Use of bio-briquette ash for the development of bricks

Use of bio-briquette ash for the development of bricks

Journal of Cleaner Production xxx (2015) 1e6 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Cleaner Production journal homepage: www.elsevier...

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Journal of Cleaner Production xxx (2015) 1e6

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Cleaner Production journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro

Use of bio-briquette ash for the development of bricks Vishakha V. Sakhare, Rahul V. Ralegaonkar* Department of Civil Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, India

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history: Received 10 April 2015 Received in revised form 13 July 2015 Accepted 15 July 2015 Available online xxx

The issue of the ever increasing demand for construction materials and waste management has created a need for the development of sustainable materials with the appropriate utilization of wastes. This paper presents the study of the use of bio-briquette ash (BBA) for the development of bricks. Physico-chemical property investigations for a BBA sample were conducted, and the sample was found to be suitable as an alternative raw material for the partial substitution of sand. For the development of the bricks, BBA was added according to the partial replacement method (5e55%) for sand, keeping the cement percentage constant. Six compositions were prepared with 10 wt% variations. The developed product was tested according to the Indian Standards (IS) for density, compressive strength, water absorption and efflorescence along with the durability and thermal properties. The effect of the addition of the BBA on the brick properties was investigated. Thirty-five weight percent BBA, 55 wt% sand and 10 wt% cement were the optimal mix composition for the developed BBA bricks that fulfilled the desired properties of IS. The developed BBA bricks were found to have better mechanical and thermal properties and were more economical than commercially available fly ash and clay bricks. The developed bricks are recommended for non-load bearing walls. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Bio-briquette ash Brick development Compressive strength Physico-chemical property

1. Introduction With the rapid increase of industrialization, solid waste generation and disposal are major issues. The generated solid waste that is otherwise land filled harms the environment and the health of living beings. Various industries use different types of fuels for boiler applications, resulting in the generation of several types of waste with different characteristics. Bio-briquettes are a renewable energy source that are used in different industrial boiler applications. Bio briquetting is the process of converting agricultural waste (soy beans, cotton, sawdust, etc.) into high density and energy concentrated fuel briquettes. The brick and block industry can positively contribute to more eco-efficient construction by incorporating the wastes generated by other industries. This not only prevents an increase in the area needed for waste disposal but also avoids the exploitation of non-renewable raw materials used in the production of masonry units, thus reducing its environmental impact (Torgal et al., 2014). Briquettes have superior qualities and environmental benefits in comparison with coal because they are derived from renewable resources (Maninder et al., 2012).

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ91 2801090. E-mail address: [email protected] (R.V. Ralegaonkar).

Briquettes produced from the briquetting of biomass offer numerous advantages and are a fairly good substitute for coal, lignite, and firewood. In Maharashtra (India), there are more than 350 briquetting units. Each unit produces approximately 200e250 tons of briquettes, resulting in 7000 tons of briquette ash production per month (Visviva, 2014). Several attempts were made to utilize waste in the development of bricks. An experimental study was completed on the development of masonry blocks with palm oil fuel ash (POFA) as a partial replacement for 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% cement by mass, satisfying the requirements of the Malaysian Standard. The compressive strength and the breaking load of the masonry blocks were reduced with an increasing percentage of POFA replacement (Rahman et al., 2014). Sadek (2014) examined the effect of using air-cooled slag (ACS) produced by the slow cooling of blast furnace slag (BFS) under atmospheric conditions and with water-cooled slag (WCS) produced by water quenching at 50% and 100% replacement of natural sand (NS) in solid cement bricks. The use of ACS resulted in greater deterioration after exposure to elevated temperatures, although it increased the compressive strength of the unheated specimens. However, the bricks containing WCS were thermally more stable than NS and ACS bricks. Mutuk and Mesci (2014) examined the utilization of boron waste (BW) and investigated RHA as a cement additive. Five percent, 10%, and 15% RHA and 1%,

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3%, and 5% BW were added to mortar instead of cement. The results showed that 10% rice husk ash additive specimens gave the highest result with respect to the full factorial experimental design. The effect of substituting the bottom ash for Portland cement in proportions ranging from 10 to 90 wt% demonstrated that the addition of ash increased the block porosity, thereby decreasing its thermal conductivity and compressive strength (Carrasco et al., 2014). Torkaman et al. (2014) investigated the effects of the partial replacement of Portland cement by wood fiber waste (WFW), rice husk ash (RHA) and limestone powder waste (LPW) for producing a lightweight concrete block as a building material. The optimum replacement level of WFW, LPW, and RHA was 25 wt%, which resulted in good mechanical properties. Rajput et al. (2012) utilized recycled paper mill waste and cotton waste to manufacture wastecreate bricks (WCB). WCBs with a varying content of cotton waste from 1 to 5 wt%, recycled paper mill waste from 89 to 85 wt% and a fixed content of Portland cement (10 wt%) were prepared and tested as per the IS 3495 (Part 1e3): 1992 standards. The results indicated that the bricks were thermally stable and conformed to the recommended compressive strength test. Raut et al. (2012) developed bricks with the addition of 5e20% cement to recycle paper mill waste (RPMW), which exhibited a compressive strength of 9 MPa, and found the strength to be three times greater than conventional clay bricks (3 MPa). Ling and Teo (2011) developed bricks from the waste rice husk ash (RHA) and expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads. RHA was used as a partial replacement for cement, while EPS was used as a partial aggregate replacement in the mixes. It was found that the properties of the bricks were mainly influenced by the content of EPS and RHA in the mix and also the curing conditions. Ismail et al. (2010) developed bricks by incorporating 20% paper sludge and 20% palm oil fuel ash into cement. Sales and Lima (2010) prepared mortar and concrete with sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) as a sand replacement and performance tests were conducted. The results indicated that the SBA samples had properties that were similar to those of natural sand. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the conventional mortar. Lertsatitthanakorn et al. (2009) developed rice husk ash-based sand-cement bricks and compared them with standard commercial clay bricks. For a wall of 2.5 m length  2 m height  0.09 m thick, it was estimated that the RHA-based sand-cement bricks reduce solar heat transfer by 46 W. Celik et al. (2008) characterized different types of fly ash and investigated their effect on the compressive strength properties of ordinary Portland cement. Chiang et al. (2009) produced lightweight bricks by sintering mixes of rice husk ash and dried water treatment sludge. The blending ratio and sintering temperature effects on the properties and micro-structure of the produced materials was reported. The studied literature implied that agro-industrial waste has the potential to be used as the principal raw material for manufacturing bricks. Researchers used the recommended standards to evaluate the conformance of newly designed masonry products. The potential application of bio-briquette ash (BBA) for the development of novel products has not been investigated. Due to the availability of BBA over the study area, the present paper evaluates its possible application as an alternate raw material for the development of bricks. The physico-chemical properties of BBA were characterized and analyzed. Various mix proportions were designed using BBA, cement and sand. Then, the performance of the mechanical, durability and thermal properties of the developed bricks was analyzed.

 53 grade ordinary Portland cement conforming to IS 12269:2013.  Bio-briquette ash samples (Fig. 1): identified and collected from locally available industrial sources (Shree Baidyanath Ayurved Bhawan Pvt. Ltd., Nagpur).  Sand conforming to IS 650:1991. 2.1. Tests on the raw materials The BBA underwent physical tests (sieve analysis, specific gravity and soundness tests), chemical characterization, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) examinations to determine its nature and constituent compounds. Specific gravity testing for BBA, cement and sand was conducted as per IS 2720 (3): 1980. The particle size distribution of the BBA was determined as per IS 2720 (4): 1985. The soundness test was performed by the autoclave expansion method for the BBA samples (IS 3812 (1): 2003). An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF, Philips, PW 1840) was used for chemical characterization. The X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded on a model XRD-Philips X'Pert Pro with a scan rate of 2 /min. XRD patterns were scanned in steps of 0.0170 in a diffraction angle range from 10 to 100 of 2q using copper (Cu) as an X-ray source. The microstructural analysis of the BBA sample was analyzed using a JSM-6380A scanning electron microscope. The thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis was conducted using Mettler, TA 4000 apparatus to verify the thermal stability of the material. 2.2. Brick development The automated brick plant was used to make building bricks of dimensions 230  100  85 mm3. Mixes of bio-briquette ash, sand and cement with various compositions were prepared. The BBA share in the composition mix varied from 5 to 55% (Table 1). The sand (S) share in the composition mix varied from 85 to 35%. The cement (OPC 53 grade) percentage in the composition mix was kept constant at 10% by weight. Twenty samples for each composition (BBA: S: C) were prepared. First, BBA, sand and cement were mixed for approximately 30 s in a mixing unit of an automated plant. To obtain more homogenous mixes, water (0.20 water to mix ratio) was added into the cement slurry while the mixer was

2. Materials and methods The main ingredients proportioned on the basis of wt% for brick development were:

Fig. 1. Pictorial appearance of bio-briquette ash.

Please cite this article in press as: Sakhare, V.V., Ralegaonkar, R.V., Use of bio-briquette ash for the development of bricks, Journal of Cleaner Production (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.07.088

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Table 1 Compositions of prepared brick samples. Sr. no.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Ingredients by wt% Cement

Sand

BBA

10 10 10 10 10 10

85 75 65 55 45 35

5 15 25 35 45 55

operated for 2 min. Then, the fresh mixes were fed through a conveyor into the squeezing unit. The mix was pressed into molds until the adjustable pressure reached approximately 14 MPa. After pressing, the bricks were automatically removed from the molds, and the casting of each of the brick samples were completed following the same procedure. All of the brick samples were dried for 3 days, followed by 7 days of continuous curing and 7 days of sun drying. 2.3. Tests on the developed product Various tests on the developed product were conducted as per the recommendations given by IS 3495 (Part IeIII): 1992 for dry density, compressive strength, water absorption and efflorescence; the results were analyzed as per IS 1077:1992 (d). The compressive test was completed using a compression-testing machine. The average of three samples was considered for analysis. The durability tests were conducted in terms of the chloride and sulfate contents and carbonation. The chloride and sulfate present in the brick samples was experimentally estimated by the laboratory titration method (ASTM C1218 (ASTM, 2008)) and the spectrophotometer test as per IS: 3025 (Part 24): 2003, respectively. The effect of carbonation was measured by a phenolphthalein test, and Lee's disc apparatus was used to estimate the thermal conductivity for all of the compositions. 3. Results and discussion The various raw material tests revealed that the specific gravity of the collected BBA samples was lower compared to cement and sand (Table 2). The particle size distribution of BBA is illustrated in Fig. 2, where 85% of the tested sample was observed in the category of sand (Zone II, IS 383: 1970) (Table 3). The chemical characterization of BBA according to the XRF results illustrated in Table 4 provides an explanation of both the hydraulic and pozzolanic properties of the material (IS 3812 (1): 2003). Hydraulic materials react directly with water to form cementitious material, while pozzolanic materials chemically react with calcium hydroxide, a soluble reaction product, in the presence of moisture to form compounds possessing cementing properties (Neuwald, 2004). Hence, denser pore structures and higher strength resulted. According to the XRD pattern (Fig. 3), the crystalline nature of the BBA was observed. The XRD pattern shows the crystalline components as being predominantly quartz (SiO2), ferric oxide (Fe2O3), and calcite (CaCO3). The SEM image for BBA clearly indicated plenty of fine pores in the sample (Fig. 4).

Fig. 2. Particle size distribution of BBA.

Table 3 Particle size distribution analysis. % Distribution

Gravel

Sand

Silt

Clay

Specification size (mm) BBA

>2 0.00

0.05e2 85.26

0.002e0.05 13.64

<0.002 1.10

The TGA/DTA (Fig. 5) results confirm the thermal stability until 666  C. The TG curve indicates first mass loss of approximately 3.2% due to the presence of moisture in the sample. Later, the material exhibits stable behavior with minimal weight loss. Another weight loss of 1.005% occurs due to organic matter burn off, and the organic compound degrades in this range. In the DTA curve, an endothermic peak occurs because the moisture loss requires some amount of heat energy. Table 5 demonstrates the results of the physical (density and water absorption) and mechanical (compressive strength) test completed on the developed BBA bricks (Fig. 6). It was observed that as the BBA percentage increases, the dry density decreases. The bricks, when examined in accordance with the process specified in IS 3495 (Part I): 1992 for compressive strength, had values above the minimum average compressive strength of 3.5 MPa (IS 1077:1992 (d)), except for the 55 wt% ash replacement. The test

Table 4 Chemical characterization of BBA according to XRF results in wt%. Compound

SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

CaO

MgO

SO3

Share

37.54

6.84

8.62

19.98

5.81

2.1

Table 2 Specific gravity result. Sample

BBA

OPC

Sand

Specific gravity

2.468

3.0

2.6

Fig. 3. X-ray diffraction pattern of BBA.

Please cite this article in press as: Sakhare, V.V., Ralegaonkar, R.V., Use of bio-briquette ash for the development of bricks, Journal of Cleaner Production (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.07.088

V.V. Sakhare, R.V. Ralegaonkar / Journal of Cleaner Production xxx (2015) 1e6 Table 5 Mechanical test results.

Fig. 4. Scanning electron microscope image of BBA.

S. N.

Ash replacement (wt%)

Density (kg/m3)

Compressive strength (MPa)

Water absorption (%)

1 2 3 4 5 6

5 15 25 35 45 55

1470 1430 1360 1340 1200 1170

3.64 3.67 3.70 4.19 4.08 3.20

13 16 18 19 22 25

results proved that the compressive strength of bricks containing BBA increases as the wt% of BBA increases. Further, the addition of BBA above 35 wt% decreases the compressive strength because of the presence of un-reacted silica, which further acts as a filler material in the brick. Additionally, the percentage of water absorption, as estimated in Table 5, shows an increasing trend with respect to the BBA wt%. Up to 35% replacement is within the permissible limit of 20%, as recommended by IS 1077:1992 (d). The efflorescence is observed as ‘nil’ in all cases because a perceptible deposit of efflorescence occurs. Thus, the developed bricks pass the physical requirements specified in the standards up to the 35 wt% addition of BBA. 3.1. Durability test Chloride and sulfate tests were conducted for BBA brick samples. The allowable chloride content as per IS: 456:2000 for the

Fig. 5. Thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis curve of BBA.

Fig. 7. Lee's disc apparatus.

1

1600

0.9

1400

0.8

1200

0.7 0.6

1000

0.5

800

0.4

600

0.3

400

0.2

200

0.1

0

0 5

15

25 BBA in bricks (wt%)

Thermal conductivity (W/(mK))

Fig. 6. Developed BBA bricks.

Density (kg/m )

Thermal conductivity (W/(mK))

4

35

45 Density (kg/m3)

Fig. 8. Variation of thermal conductivity and density with respect to BBA wt%.

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Table 6 Comparative analysis BBA bricks vs burnt clay, fly ashecement bricks. Brick type

BC FA BBA

Material composition (wt%) Clay

Fly ash

BBA

Sand

Cement

90 e e

e 40 e

e e 35

10 50 55

e 10 10

Mass (kg)

Density (kg/m3)

Compressive strength (MPa)

Water absorption (%)

Thermal conductivity (W/(mK))

Cost (INR)

3.250 3.640 2.500

1600 1800 1340

3.5 6.5 4.19

15 10 19

1.25 1.05 0.51

5.5 4.5 2.01

concrete or mortar containing non-embedded metal is 3 kg/m3. The observed maximum chloride concentration was 0.0076 kg/m3 for 35% ash replacement. The sulfate concentration was obtained by a spectrophotometer test of the extracted sample as per IS: 3025 (Part 24): 2003. The total water-soluble sulfate content of the concrete mix should not exceed 4 percent by mass of cement in the mix in terms of SO3. The obtained result of the sulfate concentration for extracting water is 86.8 PPM (for 35 wt%). In the carbonation tests and according to RILEM CPC 18, 1% phenolphthalein is used in 70% ethyl alcohol. The phenolphthalein solution is lightly sprayed onto a freshly exposed surface of the sample. If the concrete is carbonated, it remains uncolored. The pink color indicates that enough Ca (OH)2 is present and that it was carbonated to a lesser extent (Shetty, 2013). The surface color of the BBA brick was pink; therefore, it was unaffected by environmental CO2. These test results indicate that the bricks developed by BBA are durable and resistant to weathering. 3.2. Thermal performance The estimated thermal conductivity values using Lee's disc apparatus (Fig. 7) are shown in Fig. 8. The developed BBA bricks showed a decreasing trend (0.93e0.34 W/(mK)) with the wt% replacement of BBA. As the wt% of BBA increases, the density and thermal conductivity decrease. The 35% BBA replacement composition was further compared with the commercially available burnt clay (BC) and fly ash (FA) bricks (Table 6). The properties of the BC and FA were considered from a prior research study (Madurwar et al., 2014). The comparison showed that the density of BBA bricks is 16% and 25% lower compared to the BC and FA bricks, respectively. The achieved compressive strength is more than that of burnt clay bricks. The maximum thermal conductivity of the developed BBA bricks (35% BBA) was 59% and 52% lower than the commercially available burnt clay (1.25 W/(mK)) and fly ash bricks (1.05 W/(mK)), respectively. Although the compressive strength of the fly ash bricks is greater compared to the BBA bricks, it fulfills the requirements of IS 1077:1992 (d); the fly ash bricks also have the additional advantages of having a lower density and thermal efficiency. The water absorption is also within the permissible limits for all of the bricks. Overall, the developed BBA bricks resulted in better mechanical and thermal performance. A cost analysis for the BBA bricks and the commercially, locally available burnt clay and fly ash bricks was completed. The cost of BBA bricks (INR 2.01) was estimated as 55% less than that of conventional bricks (INR 4.55). However, BBA bricks were found to be 63% cheaper compared to traditional burnt clay bricks (INR 5.5).

4. Conclusions The analysis revealed significant potential for the utilization of BBA in the development of bricks. The increase in wt% of BBA from 5 to 55 % resulted in a decrease in brick density of 20%. The bricks developed with 35% ash replacement (35 wt% BBA: 55 wt% sand:

10 wt% cement) represent the optimum mixture in view of the compressive strength (4.19 MPa) and water absorption (19%) as per IS 1077:1992 (d). The bricks, when examined for durability and thermal conductivity, showed encouraging results, indicating that bricks are durable and thermally efficient. Overall, the developed bricks were found to be an effective and economical option instead of commercially available burnt clay and fly ash bricks. The use of waste makes BBA bricks a reliable solution for the environmental pollution and waste management issues associated with traditional bricks; it also fulfills the demand of large construction products. The developed BBA bricks can also be utilized for non-load-bearing walls, making them that much more suitable for construction use.

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Please cite this article in press as: Sakhare, V.V., Ralegaonkar, R.V., Use of bio-briquette ash for the development of bricks, Journal of Cleaner Production (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.07.088