36 1957. Multistage Hash evaporation. (USA) Vapour from each effect is directly condensed in, and by means of, the condensate from the succeeding effect during multistage evaporation. An apparatus is described in which steam-heated liquor flows upward, in upflow pipes containing conical float valves, through succeeding stages where vapours are flashed in outer annular sections. The vapours, entering inner annular sections of each stage, are condensed by condensate flowing downward from succeeding stages through perforated plates. Total condensate heats incoming liquor by indire& exchange. _ C J Lockman. USA Patent 3,249,517 (Cl 202-159), May 3 1966, Appl12 April Z963,lI pages. 36 1958. Calculation method for the dryiog rate for through-flow drying.
A method for calculation of the drying rate for through-flow drying was investigated by means of van Meel’s method. The experimental results of drying rates can be explained approximately by this investigation. The application of drying rates to the design of the throughflow dryer was also discussed. R Toei et al, Kagaku Kogaku, 30 (4), 1966, 329 (in Japanese). 37. Metallurgy,
37 1959. Vacuum crystallizer with forced circulation. (USSR) The apparatus previously described is modified so as to decrease supersaturation during crystallization and to provide high circulation rates of the solution by equipping the apparatus with a circulation tube for preliminary mixing of the solution supplied with the mother liauor and with a centrifugal pump for feeding the solution through a jet pump into the crystallizer. S I Golub et al, USSR Patent 178,354 (Cl BOI d). 22 Jan 1966, Appl 12 June 1963. 37 1960. Removal of hydrogen as bubbles during the argon purging of a metal in a vacuum. (USSR) The theoretical conditions for removing hydrogen during vacuum treatment and inert gas treatment of a metal are examined. Experiments were conducted on a semi-industrial 50 kg induction vacuum furnace. During the vacuum treatment of molten steel, hydrogen can be removed as bubbles. E S Levln et al, Teoryia i Prakt, Zntensifk Protseszov v Konverterakh i Martenovsk, Pechakh, Sb, 1965, 354-362 (in Russian). 37 1961. Vacuum purification of refractory metals, semiconductors and oxides. (USA) Any refractory material having a vapour pressure less than 1 atmosphere at its mp is purified by being spread as granules on a moving trough-shaped belt or inside a rotating drum in a high vacuum while exposed to electron bombardment of the entire spread area. J W Griffith, USA Patent 3,250,608 (Cl 75-lo), 10 May 1966, Appl 26 Sept 1960 and 7 Nov 1963,8 pages. 31 1962. Facilitating the evacuation of closed chambers by heating. (Great Britain) Molten steel is degassed more rapidly while held in a ladle and with less cooling, if the air in the chamber into which the ladle is placed, is expanded by heating and diluted with water vapour, before the chamber is closed and evacuated, so that less air has to be removed by the vacuum pump or steam jet, and adequate evacuation is effected in less time. Anon, Standard-Ness0 Duisburg Gessellschaft fuer Chemietechnik, British Patent 1,022,77Z (Cl C2lc), 16 March 1966, German Appl 11 July 1963, 3 pages. 31 1963. Vacuum pressure treatment of metal melts. (Netherlands) Relatively l.arge quantities of stainless steel melts can be subjected successively to vacuum and various pressures in excess of atmospheric preseure in a combination of treating vessel and storage vessel, the assembly being mounted within a pressure vessel. An apparatus is described that has an upper treating vessel connected to a-storage vessel. Anon, Stahlwerke Suedwestfalen A-G, Netherland Patent 65/10,404 (Cl,C22b). 18 Feb Z%6, German Patent Appl17 Aug 1964.23 pages.
37 1964. Vertical vacuum diecasting machine. (USA) A vertical vacuum diecasting machine in which molten metal is transferred rapidly from the bath to the die cavity with a minimum of oxidation, turbulence and stratification has been designed. The device provides straight fall ejection of the diecasting from the machine and reduces the need for excess metal in gates and runners. G R Morton, US Patent 3,209,416, 5 Ott 1965,9 pages.
IV. Materials technology 45. Soldering,
used in vacuum
45 1965. Vacuum welding of olivine. (USA) Welding of olivine was demonstrated by grinding it in a ball mill at 2 x IO-’ torr pressure. Most of the sample adhered strongly to the container and grinding balls although cohesion in air is only slight. P R Bell, Science, 153,1966,410. 45 1966. New welding methods will aid designer. (USA) Describes characteristics of laser, electron beam, electroslag, friction and electrogas welding and plasma arc cutting as fabrication technique for use with stainless steels. R M Dyke, Design Eng, 12, 1966, 48. 49. Miscellaneous
49 1967. The effect of vacuum on the shear strength of an idealized granular medium. (USA) Exnerimental study of the shear strength of idealized granular media in vacuum in conditions simulating environmental pressure conditions of the lunar surface layer. The behaviour of shear strength in vacuum is given theoretical consideration. L R Hill and A S Cahmak, Astronautica Acta, 11, 1965, 261-267. 49 1968. Developments in high-temperature uhrah&h vacuum f&tiOII studies. (USA) An extensive survey was made of sliding friction at 540”. under high vacuum (
V. Basic science 57. Mechanical
57 1969. Automation of processes involving protracted and multiple operations in the production of electrovacuum and semiconducting equipment. (USSR) A new birotary system for automating complex processes involved in the mass production of electrovacuum and semiconducting equipment is described. In principle, this comprises a large main rotor in continuous rotation, with planetary subordinate rotors arranged on the periphery. The planetary rotors may be in either continuous or interrupted operation, according to the technological processes with which they are associated, eg, provision has to be made fJr the loading and unloading of components from the machine. The components undergoing treatment rest in sockets or panels on the planetary rotors, and thus execute a complex motion, rotating with both the main and the subsidiary rotors. This system has substantial economic advantages over conventional rotary and conveyor plant. S I Poluektov, In the Collection “Electronic Equipment” (Elektron pribostroenie), Moscow-Leningrad, “Energiya”, 1965, 5-10 (in Z&s&t).