Use of Kapok as a Poultry Feed

Use of Kapok as a Poultry Feed

RESEARCH NOTES Use of Kapok as a Poultry Feed R. KADIRVEL, R. NATANAM, and K. UDAYASURIAN Department of Animal Nutrition, Madras Veterinary College, M...

150KB Sizes 0 Downloads 5 Views

RESEARCH NOTES Use of Kapok as a Poultry Feed R. KADIRVEL, R. NATANAM, and K. UDAYASURIAN Department of Animal Nutrition, Madras Veterinary College, Madras — 600 007, India (Received for publication July 30, 1984) ABSTRACT Two feeding experiments using day-old chicks were conducted up to 4 or 5 weeks of age to assess the feeding value of oil-extracted kapok cake containing 28.6% crude protein and 8.59% ether extract in a chick mash. In the first experiment, the birds on the basal diet gained 265.9 g at 4 weeks of age, but inclusion of kapok cake at 10% in the chick mash reduced weight gain to 187.4 g. In the second experiment, the birds on the basal diet gained 308.3 g at 5 weeks, whereas the chicks receiving kapok cake gained only 289.6 g. Both kapok cake at 20, 30, and 40% and kapok oil at 2% are highly toxic; supplementing the extracted kapok cake diet with methionine, lysine, and vitamins helped to improve the survivability of chicks but not growth rate. (Key words: kapok cake, nutritional value, chicks)


The toxic nature of kapok seed has been reported by many workers (Berry, 1979; Thanu et al, 1983a,b), and the nutritive value of kapok cake in chick rations has also been investigated by Phelps et al. (1965) and Kategile et al. (1978). Decreased feed intake and impaired live weight gain observed in chicks by those workers were attributed to the toxicity of residual cyclopropenoid fatty acids in the cake and to the poor amino acid profile of the protein. The present work was undertaken to examine the toxic nature of kapok cake, kapok oil, and the effect of amino acid and vitamin supplementation on their toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Kapok cake was prepared by mechanical extraction of kapok seed (Ceiba pentandra) using a country rotary extraction process. The proximate composition of the cake and the rations were determined by methods of As-

'The mineral mixture supplied, 5.6 g Ca, 1 g P, 1.05 g Na, 70 mg Fe, .2 mg I, 2 mg Cu, 40 mg Mn, and 1 mg Co, per kilogram of feed. 2 The vitamin mixture supplied 10,000 IU vitamin A, 5 mg riboflavin, and 1250 IU cholecalciferol per kilogram of feed. 3 The special vitamin supplement supplied 23,400 IU vitamin A, 1215 IU cholecalciferol 12.96 mg vitamin B 2 , 2.7 mg vitamin B 6 , 18 Mg vitamin B 1 2 , 59.4 mg niacin, 19.8 mg pantothenic acid, 450 Mg folacin, 45 mg lysine HC1, and 90 mg methionine per kilogram of feed.

sociation of Official Analytical Chemists (1975). In Experiment 1 150, unsexed broiler chicks (IR3) were divided into 10 groups of 15 chicks each, and duplicate groups of birds were subjected to five dietary treatments up to 4 weeks of age. In Experiment 2, White Leghorn hybrid male chicks were divided into 20 groups of 10 chicks, and duplicate groups were placed on 10 dietary treatments. This experiment was performed from 0 to 5 weeks of age. The basal diet used in both experiments consisted of (g/kg); maize 550, groundnut (peanut) cake 280, fish meal 100, wheat bran 50, mineral mixture 1 20, and vitamin mixture 2 .25. In Experiment 1, kapok cake was incorporated in the diet at 10, 20, 30, and 40% replacing maize, groundnut cake, and wheat bran at different proportions in each ration. In Experiment 2, kapok cake was incorporated at 10% by replacing 6.5% maize and 3.5% groundnut cake. The protein content of all diets ranged between 23 and 24%. In addition, in Experiment 2, lysine or methionine was added at a .2% and a special vitamin supplement 3 at the .45% to study the effect of nutrient supplementation on toxicity of kapok cake. Chicks in both the trials were housed in battery brooders. Feed and water were made available at all times. The chicks were weighed at weekly intervals and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed efficiency. The causes of mortality were also recorded. The data in a one-way classification were analyzed by analysis of of variance (Snedecor and Cochran, 1968), and paired mean comparisons were


Downloaded from by guest on May 19, 2015

1986 Poultry Science 65 :2363-2365



TABLE 1. Effect of methionine (Metb), lysine (Lys), and vitamins (Vit) added to kapok cake on weight gain (mean ± SE), feed/gain (F/G) ratio, and survivability in White Leghorn chicks at 5 weeks of age


Surviving/ started

1,80 1.82 1.85 2.06 2.00 1.78 1.85 2.11 3.03 2.09

20/20 18/20 20/20 19/20 20/20 19/20 20/20 20/20 10/20 19/20


Weight gain



Control + Meth .2% + .2% Lys + Meth + Lys + Vit .45% 10% Kapok cake diet + Meth + Lys. + Meth + Lys + Vit Kapok oil 1% diet + Meth + Lys + Vit Kapok oil 2% diet + Meth + Lys + Vit

308.3 d e ± 6.06 345.l e ± 6.09 323.6 d e ± 7.58 289.6 c d ± 5.35 305.7 d e ± 6.89 315.3 d e ± 7.00 242.2t>c± 6.09 226.3 b ± 5.64 182.ia ± 13.00 212.7 a b ± 7.25

made using Duncan's (1955) multiple range test. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The proximate composition of the kapok cake (%) is as follows: moisture 11.4, crude protein 28.6, crude fiber 12.2, ether extract 8.59, ash 7.01, and nitrogen-free extract 32.2. This observation is similar to the reported values on other kapok cakes (Bogohl, 1975). In Experiment 1, the chicks on the basal diet gained 265.9 ± 8.41 g at 4 weeks of age; however, incorporation of kapok cake at 10 and 20% resulted in weight gains of 187.4 ± 9.99 and 107.2 ± 4.89 g, respectively. The reduced growth rates due to additions of kapok cake at 10 or 20% were statistically significant (P<.05). The feed/gain ratios at 0, 10, and 20% kapok cake were 1.94, 2.57, and 2.85, respectively. At 30 and 40% addition, kapok cake was highly toxic, resulting in 100% mortality by the 10th day of the experiment; mortality recorded at 20% was 65%. This suggests the possible presence of a toxic factor(s) even in the cake. In Experiment 2 the chicks on the basal diet gained 308.3 g at 5 weeks of age, whereas the addition of 10% kapok cake reduced the gain to 289.6 g. The addition of kapok oil either at 1 or 2% significantly (P<.05) reduced the weight gain reflecting the toxic nature of the oil also. The addition of methionine or lysine and

vitamins improved the growth rate (Table 1) in both the 10% kapok cake and 1% kapok oil diets. In the case of the 2% kapok oil diet, nutrient supplementation failed to significantly improve weight gain, but there was a marked reduction in mortality. The observations made in this study suggest that the kapok cake and kapok oil are both toxic and the toxicity of kapok seed reported by others (Berry, 1979; Thanu et al, 1983a) cannot be attributed solely to the presence of cyclopropenoid fatty acids in the seed. Other factors in the cake may be responsible for the growth depression.

REFERENCES Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1975. Official Methods of Analysis. Assoc. Offic. Anal. Chem., Washington, DC. Berry, S. K., 1979. The characteristics of the kapok seed oil. Pertanika 2:1—4. Bogohl, 1975, Page 370, G i l in Tropical feeds Feeds information summaries and nutritive values. FAO Agric. Studies — No. 96. Food Agric. Org. of the United Nations, Rome. Duncan, D. B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:1—42. Kategile, J. A., M. Ishengoma, and A. M. Katule, 1978. The use of kapok (Ceiba pentandra L.) seed cake as a source of protein in broiler rations. J. Sci. Feed Agric. 29:317-322. Phelps, R. A., F. S. Shenstone, A. R. Kemmerer, and R. Evans, 1965. A review of cyclopropenoid compounds. Biological effects of some derivatives. Poultry Sci. 44:358-394.

Downloaded from by guest on May 19, 2015

Values with similar superscripts within a variable are not statistically significant (P<.05).


Snedecor, G. W., and W. G. Cochran, 1968. Statistical Methods. 6th ed. Oxford and IBH Publ. Co., New Delhi. Thanu, K., R. Kadirvel, A. Sundararaj, and M. Thanikachalam, 1983a. Kapok seed as a feed ingredient


in broiler rations. Cheiron 12:81—87. Thanu, K., R. Kadirvel., and P. Ayyaluswami, 1983b. The effect of nutrient supplementation on the feeding value of kapok seed for poultry. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol 9:263-269.

Downloaded from by guest on May 19, 2015