Transiting to sustainable remedial technologies

Transiting to sustainable remedial technologies

16 Fuel science and technology (fundamental science, analysis, instrumentation) environment friendly unsaturated/saturated/aromatic hydrocarbons pot...

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16 Fuel science and technology (fundamental

science, analysis, instrumentation)

environment friendly unsaturated/saturated/aromatic hydrocarbons potentially important products. Results obtained from this study presents a remarkable shift towards the production of more environment friendly olefinic hydrocarbon products. The data has been discussed in terms of Ensemble (ELECTRONIC)/Geometric (LIGAND) and modified surface geometric effect produced by the addition of potassium on Ru : Mn bimetallic alloy material. 02/00702 Preventive measures against methane and coal dust explosions in mines Stefanyuk, B.M. ef al. Ugol’, 2000, 3, 47-48. (In Russian) The economy and safety issues in mining industry are discussed with emphasis on the methane and coal dust explosion prevention. The advantages of the mechanical-hydraulic technology, which uses the hydraulic transportation of coal from the coal face to the dewatering facility, thereby solving the dust problem and decreasing the hazard of CH,, explosion, are discussed. ~~{~~3

Recovery

of SOa in waste gases from coal-fired

Xiao, W. et al. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu CN 1,226,459 (Cl. BOlD53/50), 25 Aug 1999, Appl. 99,113,403, 7 Jan 1999. 13. (In Chinese) Waste gases from coal-fired boilers are subjected to dust removal, cooled, then subjected to absorption of SOz at 40-60” with aqueous NH3 in a column, and the SOz is desorbed by neutralization with H2S04 for manufacture of HZS04. 02/00704 Reformulated gasoline: are new formulations less toxic than PS-6? Clark, J.J.J. Prepr. Ext. Absrr. ACS Natl. Meet., Am. Chem. Sot., Div. Environ. Chem., 2000, 40, (1), 300-301. The toxic risks associated with fuels PS-6, reformulated gasolines (RFGs) and gasohol are discussed by describing the constituents of RFG and PS-6, the oxygenates used in the new RFGs and the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California EPA methods used for screening toxicity (no data presented). 02/00705 Simultaneous reduction of SO*, NO., and NzO emissions from a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed combustor Shimizu, T. er al. Energy Fuels, 2000, 14, (4) 862-868. The effect of limestone feed during bubbling fluidized bed combustion of coal on emissions of SOz, NO, and NzO was investigated. Two types of bubbling fluidized bed combustors (BFBCs) were employed; One was a conventional single-stage BFBC in which limestone was fed to the bed where coal was burnt, and the other was a two-stage BFBC in which coal was burnt in the lower bed and the desulphurization of the flue gas from the lower bed was conducted in the upper bed. For the single-stage BFBC, limestone feed into the bed decreased SOz and NzO emissions but it increased NO, emission. The two-stage BFBC was found to decrease SOz and NzO emissions without increasing NO, emission. The results of SO* capture and NzO reduction in the upper bed of two-stage BFBC were analysed using Kunii-Levenspiel model. The results of the calculation agreed fairly well with the experimental results. 02/00706 Solution of ecological issues during fuel type conversion of power plants Sarkov, D.E., Kotler, V.R. Elekrr. Sm., 2000, 3, 69-74. (In Russian) Control of NO, emissions in fuel type conversion of power plants (brown coal to coal, coal to natural gas), burner redesign, and fuel type characteristics are discussed in regard to air pollution control. 02/00707 Study of the chemical control of heavy metals released from coal combustion Liu, J. er al. Huazhong Ligong Daxue Xuebao, 2000, 28, (I), 112-l 13, 116. (In Chinese) Three solid sorbents (calcium sulphate, calcium oxide and bauxite) were used to control the emission of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Ni) in coal combustion. The speciation extraction method was applied to study the chemical control. The results show that the overall sorption is a complex combination of physical adsorption and chemical reaction between sorbents and heavy metals. It can be seen that the sorbents have certain capacity of adsorption of heavy metals from the distribution of heavy metals between coarse ash residues and fine particles and also from the increment of stable speciation in fine particles. 02/00708 Sudden collapses of soil in coal mine drifts and methane outbursts Morev, A.M.;Smirnov, O.V. Bezop. Tr. Prom-sfi., 2000, 1, 3941. (In Russian)

72

Fuel and Energy Abstracts

January 2002

A review, with three references covers several case histories of mine accidents that occurred since 1930 in different mines of Russia and were caused by sudden collapse of mine drift soil, accompanied by methane outbursts. The causes of soil collapse are discussed, and the need for the development of prediction methods is emphasized. 02/00709 Suppression of nitrogen oxides emission by carbonaceous reductant Tomita, A. Prepr. Symp. - Am. Chem. Sot.. Div. Fuel Chem., 2000,45, (l), 173-176. For several decades many attempts have been made to suppress the NO. emission from coal-fired power plant. In order to meet a more stringent environmental regulation in future, it is necessary to develop new technologies. In this paper, the effective measures achieved so far will be summarized and then the unsolved problems will be discussed. Among them, the understanding of the heterogeneous reactions, where char surface is involved, is not enough. Thus we have investigated the heterogeneous reactions of the NO, formation and destruction over char surface. The formation of NO during coal char combustion was examined by paying attention to the role of surface nitrogen species on char. The reactions of model carbon with NO as well as NzO were also examined both experimentally and theoretically. 02/00710 Transiting to sustainable remedial technologies Jakpa, T. Mater. Eng. (Modena, Italy), 1999, 10, (3), 237-254. A review with 32 references. There are scientifically justifiable reasons to believe that anthropogenic activities, such as unsustainable material exploitation and energy usage, are beginning to cause irreversible damage to the ecosystem. Some evidences are the alteration of the earth radiation balance as detected in the famous ozone holes, the warming of the earth due to the build-up of greenhouse gases, and the fast washing out of the sulphate aerosol particles that reflect solar heat and in turn cool the earth. Unfortunately, there are great limitations using conventional remediation technologies to control this irreversibility hence the need to revert to nature-based technologies. This paper seeks to arouse interest by presenting an evolutionary outline of transitioning technologies (such as material recycling, bioremediation, biotechnology) to sustainable/renewable remedial technologies (such as biomass, hydrogen fuel, solar energy).

16

FUEL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Fundamental science, analysis, instrumentation

A methodology for the quantification of corrosion 02/00711 and erosion damage in laboratory, burner rig and plant environments Simms, N.J. et al. Proc. - Elecrrochem. Sot., 2000, 99-38, 305-316. Fuel gases derived from solid fuels, such as coal, biomass and waste, have the potential to cause both erosion and corrosion damage to components throughout the hot gas paths of power generating systems. To allow the statistically valid assessment of materials performance in short term plant runs, burner rig tests and laboratory simulated environments a methodology has been developed to collect compatible quantitative data on materials degradation. Accurate measurement techniques based on pre-exposure contact metrology and postexposure optical microscopy/image analyis have been developed, which take into account the low damage levels required for practical systems and the localized nature of hot corrosion. The data produced have been used to derive and test quantitative models for the prediction of the performance of candidate materials. For these models to be used with confidence, similar damage morphologies must be produced in both the real and simulated conditions, as well as similar damage rates. 02/00712 Aspects of the interdisciplinary interaction between coal petrology and petroleum geology Velev, V., Yordanova-Valcheva, S. Geol. Miner. Resur., 1999, 6, (2). 21-25. (In Bulgarian) The close interaction between coal petrology and petroleum geology has an over 60 year history. It is expressed in the successful application of a number of coal parameters, in particular reflection measurements of huminite-vitrinite macerals, in the evaluation of the carbonization degree of organic matter, reconstructions of the lithogenesis profile