The Role of Small Commercial Buildings in Achieving Energy Efficiency: Case Study Results

The Role of Small Commercial Buildings in Achieving Energy Efficiency: Case Study Results

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 1470 – 1477 International Conference on Sustainable Design, ...

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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 1470 – 1477

International Conference on Sustainable Design, Engineering and Construction

The Role of Small Commercial Buildings in Achieving Energy Efficiency: Case Study Results Khalil Santiagoa*, Juliana Vazqueza, Kristen Parrish, PhDa a

School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, 660 S. College Ave, Tempe, AZ, USA, 85287

Abstract Small commercial buildings, or buildings comprised of 50,000 square feet or less, are responsible for an increasing share of the United States’ energy consumption and account for 90% of the total number of commercial buildings in the US. Americans use ~30% of the world’s energy, and in the US, small commercial buildings account for approximately 10% of the nation’s energy consumption. As such, small commercial buildings became a focus of a $6M investment by the US Department of Energy. One project included in the DOE’s small building efforts developed a Small Commercial 2030 District Program and Toolkit. This toolkit helps small commercial buildings participate in Architecture 2030 Districts that have been proven successful at reducing energy and CO2 consumption, predominantly in large commercial buildings in urban areas. Part of this toolkit is a case study library that includes more than thirty small commercial building projects that achieved energy savings of up to 100%. The case study library includes small commercial building retrofits that address electricity, natural gas, and steam systems. This paper reports the end uses impacted from the retrofits and explores correlations with retrofit measures implemented, climate zone, end uses impacted, building type, and energy savings. In particular, we explore retrofit measures selected in different 2030 Districts and discuss why these trends may hold true. The paper concludes with a discussion of next steps in the research and possible implications of this project. ©2016 2015Published The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. © by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the International Conference on Sustainable Design, Engineering Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ICSDEC 2016 and Construction 2015. Keywords: Small Commercial Buildings; Energy efficiency; Retrofits

1. Introduction Small commercial buildings often lack the resources required for a full-scale assessment of their energy consumption. Thus, this project focuses on small commercial buildings, a large portion of the commercial sector that has had less research attention due to the more distributed nature of the small commercial market [1-3]. Joining a

1877-7058 © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ICSDEC 2016

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.04.185

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2030 District helped small commercial buildings conduct comprehensive energy consumption assessments, in part through use of the 2030 Toolkit. The authors then isolated different groups of variables that affect energy consumption [4,5]. These variables were compared to the specific retrofit measures chosen by each small commercial case study. The measures implemented in case study buildings include: lighting, cooling, heating, ventilation, plug load, and HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning) control and equipment upgrades. Plug loads and lighting consume the most energy in commercial buildings, accounting for 33% and 20% of the building’s energy consumption, respectively [6]. However, dependent on climate, different measures will be most effective [7]. For example, in a colder climate, such as Alaska, focusing on the heating system may be most cost-effective [8]. Likewise, buildings in states that have warm to hot climates (e.g., Arizona) may opt to implement cooling retrofit measures that offset the high outdoor temperatures. The goal of this project was to reduce energy consumption in small commercial buildings by at least 20%. Currently, 31 case study buildings have completed their energy assessments. At the time of this publication, 21 of the 31 small commercial buildings experienced energy savings of more than 20%, and 10 of these reported energy savings of over 50%. Clearly, the Small Commercial 2030 District Program and Toolkit was successful in reducing energy consumption and this paper explains some of the reasons for this success. This paper compares the case study results according to four variables: Retrofit Measures Implemented, Climate, Building Type, and Energy Savings. These variables vary widely across the case studies, and as expected, retrofit measures implemented and the savings they yielded differed dramatically for different building types and climate zones. 2. Methods This paper leverages a multi-variable, multi-case case study approach, described by Yin [9]. Specifically, the authors assess retrofit measures implemented, climate zone, end uses impacted, and energy savings. The authors consider 31 cases across six of seven climate zones, as defined by the US Department of Energy [10]. 2.1. Variables Considered in this Study The case study considers three independent variables: (1) retrofit measures implemented, (2) climate zone [10], and (3) end uses impacted. Each of these impacts the dependent variable, energy savings. 2.2. Cases Studied Table 1 lists and briefly describes cases studied as part of the analysis in this paper. Table 1: Case Study Data

Case Study

Energy Saving s (%)

Building Type

Climate

Retrofit Measures Implemented

End Uses Impacted (Lighting, Plug, HVAC)

The Barn at Fallingwater

38

Education

5A - Cool

Lighting – Control

Lighting

(Humid)

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Ventilation

Heating – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Heating

Ventilation - Insulation TD Bank - Cypress Creek Store

100

Office

2A - Hot

Cooling – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Cooling

(Humid)

Ventilation – Insulation

Ventilation

Ventilation – Control

Lighting

Lighting - Control

1472

Case Study PNC Financial Services Maximum Efficiency Bank Branch

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Office Building

Khalil Santiago et al. / Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 1470 – 1477

Energy Saving s (%)

Building Type

Climate

Retrofit Measures Implemented

End Uses Impacted (Lighting, Plug, HVAC)

47

Office

2A - Hot

Lighting – Control

Cooling

(Humid)

Ventilation – Insulation

Ventilation

Cooling – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Ventilation – Insulation

Lighting

Ventilation – Control

Ventilation

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Heating

35

Office

4A - Mixed (Humid)

Heating – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement NOAA's Weather Forecast Office

30

Natural Lands Trust Headquarters Renovation and Expansion

0

Office

7A – Very

Ventilation – Insulation

Ventilation

Cold (Humid)

Ventilation – Openings

Heating

Heating – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Elevate Energy Building

CCI Center

40

100

Office

Office

Office

Lighting – Control

Lighting

Cooling – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Heating

Heating – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Cooling

5A - Cool

Cooling – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Cooling

(Humid)

Ventilation – Insulation

Ventilation

5A - Cool

Ventilation – Insulation

Lighting

(Humid)

Ventilation – Control

Ventilation

4A - Mixed (Humid)

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement Lighting – Control Banking on Energy Efficiency - Bank of America Charlotte Commons

50

Peoples Food Coop

8

Office

Food Sales

2A – Hot

Cooling – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

(Humid)

Ventilation – Insulation

Ventilation

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Cooling

Ventilation – Insulation

Lighting

Ventilation – Openings

Heating

Heating – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Ventilation

4C - Mixed (Marine)

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement Pierce County, Washington Environmental Services Building

15

NRDC Santa Monica

51

Office

Office

5B - Cool

Lighting – Control

Lighting

(Dry)

Ventilation – Control

Ventilation

Cooling – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Cooling

3B - Warm

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

(Dry)

Lighting – Control

Heating

Heating – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement Home on the Range Northern Plains Resource Council Building

51

Office

6B - Cold

Cooling – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

(Dry)

Ventilation – Insulation

Ventilation

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Cooling

Heating – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Heating

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Case Study

Energy Saving s (%)

Building Type

Climate

Retrofit Measures Implemented

End Uses Impacted (Lighting, Plug, HVAC)

Energy Resource Center

19

Office

3B - Warm

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

(Dry)

Lighting – Control

Ventilation

Cooling – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Cooling

Ventilation – Insulation Deep Energy Savings in Existing Buildings - The Lovejoy Building

57

Office

4C - Mixed (Marine)

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Lighting – Control

Plug Load

Cooling – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Cooling

Plug Load – Management Strategy Deep Energy Savings in Existing Buildings Johnson Braund Design Group Office

69

Office

4C - Mixed (Marine)

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Lighting – Control

Plug Load

Heating – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Heating

Plug Load –Equipment Upgrade/Replacement Deep Energy Savings in Existing Buildings Beardmore Building

66

Office

6B - Cold

Ventilation – Insulation

Lighting

(Dry)

Ventilation – Control

Ventilation

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Heating

Heating – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement Office

5B - Cool

Ventilation – Insulation

Lighting

(Dry)

Ventilation – Control

Ventilation

Deep Energy Savings in Existing Buildings Alliance Center

55

Corner Market, Pikes Place

30

Food Sales

4C - Mixed (Marine)

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Main Market, Pikes Place

30

Mercantil e

4C - Mixed (Marine)

Cooling – Equipment Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement Lighting - Control

HVAC Plug Load

6 Leggs LLC & Rosenast III LLC

11

Office

4C - Mixed (Marine)

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Groff and Murphy Law

23

Office

4C - Mixed (Marine)

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Sanitary Market, Pikes Place

30

Food Sales

4C - Mixed (Marine)

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

1016 East Pikes Place

16

Office

4C - Mixed (Marine)

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Pamela’s Diner

6.3

Food Sales

5A - Cool

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

5A - Cool

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Neighbourhood Legal Services

16

Office

Oakland Real Estate, 122 Meyran

25

Office

Oakland Real Estate, Dave and Andy’s Homemade Ice Cream

6

(Humid)

(Humid) 5A - Cool (Humid) Food Sales

5A - Cool (Humid)

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Case Study

Energy Saving s (%)

Building Type

Climate

Retrofit Measures Implemented

End Uses Impacted (Lighting, Plug, HVAC)

900 Penn

24

Office

5A - Cool

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

Lighting – Fixture Upgrade/Replacement

Lighting

(Humid) Carlysle Multi-Family

82

San Jose Museum of Art

6

MultiFamily Residentia l

5A – Cool

Public

3C - Warm (Marine)

(Humid)

4. Results This section presents the results of the authors’ analysis. Figures 1 and 3, respectively, present plots that compare building type and climate zone to average energy savings. Figure 4 illustrates the most commonly implemented retrofit measures in the various climate zones studied.

Figure 1. Average Energy Savings by Building Type Map of DOE’s Proposed Climate Zones

Dry (B)

Moist (A)

Marine (C)

7 6

4

6 5

5 4 3

All of Alaska in Zone 7 except for the following Boroughs in Zone 8: Bethel Dellingham Fairbanks N. Star Nome North Slope

Northwest Arctic Southeast Fairbanks Wade Hampton Yukon-Koyukuk

Warm-Humid Below White Line

3

2 2

2 Zone 1 includes Hawaii, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands

1 March 24, 2003

Figure 2. US Climate Zones [10]

Khalil Santiago et al. / Procedia Engineering 145 (2016) 1470 – 1477

Figure 3. Average Energy Savings by Climate Zone

Figure 4. Measures Implemented vs. Climate zone

5. Discussion One variable that seemed to influence every aspect of this study was the Retrofit Measures Implemented. Every building needed to implement a retrofit measure to achieve energy savings. Lighting retrofits, in particular, were most commonly implemented. As such, it seems to support the greatest energy savings. However, Table 1 shows

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that to achieve the greatest energy savings, multiple retrofit measures must be implemented, ideally in a synergistic manner. That is, if the lighting load is reduced, the cooling load should also be reduced, as lighting gives off heat. Lighting retrofits may also be common because they seem one of the easier ways to save energy. It may be as simple as changing the light bulb type throughout the entire building, which will support energy savings, though rarely will bulb replacement alone support savings of greater than 20%. Based on Figure 2, Climate Zone 2A (covering most of the Southeastern US) achieved the greatest energy savings. Note, however, that only a single building in the authors’ analysis was located in this climate zone. Most buildings were located in zones 4 and 5, which comprise Seattle and Pittsburgh, respectively. Both Seattle and Pittsburgh have 2030 Districts, so it comes as no surprise that buildings in these climate zones achieve energy savings, on average, greater than 20%. Figure 2 illustrates the overall effectiveness of the Districts, as these climate zones demonstrate greater average savings than their non-2030 District counterparts. Plug load and HVAC retrofits were least common the authors’ study (Table 1). Plug loads are appliances or devices that take power from an outlet such as a printer or a microwave [11]. HVAC systems are large units that control heating, ventilation, and air conditioning in order to regulate indoor temperature and humidity. Implementing these retrofits may initially be expensive and labor intensive, which may explain their relative scarcity in the data set. However, these sorts of retrofits provide the greatest energy savings over time, as they require very little maintenance to continue saving energy. Surprisingly, there were no direct correlations between the measures implemented and climate zone. For example, the warm to hot climates did not modify their cooling systems. Buildings in these climate zones would be expected to implement more cooling retrofit measures due to the amount of energy that go into their cooling systems. The same is true for buildings located in cooler regions; they would be expected to implement more heating retrofit measures. However, even though there were no direct correlations between Retrofit Measures Implemented and Climate Zone, Figure 4 illustrates that lighting retrofits remain common across climate zones. Lighting retrofits, particularly lamp replacements, are often incentivized through utility rebate programs, which may explain their prevalence in the data studied. 5.1. Future Work As more building tenants join the 2030 Districts in their immediate area, more case studies will be added to the 2030 District website. This will provide a larger selection of case studies to view and learn from. Those who are interested in joining a 2030 District and lowering their energy consumption will be able to search the 2030 District website and find a case study building with similar characteristics to their own. Currently the cities of Seattle, Pittsburgh, and San Jose are implementing retrofits in their small commercial buildings, thus, creating additional data for the case study library. The authors will continue to update the case study library as energy savings are measured and verified across the Districts. The more case studies there are, the greater the possibility to reduce energy consumption nationwide. Furthermore, a comprehensive list of financing options, retrofit tools, and specific retrofit measures implemented will be added to the website, allowing users to better understand the contexts that best support energy savings. 6. Conclusion This paper considered three independent variables for each of the 31 case studies and examined their impact on energy savings. Independent variables included retrofit measures implemented, climate zone, and building type. At the time of this publication, it seems that all building types are capable of achieving at least 20% energy savings, with a single multi-family residential building demonstrating the greatest energy savings among the cases studied. The authors found lighting retrofits were most common, likely due to their utility incentives and ease of implementation. The data collection was possible through tools such as the 2030 District website which is available for other buildings to see and learn from in order to reduce their energy use. Going forward, as more small commercial buildings implement retrofits, the authors expect to see a peer-to-peer communication channel develop

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that spurs even greater energy savings in small commercial buildings and increases the prevalence of energy retrofits in this market. 7. Acknowledgements This research is funded by the Small Commercial 2030 District Program and Toolkit award from the United States Department of Energy (US DOE). This support is gratefully acknowledged. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the writers and do not necessarily reflect the views of the US DOE.

References [1] DOE, Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy [2] IEA, The International Energy Outlook, 2013, U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Analysis U.S. Department of Energy: Washington DC. [3] U.S. DOE. Commercial Buildings Resource Database. 2014 [cited 2014 10 Feb]; Available from: https://buildingdata.energy.gov/cbrd/. [4] 2030 Districts. About 2030 Districts. 2015 [cited 2015 19 Feb]; Available from: http://www.2030districts.org/about-2030-districts. [5] Architecture 2030. The 2030 Challenge for Planning. 2015 [cited 2015 19 Feb]; Available from: http://architecture2030.org/2030_challenge/2030_challenge_planning\ [6] Sheppy, M., C. Lobato, S. Pless, L. Gentile Polese, and P. Torcellini. "Office Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Fact Sheet)." 2013 [cited 2013 April]; Available from http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/54175.pdf. [7] Paradis, R. "Retrofitting Existing Buildings to Improve Sustainability and Energy Performance." Whole Building Design Guide. N.p., 2012 [cited 2012 7 Sept]; Available from: https://www.wbdg.org/resources/retro_sustperf.php. [8] Carter, M., and R. Stangl. "Considerations for Building Design in Cold Climates." Whole Building Design Guide. N.p., 2012 [cited 2012 11 June]; Available from: https://www.wbdg.org/resources/bldgdesigncc.php. [9] Yin, R. K. (2008). Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, 240 pp. [10] Yost, P., J. Lstiburek, J. Straube, Ph.D., P. Eng, and A. Bailes, III. "All About Climate Zones." GreenBuildingAdvisor.com. The Taunton Press, Inc., 2015. [cited 2015 Nov. 15]. Available from: http://www.greenbuildingadvisor.com/blogs/dept/building-science/all-aboutclimate-zones [11] "Plug Loads." (n.d.): 6. Mathaware. NEED.org, 2012. Web. Available from: http://www.mathaware.org/mam/2013/sustainability/PlugLoads.pdf.