.7 0.5 0.3

0.6 2.0 0.5 0.3


0.6 2.1 0.5 0.3

— —

* The chemical composition of these rations was 18.0 percent protein, 1.0 percent calcium, and 0.8 percent phosphorous. [434]

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and fed the negative control ration described in Table 1. This control ration was complete in all the known nutrients required by chicks except flavin. The reserve supply of flavin in the chicks was depleted by feeding




wing banded and the groups were placed in similar pens of battery brooders. The five experimental groups were then fed the rations. By this procedure each of the rations was fed to the three separate groups of

TABLE 2.—Summary of body weight, mortality, and nutritional paralysis


Variable in diet

Average weight at 6 weeks by groups

Average weight at 6 weeks by rations

grams 120 123 119



Paralysis during 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks

no. of cases 3 3 3

no. of cases 8 10 10

negative control

2 7 12

3 % neutralized dried whey

185 176 177


0 1 1

13 12 13

3 8 13

3 % dried sweet cream buttermilk

222 228 219


3 2 0

9 10 14

4 9 14

3 % dried skimmilk

174 174 173


1 1 1

14 13 12

5 10 15

10% neutralized dried whey (positive control)

0 0 2

0 0 0


330 326 323




* The least difference between any two means required to give odds of 19:1. The method of analysis corresponds to Example 3, and the interpretation is based on Example 4 of Snedecor (1934).

this ration for two weeks as previously described by Wilgus et al (1935) and Davis and Norris (1936). At the end of two weeks, individual chicks were selected at random and weighed. A distribution curve was developed from these weights and only chicks weighing within ± 5 grams of the mean were used for the experiment. These selected chicks were divided into 15 groups of 15 chicks each so that an equal number of chicks per group was selected from each of the weight classes used. Such grouping resulted in comparable samples on the basis of body weight at the beginning of the experiment. Following this selection, each chick was

chicks. The purpose of replicating groups was to check the accuracy of the results obtained. The chicks were weighed individually at weekly intervals during the following fourweek experimental period and observations on the occurrence and severity of nutritional paralysis were made and recorded. The milk products used in the experiment were dried skimmilk, dried neutralized whey, and dried sweet cream buttermilk. These materials were prepared from similar supplies of milk collected during one week in April. These products were dried by the Grey-Jensen process. The purified casein used in the experimental rations

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1 6 11



was prepared by the method of Ringrose et al (1931).* RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The experimental results in Table 2 show the effect of the three sources of flavin on


all groups except those receiving 10 percent dried whey. The data reproduced in graphical form were developed by establishing the line of best fit between the mean weights of the groups receiving the rations containing 0,

the growth of these chicks. The variation in mean body weight within groups was comparatively low. The mortality was not excessive for this experimental technic, and was due principally to the mechanical encumbrance of chicks suffering with severe cases of nutritional paralysis. The occurrence of this paralysis was general among * We are indebted to Dr. N. S. Golding, Associate Dairy Husbandman, for supervising the preparation of the dairy by-products and the purified casein used in this work and for the analytical work involved.

3, and 10 percent dried whey. The average weight of the negative control groups was taken as the zero point, and the grams gain over the weight of the negative control groups was attributed to the flavin content of the added dairy by-product supplement. By projecting on this line of best fit, the weight increases over the negative control induced by the other dairy by-products in the rations, the values of these products were interpolated as equivalents of dried whey. The results obtained with these products

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FIG. 1. Gains in weight of groups receiving dried whey over the negative control and the interpolation of the flavin content of dried skimmilk and dried buttermilk in equivalents of dried whey.






granted by the Whatcom County Dairymen's Association, Bellingham, Washington. REFERENCES

Bethke, R. M., P. R. Record, and D. C. Kennard, 1933. Relation of the vitamin-G complex to hatchability and nutritive value of eggs. Poul. Sci. 12:332-3. Davis, H. J. and L. C. Norris, 1936. The effect of process of manufacture on the vitamin-G content of dried skimmilk. Jour. Dairy Sci. 19:1-10. Hauge, S. M. and C. W. Carrick, 1936. A differentiation between the water-soluble growthpromoting and antineuritic substances. Jour. Bio. Chem. 69:403-13. Heiman, Victor, 1935. The relative vitamin-G content of dried whey and dried skimmilk. Poul. Sci. 14:137-46. Norris, L. C , G. F. Heuser, A. T. Ringrose, H. S. Wilgus, Jr., and Victor Heiman, 1933. The vitamin-G requirement of poultry. Report of the Fifth World's Poultry Congress, Rome, Italy, Section 2a, No. 40. Norris, L. C., H. S. Wilgus, Jr., A. T. Ringrose, Victor Heiman, and G. F. Heuser, 1936. The vitamin-G requirement of poultry. Bulletin 660, Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station. Ringrose, A. T., L. C. Norris and G. F. Heuser, 1931. The occurrence of a pellagra-like syndrome in chicks. Poul. Sci. 10:166-177. Snedecor, G. W., 1934. Calculation and interpretation of analysis of variance and covariance. Collegiate Press, Inc., Ames, Iowa. Wilgus, H. S., Jr., L. C. Norris, and G. F. Heuser, 193S. The relative protein efficiency and the relative vitamin-G content of common protein supplements used in poultry rations. Jour. Agr. Research 51:383-99.

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show that dried whey was a relatively rich source of flavin when compared with dried skimmilk, yet the relative flavin value obtained was somewhat below that previously reported by Heiman, loc. cit., on products prepared by other methods. The sample of dried sweet cream buttermilk used in this work had a flavin content almost twice as great as the dried skimmilk and 60 to 70 percent more than dried whey. Substantially the same observation has previously been made in unpublished work. No explanation is offered for the increased flavin content in dried buttermilk. This experiment indicates, however, the need for additional information on the distribution and variability of the flavin content of dairy by-products. SUMMARY 1. The application of a technic using replicate groups of standardized chicks of the same sex in growth studies, was demonstrated for determining the flavin (vitamin G) content of dairy by-products. 2. The neutralized dried whey used in this experiment contained between 10 and 20 percent more vitamin G than the dried skimmilk. 3. This sample of dried sweet cream buttermilk shows a flavin content 90 to 100 percent greater than the dried skimmilk and between 60 and 70 percent greater than the neutralized dried whey used in this work. This work was aided in part with funds

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