Vertical climate zones in Biga peninsula: The impact of climate change and air pollution on forests

Vertical climate zones in Biga peninsula: The impact of climate change and air pollution on forests

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810 The 2nd International Geography Symposium GEOMED...

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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

The 2nd International Geography Symposium GEOMED2010

Vertical climate zones in Biga peninsula: The impact of climate change and air pollution on forests M. Do÷an Kantarcı* Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry, Bahcekoy, Istanbul

Abstract Biga Peninsula is situated in between Marmara Sea and Aegean Sea. The peninsula consists of the hilly and mountainous mass between Biga and Çan on North, Kaz Mountains on South, and Koca Çay Basin lying in between those two masses. The northern oriented slopes of the peninsula are under the influence of “Marmara climate”, which originates from Black Sea region and is cool and humid. The western part of the peninsula is cooler due to the northern winds passing through the Dardanelles. The slopes oriented towards Aegean Sea are under the influence of Mediterranean climate which is warm and humid (arid in summers). These distinct climate characteristics combined with the changes in altitude at various areas lead to unique vertical climate zones in Biga Peninsula. The composition of forests in Biga Peninsula reflects the features of vertical climate zones. While the northern forests show more variation; olive, Calabrian Pine (Pinus brutia) and Black Pine (Pinus nigra) dominate the southern species. Northern Biga Peninsula is under the direct impact of the air pollution by Istanbul and Marmara Region as well as countries situated on the north and west of Black Sea. Meanwhile, south of the peninsula is exposed to the pollution caused by the Soma thermal plant, and recently by the Çan thermal plant as well as the settlement areas (for heating purposes). Regardless of the source of the air pollution, the sulphur content on the needles of Calabrian Pines, black pines and fir trees (Abies equitrojani) were found to be above the toleration limit of chlorophyllous cells in the entirety of the peninsula. Such an impact results in premature defoliation of the old needles, diminished wood production and narrowing of the annual tree rings. As a result of the air pollution, increasing CO2 rate in the atmosphere has caused a tangible warming particularly increased during summer. Increased CO2 causes aridification. The data gathered from 4 meteorology stations within the vicinity of Biga Peninsula supports this notion and has been associated with a change in the limits of vertical climate zones. Upward migration of vertical climate zones ranges between 50 and 100 meters depending on the exposition and slope of the land and the season. While the industrialization in the areas surrounding the region dates back to late 19th century, it is not clear if there has been sufficient time for this migration to cause substantial impact on the growth and expansion characteristics of local plant species. Data from our previous work on animals such as “pine processionary caterpillar", on the other hand supports this hypothesis by a change in its breeding pattern on the Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia) zone instead of black pine (Pinus nigra) zone. This study aims to investigate the impact of the air pollution on needles of the coniferous trees in Biga Peninsula and the link to the migration of vertical climate zones.

© PublishedbybyElsevier Elsevier Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility International © 2011 2011 Published Ltd.Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Recepof EfeThe and2nd Munir Ozturk Geography Symposium-Mediterranean Environment Keywords: Biga Peninsula, climate change, air pollution. forest

1. Introduction Vertical climate zones in Biga Peninsula are the result of the mountainous structure as well as to the varying effects of Marmara Sea in the north, and Aegean Sea in the south. Polluted air (SO΍ in particular) coming from Black Sea and Thrace results in acid burns on the needles and leaves of the forest trees [1]. Due to the destruction of chlorophyllose cells, wood production has been reduced, and contractions have occurred in the annual circles of the trees. Tree death in forests in Biga Peninsula; fire trees (Abies equitrojani), in particular, draws attention. Climatic changes have caused aridity in summer months, and reduction in downfalls in winter months. Throughout the aridification period, air pollution

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 09-532-416-65-97; fax: +0-000-000-0000 . E-mail address: [email protected]

1877–0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of The 2nd International Geography SymposiumMediterranean Environment doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.05.198

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M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

2. Land Structure And Vertical Climate Zones In Biga Peninsula Biga Peninsula consists of the hilly and mountainous mass between Biga and Çan on North, Kaz Mountains on South, and Koca Çay Basin lying in between those two masses (Figure 1). Biga Peninsula is a steep-sloped mountainous region, with an elevation rising up to 1767 m at a short distance between Marmara and Aegean Seas. Significant climatic changes have developed due to elevation and exposure differences. These distinct climate characteristics combined with the changes in altitude at various areas lead to unique vertical climate zones in Biga Peninsula. By taking the bedrock and soil features into consideration, vertical climate zones could have been identified as different ecologic units [2,3,4] 3. Climate Features And Change Process In Biga Peninsula Climate features of Biga Peninsula can be studied in two separate periods in time. First period is before the year 1970 (Tables 1.1 / 1.2 & Figure 2) and the second period is between 1970 and 2006. While this distinction can be made as such, closer evaluation of the climate changes suggests that there are several periods that are related to various global impacting events. Accordingly, the second period, which encompasses a time of warming and aridification between 1970 and 2006, should be divided into three sub-periods: (1) Transition Period of 1970 – 1981, (2) Volcanoes Period of 1982 – 1993, and (3) Main Warming Period of 1994 – 2006. During the volcanoes’ impact, atmospheric temperature of the Earth has been reduced by 1 °C due to the ashes and gases sprayed to the stratosphere from the eruption of 5 volcanoes (El Chikon and Nevada Delruiz in the year 1982, Augustino in the year 1986, and Unzen and Pinatubo in the year 1991). This exposure can be assessed by the measurements of Turkish meteorological stations [10,11,13,14]. It can be speculated that in the absence of these volcanic eruptions, warming throughout the period of 1982 – 1993 could have been higher contributing the observed increase between 1994 and 2006 [6,7,8] Actual warming period in Biga Peninsula can be monitored from 4 existing meteorological stations out of more than 30 stations from the pre-1970 period, most of which have been shut down. According to these measurements, increase in temperatures in the summer months of the actual warming and aridification period is by a significant rate of 0.7 – 1.6 °C. Rising temperatures increase evapo-transpiration. It is also noteworthy that, temperatures continue to rise even during the winter months when precipitation drops (especially in December and January) (Tables 2, 3, 4, 5, and Figures 2, 3, 4, 5). Winter warming leads to faster melting of snow covers, a loss of water by way of surface flows, or evaporation; avoiding water from penetrating into the depths of soil. Figure 1. Cross section of Biga Peninsula

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799

M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

Table 1. Mean temperature and precipitation measurements during 1929-70 period at meteorological stations in Biga Peninsula and periphery (Kantarcı, M. D. 1996) EEh> 7^d͘ DdKZK>K'/> >d/dh WZ/W/dd/KE EƵ͘ ^dd/KE^ ϭ E<<> Ϯ >W^<7;ϭͿ ϯ Z<;ϭͿ ϰ d;ϱͿ ϱ '>7K>h ϲ K>z/Z ϳ DZDZ^/

ϮϮ͕Ϭ

ϭϵ͕Ϭ ϭϱ͕ϳ ϭϰ͕Ϯ ϭϰ͕ϱ ϭϰ͕Ϯ

ϵϴ͕ϰ ϭϬϳ͕ϰ ϭϮϲ͕Ϯ ϭϯϬ͕ϳ ϭϭϭ͕ϵ

Ϯϲ͕ϯ Ϯϭ͕ϱ ϮϬ͕ϵ Ϯϭ͕Ϯ ϮϬ͕ϵ

ϭϰϲ͕ϳ ϭϬϯ͕ϯ ϭϬϳ͕ϴ ϭϬϯ͕ϲ ϴϲ͕Ϯ

ϵ͕ϱ ϳ͕ϱ ϰ͕ϵ ϱ͕Ϭ ϰ͕ϵ

ϭϯ

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ϮϬ

ϲϬϳ͕ϱ

ϭϰ͕ϱ

ϵϱ͕ϱ

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ϭϭϯ͕ϲ

ϱ͕Ϭ

ϯϬ ϱϬ ϮϬϬ ϭϱϬ ϮϱϬ ϮϬϬ

ϲϱϯ͕Ϯ ϱϯϱ͕ϭ ϳϭϱ͕ϵ ϳϴϬ͕ϰ ϴϯϭ͕ϭ ϳϯϴ͕ϴ

ϭϰ͕ϱ ϭϰ͕ϱ ϭϯ͕ϴ ϭϰ͕Ϯ ϭϯ͕ϲ ϭϯ͕ϵ

ϴϲ͕ϰ ϭϬϭ͕ϰ ϭϮϱ͕ϲ ϭϬϯ͕ϯ ϭϳϴ͕ϱ ϭϮϭ͕ϱ

Ϯϭ͕Ϯ Ϯϭ͕Ϯ ϮϬ͕ϲ Ϯϭ͕ϭ ϮϬ͕ϱ ϮϬ͕ϴ

ϭϭϯ͕ϲ ϴϱ͕ϳ ϭϯϮ͕ϭ ϭϰϭ͕ϭ ϭϮϵ͕ϱ ϭϮϬ͕ϲ

ϱ͕Ϭ ϱ͕Ϭ ϰ͕Ϯ ϱ͕ϯ ϰ͕ϳ ϱ͕Ϭ

ϰϬ ϱϬ ϳϬ ϯϬϬ ϭϬϬ ϭϱϬ ϳϬ ϱϬϬ ϭϬϬ ϯϬϬ ϯϬϬ ϮϬϬ

ϱϲϱ͕ϯ ϲϭϴ͕ϳ ϲϱϱ͕Ϯ ϴϵϮ͕ϲ ϲϯϴ͕ϵ ϴϵϱ͕ϵ ϲϬϴ͕ϱ ϴϵϯ͕Ϯ ϴϯϮ͕ϭ ϵϭϵ͕ϲ ϴϳϯ͕ϲ ϳϵϮ͕ϯ

ϭϰ͕ϳ ϭϰ͕ϱ ϭϰ͕ϱ ϭϯ͕ϯ ϭϰ͕ϯ ϭϯ͕ϴ ϭϲ͕ϭ ϭϰ͕ϲ ϭϲ͕Ϭ ϭϯ͕ϯ ϭϯ͕ϯ ϭϯ͕ϴ

ϱϵ͕ϱ ϵϭ͕ϴ ϭϬϳ͕ϵ ϭϲϭ͕ϯ ϵϳ͕Ϭ ϭϳϱ͕ϴ ϳϮ͕ϭ ϵϴ͕ϭ ϵϬ͕ϲ ϭϳϬ͕Ϭ ϭϱϵ͕ϳ ϭϰϵ͕ϵ

Ϯϭ͕ϲ Ϯϭ͕ϰ Ϯϭ͕ϰ ϮϬ͕Ϯ Ϯϭ͕Ϯ ϮϬ͕ϱ Ϯϯ͕ϯ Ϯϭ͕ϴ Ϯϯ͕ϯ ϮϬ͕Ϯ ϮϬ͕Ϯ ϮϬ͕ϳ

ϴϰ͕Ϭ ϭϭϰ͕ϰ ϵϳ͕ϯ ϮϮϮ͕ϳ ϳϰ͕ϱ ϭϯϲ͕ϴ ϭϵϳ͕ϭ ϭϴϰ͕Ϭ ϭϲϱ͕Ϯ ϭϰϲ͕ϰ ϭϲϱ͕ϰ ϭϱϯ͕ϭ

ϱ͕ϴ ϱ͕Ϭ ϱ͕Ϭ ϯ͕ϴ ϰ͕ϴ ϰ͕ϲ ϲ͕ϲ ϱ͕ϳ ϲ͕ϳ ϯ͕ϴ ϯ͕ϴ ϰ͕ϯ

ϭϱϬ ϮϯϬ ϭϰϳ Ϯϭ ϯϬ ϯϬ ϭϬ ϰ

ϳϯϬ͕ϲ ϲϲϭ͕Ϭ ϲϬϵ͕Ϯ ϳϯϴ͕ϲ ϳϯϬ͕ϲ ϲϵϲ͕Ϭ ϲϴϰ͕ϰ ϲϰϬ͕ϳ

ϭϰ͕ϲ ϭϯ͕ϴ ϭϰ͕ϲ ϭϲ͕ϰ ϭϲ͕ϰ ϭϲ͕ϰ ϭϲ͕ϵ ϭϲ͕ϵ

ϵϬ͕ϵ ϵϱ͕ϰ ϭϬϭ͕ϲ ϲϵ͕ϯ ϭϬϱ͕ϯ ϴϯ͕ϲ ϳϬ͕ϳ ϰϱ͕Ϭ

Ϯϭ͕ϵ Ϯϭ͕ϭ Ϯϭ͕ϵ Ϯϯ͕ϲ Ϯϯ͕ϲ Ϯϯ͕ϲ Ϯϯ͕ϳ Ϯϯ͕ϳ

ϭϮϲ͕ϳ ϭϮϬ͕ϯ ϵϵ͕ϯ ϭϯϯ͕ϰ ϭϯϲ͕Ϭ ϭϮϯ͕ϵ ϭϭϵ͕ϰ ϭϮϱ͕ϳ

ϰ͕ϵ ϰ͕ϭ ϰ͕ϵ ϲ͕ϵ ϲ͕ϵ ϲ͕ϵ ϴ͕Ϭ ϴ͕Ϭ

ϯϮ ϯϯ ϯϰ ϯϱ ϯϲ ϯϳ ϯϴ ϯϵ

>z;ϯϰͿ 7sZ7E7;ϯϰͿ >/<^7Z ZD7d ,sZE;ϯϱͿ hZ,E7z;ϯϱͿ ZDhdKs;ϯϵͿ

'PD;zs>/<Ϳ



dDW͘

ϳϱϴ͕ϳ ϲϴϭ͕ϱ ϳϲϱ͕ϴ ϳϬϲ͕ϭ ϱϴϭ͕ϯ

ϮϬ Ϯϭ ϮϮ Ϯϯ Ϯϰ Ϯϱ Ϯϲ Ϯϳ Ϯϴ Ϯϵ ϯϬ ϯϭ

ŵŵ

WZ/Wdd/KE

ϳϭ ϭϬ ϱϬ ϯϬ ϭϬ

hDhZz;ϭͿ <7Z>/;ϭͿ 7EdW;ϭͿ ;ZE7;ϭͿ 7E;ϮϮͿ zZD7 s7>Z;ϮϮͿ d7>7;ϮϮͿ E;ϭϬͿ 'm>W/EZ;ϯϱͿ zs/<;ϯϱͿ >d/EK>h<;ϯϱͿ zE7;ϮϮͿ ,D7z;ϮϮͿ WZ


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'mEK)h;ϭϭͿ

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ϴ ϵ ϭϬ ϭϭ ϭϮ

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dDW͘

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ŵŵ ϭϬϭ͕ϰ ϭϬϬ͕ϱ ϭϭϮ͕ϰ ϭϬϱ͕ϲ ϵϵ͕ϳ ϭϬϯ͕Ϭ ϭϭϱ͕Ϭ

ϭϰ ϭϱ ϭϲ ϭϳ ϭϴ ϭϵ

ŵ

EEh>

ϭϰ͕ϵ ϭϰ͕ϵ ϭϰ͕ϵ ϭϰ͕ϴ ϭϰ͕ϴ ϭϰ͕ϯ ϭϱ͕ϱ

ϵϱ͕Ϭ ϵϵ͕ϵ ϭϲϭ͕ϵ ϳϲ͕ϭ ϭϮϮ͕ϵ ϭϬϲ͕ϰ ϭϯϮ͕ϳ

Ϯϭ͕ϴ Ϯϭ͕ϴ Ϯϭ͕ϴ Ϯϭ͕ϲ Ϯϭ͕ϲ

EKd͗;ͿŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƐƚŚĞƐƚĂƚŝŽŶŶƵŵďĞƌ ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ͗ǀĂůƵĂƚĞĚďĂƐĞĚŽŶdƵƌŬŝƐŚ^ƚĂƚĞDĞƚĞŽƌŽůŽŐŝĐĂů^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ͖ϭϵϳϰĚĂƚĂ D͘K)E<EdZ/

Σ ϲ͕Ϭ ϲ͕Ϭ ϲ͕Ϭ ϱ͕ϰ ϱ͕ϰ ϲ͕Ϯ

800

M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

Table 2. Variation of mean temperature and precipitation values on north and south side at Biga Peninsula in Kaz Mountains according to elevations (Kantarcı , M.D.1996) EEh> >d/dh yWK^/d/KE EKZd,^/

ŵ

^Khd,^/

EEh>

DEWZ/Wd͘ DEdDW͘ ŵŵ

ϱ^hDDZDKEd,;sнs/нs//нs///н/yͿ DEWZ/Wd͘

DEdDW͘

ŵŵ





:EhZz

:EhZz

DEWZ/Wd͘ DEdDW͘ ŵŵ



ϮϬϬ ϰϬϬ ϲϬϬ ϴϬϬ ϭϬϬϬ ϭϮϬϬ ϭϰϬϬ ϭϲϬϬ ϮϬϬ ϰϬϬ

ϴϭϴ͕ϵ ϴϴϵ͕ϳ ϵϲϬ͕ϱ ϭϬϯϭ͕Ϯ ϭϭϯϰ͕ϰ ϭϮϯϳ͕ϲ ϭϯϰϬ͕ϵ ϭϰϰϰ͕ϭ ϳϵϲ͕ϲ ϴϲϬ͕ϵ

ϭϯ͕ϲ ϭϮ͕ϵ ϭϮ͕Ϯ ϭϭ͕ϱ ϭϬ͕ϲ ϵ͕ϳ ϴ͕ϴ ϴ͕Ϭ ϭϱ͕ϳ ϭϱ͕Ϭ

ϭϯϯ͕ϲ ϭϰϯ͕ϯ ϭϱϯ͕ϯ ϭϲϯ͕Ϯ ϭϴϭ͕ϲ ϭϵϵ͕Ϭ Ϯϭϴ͕ϴ Ϯϯϳ͕Ϯ ϴϬ͕ϭ ϵϮ͕ϭ

ϮϬ͕ϯ ϭϵ͕ϲ ϭϴ͕ϵ ϭϴ͕ϭ ϭϳ͕Ϯ ϭϲ͕ϯ ϭϱ͕ϯ ϭϰ͕ϰ ϮϮ͕ϵ ϮϮ͕Ϯ

ϭϭϲ͕ϵ ϭϮϵ͕Ϭ ϭϰϭ͕Ϭ ϭϱϯ͕Ϯ ϭϲϵ͕Ϭ ϭϴϰ͕ϴ ϮϬϬ͕ϱ Ϯϭϲ͕ϯ ϭϱϮ͕ϯ ϭϳϯ͕ϯ

ϰ͕ϱ ϰ͕Ϭ ϯ͕ϱ ϯ͕Ϭ Ϯ͕ϯ ϭ͕ϲ Ϭ͕ϴ Ϭ͕ϭ ϲ͕ϱ ϱ͕ϵ

ϲϬϬ

ϵϮϱ͕ϰ

ϭϰ͕Ϯ

ϭϬϰ͕ϭ

Ϯϭ͕ϰ

ϭϵϰ͕ϱ

ϱ͕ϱ

ϴϬϬ

ϵϴϵ͕ϴ

ϭϯ͕ϱ

ϭϭϲ͕ϭ

ϮϬ͕ϳ

Ϯϭϱ͕ϱ

ϰ͕ϵ

ϭϬϬϬ

ϭϬϱϰ͕Ϯ

ϭϮ͕ϴ

ϭϮϴ͕ϭ

ϮϬ͕Ϭ

Ϯϯϲ͕ϱ

ϰ͕ϱ

ϭϮϬϬ

ϭϭϭϴ͕ϲ

ϭϮ͕ϭ

ϭϰϬ͕ϭ

ϭϵ͕Ϯ

Ϯϱϳ͕ϱ

ϯ͕ϵ

ϭϰϬϬ

ϭϭϴϯ͕Ϭ

ϭϭ͕ϰ

ϭϱϮ͕ϭ

ϭϴ͕ϱ

Ϯϳϴ͕ϱ

ϯ͕ϰ

ϭϲϬϬ

ϭϮϰϳ͕ϰ

ϭϬ͕ϲ

ϭϲϰ͕ϭ

ϭϳ͕ϳ

Ϯϵϵ͕ϱ

Ϯ͕ϵ

D͘K)E<EdZ/

Figure 2. Variation of mean temperature and precipitation values on Biga Peninsula in Kaz Mountains and periphery during 1929-70 periode according to elevation and exposition VARIATION OF MEAN TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION VALUES IN BøGA PENINSULA-KAZ MOUNTAINS AND PERIPHERY DURING 1929-70 PERIODE ACCORDING TO ELEVATION AND EXPOSITION

zm<^>d7z'PZ KZ/E'dK>d/dh 'mEz
ϳ͘^Khd,^/^dd/KE ϳ͘'mEz'Zhh

ϴϲϬ͕ϵ

ϵϮϱ͕ϰ

ϲ͘K)h'Zhh ϲ͘^d^/^dd/KE^

KZ/E'dK>d/dh

ϳϵϲ͕ϲ

ϴϬϬ͕Ϭ

ϱ͘7<^7D K&
zm<^>d7z'PZ dEKZd,^/
ϴϭϴ͕ϵ

ϴϴϵ͕ϳ

ϵϬϬ͕Ϭ

ϱ͘^dd/KE^d^/E

ϵϲϬ͕ϱ

ϭϬϯϭ͕Ϯ

EEh>DEWZ/W/dd/KE^ŵŵ

ϭϬϬϬ͕Ϭ

ϰ͘t^d^/^dd/KE^ ϰ͘d/'Zhh

ϵϴϵ͕ϴ

ϭϭϯϰ͕ϰ

ϭϭϬϬ͕Ϭ

ϯ͘^dd/KE^K^dK&

ϯ͘DZDZ DZDZ^

ϭϬϱϰ͕Ϯ

ϭϮϯϳ͕ϲ

ϭϮϬϬ͕Ϭ

Ϯ͘>Z

ϭϭϭϴ͕ϲ

ϭϯϰϬ͕ϵ

ϭϯϬϬ͕Ϭ

ZE>>^ Ϯ͘^dd/KE^d/^>E^

ϭϭϴϯ͕Ϭ

ϭϰϬϬ͕Ϭ

ϭϮϰϳ͕ϰ

ϭϰϰϰ͕ϭ

ϭϱϬϬ͕Ϭ

ϳϬϬ͕Ϭ ϲϬϬ͕Ϭ ϱϬϬ͕Ϭ ϳ͕Ϭ

ϴ͕Ϭ

ϵ͕Ϭ

ϭϬ͕Ϭ

ϭϭ͕Ϭ

ϭϮ͕Ϭ ϭϯ͕Ϭ ϭϰ͕Ϭ ϭϱ͕Ϭ ϭϲ͕Ϭ EEh>DEdDWZdhZƒ

ϭϳ͕Ϭ

ϭϴ͕Ϭ

ϭϵ͕Ϭ

D͘K)E<EdZ/

ϮϬ͕Ϭ

801

M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

Table 3.1. Periodical variation of monthly and yearly mean temperature at Çanakkale D͘K)E<EdZ/ y/

y//



ϭϵϮϵͲϭϵϳϬ ϲ͕Ϭ ϲ͕ϲ ϳ͕ϵ ϭϮ͕ϯ ϭϳ͕Ϯ Ϯϭ͕ϴ Ϯϰ͕ϳ Ϯϰ͕ϲ ϮϬ͕ϳ ϭϲ͕Ϭ ϭϮ͕ϭ

ϴ͕ϰ ϭϰ͕ϵ

ϭϵϳϬͲϭϵϴϭ ϱ͕ϲ ϲ͕ϵ ϴ͕ϲ ϭϮ͕ϲ ϭϳ͕Ϯ ϮϮ͕ϭ Ϯϰ͕ϱ Ϯϯ͕ϴ ϮϬ͕Ϯ ϭϱ͕ϴ ϭϭ͕ϰ

ϴ͕Ϯ ϭϰ͕ϴ

ϭϵϴϮͲϭϵϵϯ ϲ͕ϰ ϱ͕ϴ ϳ͕ϴ ϭϮ͕ϲ ϭϳ͕Ϭ Ϯϭ͕ϵ Ϯϰ͕ϲ Ϯϰ͕ϲ ϮϬ͕ϵ ϭϱ͕ϵ ϭϭ͕Ϭ

ϳ͕ϴ ϭϰ͕ϳ

ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ ϲ͕ϰ ϲ͕ϳ ϴ͕ϰ ϭϮ͕ϲ ϭϳ͕ϵ ϮϮ͕ϵ Ϯϱ͕ϴ Ϯϱ͕ϱ Ϯϭ͕ϯ ϭϲ͕ϰ ϭϭ͕ϳ

ϴ͕Ϯ ϭϱ͕ϯ

ŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ƒ

Ϭ͕Ϯ

Ϭ͕ϰ

Ϭ͕ϰ

s

s/ s// DKEd,^

s///

/y

WZ/K













 





y//

EEh > 



ͻǡͳ ͹ǡͶ ʹ͸ǡͻ Ͷͻǡ͵ ͺʹǡ͹ ͳͳ͸ǡ͸ ͸ʹͻǡͳ

Ϭ͕ϴ

Ϭ͕ϰ

Ϭ͕ϵ

ϭ͕ϲ

Ϭ͕ϰ

ϭ͕ϯ

ϭ͕Ϭ

ͲϬ͕ϭ //

///

/s

s

s/

s//

/

WZ/K













 

ϭϵϳϬͲϭϵϴϭ

ͻ͹ǡͺ ͷʹͲǡͲ

ϭϵϴϮͲϭϵϵϯ ͺͳǡ͸ ͸ͳǡ͹ ͷ͹ǡ͸ ͷ͵ǡʹ ͶͲǡ͸ ʹͶǡͺ ͹ǡ͹ ͳǡͷ

ͺ͵ǡͶ ͺͶǡ͵ ͹ͷǡ͸ Ͷ͸ǡʹ ͵͸ǡͺ ͳͳǡͺ ͳͳǡͲ ʹǡʹ ʹ͵ǡͻ Ͷ͸ǡʹ ͻͷǡʹ ͳʹͲǡͶ ͸͵͸ǡͻ

ϭϭϬ͕Ϭ

ϭϭϲ͕ϲ

ϭϬϭ͕ϰ

ϭϮϬ͕Ϭ

ϭϬϬ͕Ϭ

ϴϮ͕ϳ

ϴϯ͕ϰ

ϲϲ͕ϰ

ϲϬ͕Ϭ ϱϬ͕Ϭ

ϰϲ͕Ϯ

ϵ͕Ϯ

ϲ͕ϰ

ͲϮϬ͕Ϭ ͲϯϬ͕Ϭ

Ϯϯ͕ϲ ϴ͕ϴ

Ϭ͕Ϭ /

//

///

/s

s

ϭϭ͕ϴ ϭϭ͕Ϭ s/

ϳ͕ϰ

ϲ͕ϰ

ϭϬ͕Ϭ

ϵ͕ϭ

ϮϬ͕Ϭ

Ϯϴ͕Ϭ

ϯϵ͕ϴ

ϯϬ͕Ϭ

Ϯϲ͕ϵ

ϯϲ͕ϴ

ϰϬ͕Ϭ

ͲϭϬ͕Ϭ

ϰϵ͕ϯ

ϳϬ͕Ϭ

ϰϲ͕Ϯ

Ϯϯ͕ϵ

Ϯ͕Ϯ Ͳϯ͕Ϭ

ϭ͕ϵ s// s///Ͳϱ͕Ϯ/y

ϯ͕ϴ ϭϮ͕ϱ Ͳϯ͕ϭ y y/

Ͳϭϭ͕ϴ Ͳϭϴ͕Ϭ

DKEd,^ D͘K)E<EdZ/

ϭϲϬ͕Ϭ ϭϱϬ͕Ϭ ϭϰϬ͕Ϭ ϭϯϬ͕Ϭ ϭϮϬ͕Ϭ ϭϭϬ͕Ϭ ϭϬϬ͕Ϭ ϵϬ͕Ϭ ϴϬ͕Ϭ ϳϬ͕Ϭ ϲϬ͕Ϭ ϱϬ͕Ϭ ϰϬ͕Ϭ ϯϬ͕Ϭ ϮϬ͕Ϭ ϭϬ͕Ϭ Ϭ͕Ϭ ͲϭϬ͕Ϭ ͲϮϬ͕Ϭ ͲϯϬ͕Ϭ ͲϰϬ͕Ϭ ͲϱϬ͕Ϭ

DEWZ/W/dd/KEŵŵ

ϳϱ͕ϲ

ϳϳ͕ϵ

DEWZ/W/dd/KEŵŵ

ϴϬ͕Ϭ

ϵϱ͕Ϯ

ϴϰ͕ϯ

ϵϬ͕Ϭ

y//



ŵŵ

Ͳϳϲ͕ϳ

WZ/K/>sZ/d/KEK&DKEd,>zDEWZ/W/dd/KEdZD7d

ϭϵϯϳͲϭϵϳϬ

ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ

7&&ZE &Z<ŵŵ

ϭϭϱ͕ϲ

ϭϮϬ͕ϰ

7&&ZE &Z<ŵŵ



Figure 4.2. Periodical variation of monthly mean precipitation at Edremit

ϭϬϵ͕ϯ

ϭϬϴ͕ϴ

ϵϵ͕ϵ ϴϰ͕ϴ ϲϲ͕Ϭ

ϱϵ͕ϴ

ϱϲ͕ϱ

Ϯϵ͕ϲ

ϯϯ͕ϳ

ϱ͕ϯ

ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ



ͷǡ͸ ͵ͻǡͺ ͳʹʹǡͻ ͳͳͶǡ͹ ͸ͳͳǡ͹

ϯ͕ϵ

ϭϵϮϵͲϭϵϳϬ

EEh >

ŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ Ͳϰϴ͕ϲ Ϭ͕ϭ ͲϭϬ͕ϲ ϭϰ͕Ϯ ͲϮ͕ϯ Ͳϯ͕Ϭ ϭ͕ϯ ϭ͕ϭ ϭϲ͕ϵ ϰ͕ϰ Ͳϲ͕ϴ Ͳϯϲ͕ϵ ŵŵ ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ͗ǀĂůƵĂƚĞĚďĂƐĞĚŽŶdƵƌŬŝƐŚ^ƚĂƚĞDĞƚĞŽƌŽůŽŐŝĐĂů^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ͖ϭϵϳϰĚĂƚĂ

ϭϭ͕ϰ

ϭϯϬ͕Ϭ



ϯϭ͕ϵ

WZ/K/>sZ/d/KEK&DKEd,>zDEWZ/W/dd/KE dE<<>

y//

D͘K)E<EdZ/

ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ ͺͶǡͺ ͻͻǡͻ ͸͸ǡͲ ͷͻǡͺ ʹͻǡ͸ ͺǡͶ ͷǡʹ ͸ǡͶ ͵͵ǡ͹ ͷ͸ǡͷ ͳͲͺǡͺ ͳͲͻǡ͵ ͸͸ͳǡͻ

ϰϱ͕ϲ

Figure 3.2. Periodical variation of monthly mean precipitation at Çanakkale

ͲϬ͕ϯ

y/

ϳϲ͕ϲ

͹ǡͺ

y

ϵϵ͕ϴ

͵ǡͺ

/y

ͻͻǡͷ ͻͷǡ͵ ͺʹǡʹ ͷ͸ǡͻ ͵ͻǡ͵ ͳ͹ǡͷ ͹ǡͷ ʹǡͻ ʹͲǡ͵ Ͷͺǡͳ ͳͳͶǡ͸ ͳʹͷǡͷ ͹Ͳͻǡͷ

ϭϯϯ͕ϰ

ͳǡͻ Ǧͷǡʹ Ǧ͵ǡͲ Ǧ͵ǡͳ ͳʹǡͷ

s///

ϭϵϯϳͲϭϵϳϬ ͳ͵͵ǡͶ ͻͻǡͺ ͹͸ǡ͸ Ͷͷǡ͸ ͵ͳǡͻ ͳͳǡͶ ͵ǡͻ ͷǡ͵ ͳ͸ǡͺ ͷʹǡͳ ͳͳͷǡ͸ ͳͶ͸ǡʹ ͹͵ͺǡ͸

͹ͻǡʹ ͸ʹͶǡ͵

͸ǡͶ

Ϭ͕ϯ

Table 4.2. Periodical variation of monthly and yearly mean precipitation at Edremit

͹ͺǡ͵ Ͷͷǡͷ ͷͶǡͺ ͷʹǡͺ ʹͶǡ͵ ʹͷǡͻ ͳͲǡͳ ͵ǡͳ ͳͲǡͲ Ͷ͵ǡͶ ͹ͶǡͲ ͻǡʹ

Ϭ͕ϰ

DKEd,^

ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ

ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ͗ǀĂůƵĂƚĞĚďĂƐĞĚŽŶdƵƌŬŝƐŚ^ƚĂƚĞDĞƚĞŽƌŽůŽŐŝĐĂů^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ͖ϭϵϳϰĚĂƚĂ

ϭϵϯϳͲ ϭϵϳϬ ϭϵϵϰͲ ϮϬϬϲ &Z<Σ ŝĨĨ͘ƒ

ͲϬ͕ϵ

ϭϵϴϮͲϭϵϵϯ

͸ǡͶ

Ϭ͕ϱ

WZ/K/>sZ/d/KEK&DKEd,>zDEdDWZdhZdZD7d

ͺͺǡͶ ͹ͳǡ͵ ͸͸ǡ͸ ͶͶǡͷ Ͷ͵ǡʹ ʹʹǡͺ ʹͳǡʹ ͻǡ͸ ʹ͵ǡͷ Ͷͷǡͷ ͳͲͺǡ͸

ͺǡͺ Ǧͳͳǡͺ

ͲϬ͕ϵ ͲϬ͕ϯ

ϭϮ͕Ϯ

ϯϬ͕Ϭ Ϯϵ͕Ϭ Ϯϴ͕Ϭ Ϯϳ͕Ϭ Ϯϲ͕Ϭ Ϯϱ͕Ϭ Ϯϰ͕Ϭ Ϯϯ͕Ϭ ϮϮ͕Ϭ Ϯϭ͕Ϭ ϮϬ͕Ϭ ϭϵ͕Ϭ ϭϴ͕Ϭ ϭϳ͕Ϭ ϭϲ͕Ϭ ϭϱ͕Ϭ ϭϰ͕Ϭ ϭϯ͕Ϭ ϭϮ͕Ϭ ϭϭ͕Ϭ ϭϬ͕Ϭ ϵ͕Ϭ ϴ͕Ϭ ϳ͕Ϭ ϲ͕Ϭ ϱ͕Ϭ ϰ͕Ϭ ϯ͕Ϭ Ϯ͕Ϭ ϭ͕Ϭ Ϭ͕Ϭ Ͳϭ͕Ϭ ͲϮ͕Ϭ Ͳϯ͕Ϭ

ϭϵϳϬͲϭϵϴϭ

ŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ͳͺǡͲ ŵŵ

Ϭ͕ϯ

ϵ͕ϯ

ϴ͕Ϯ

y/



Ϭ͕ϰ

Figure 4.1. Periodical variation of monthly mean temperature at Edremit

D͘K)E<EdZ/

Table 3.2. Periodical variation of monthly and yearly mean precipitation at Çanakkale ϭϵϮϵͲϭϵϳϬ ͳͲͳǡͶ ͹͹ǡͻ ͸͸ǡͶ ͵ͻǡͺ ʹͺǡͲ ʹ͵ǡ͸

ϭ͕Ϭ

ϵ͕ϲ

ϭϮ͕ϭ y

ϭ͕ϲ

ϭϰϲ͕Ϯ

/s

ϭ͕ϯ

ϭϯ͕ϭ

ϭϭ͕ϳ

ϭϲ͕Ϭ

ͲϬ͕Ϯ

ϴ͕ϰ

///

Ϭ͕ϰ

Ϭ͕ϵ

ϭϳ͕ϱ

ϭϲ͕ϰ

ϮϬ͕ϳ

ϭϳ͕ϵ ϭϳ͕Ϯ

ϭϮ͕ϲ ϭϮ͕ϯ

ϴ͕ϰ

ͲϬ͕ϰ

ϲ͕ϲ //

ϭ͕ϭ

Ϭ͕ϳ

Ϭ͕ϯ

Ϭ͕ϰ

ϭϳ͕Ϯ

Ϭ͕ϲ

ϳ͕ϵ /

Ϭ͕ϱ

Ϭ͕ϰ

ϱϮ͕ϭ

Ϯϭ͕ϯ

Ϯϱ͕ϱ Ϯϰ͕ϲ

Ϯϱ͕ϴ Ϯϰ͕ϳ

ϮϮ͕ϵ

Ϭ͕ϵ

Ϯϭ͕ϴ ϭ͕ϭ

ϭϵϮϵͲ ϭϵϳϬ ϭϵϵϰͲ ϮϬϬϲ &Z<Σ ŝĨĨ͘ƒ

ϲ͕ϳ

ϲ͕ϰ ϲ͕Ϭ

DEdDWZdhZƒ

WZ/K/>sZ/d/KEK&DKEd,>zDEdDWZdhZdE<<>

Ϭ͕ϭ

Ϭ͕ϴ ͲϬ͕ϭ

ϮϮ͕ϲ

Figure 3.1. Periodical variation of monthly mean temperature at Çanakkale

Ϭ͕ϰ

ŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐĞΣ

ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ͗ǀĂůƵĂƚĞĚďĂƐĞĚŽŶdƵƌŬŝƐŚ^ƚĂƚĞDĞƚĞŽƌŽůŽŐŝĐĂů^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ͖ϭϵϳϰĚĂƚĂ

ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ͗ǀĂůƵĂƚĞĚďĂƐĞĚŽŶdƵƌŬŝƐŚ^ƚĂƚĞDĞƚĞŽƌŽůŽŐŝĐĂů^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ͖ϭϵϳϰĚĂƚĂ

Ϯϴ͕Ϭ Ϯϳ͕Ϭ Ϯϲ͕Ϭ Ϯϱ͕Ϭ Ϯϰ͕Ϭ Ϯϯ͕Ϭ ϮϮ͕Ϭ Ϯϭ͕Ϭ ϮϬ͕Ϭ ϭϵ͕Ϭ ϭϴ͕Ϭ ϭϳ͕Ϭ ϭϲ͕Ϭ ϭϱ͕Ϭ ϭϰ͕Ϭ ϭϯ͕Ϭ ϭϮ͕Ϭ ϭϭ͕Ϭ ϭϬ͕Ϭ ϵ͕Ϭ ϴ͕Ϭ ϳ͕Ϭ ϲ͕Ϭ ϱ͕Ϭ ϰ͕Ϭ ϯ͕Ϭ Ϯ͕Ϭ ϭ͕Ϭ Ϭ͕Ϭ Ͳϭ͕Ϭ ͲϮ͕Ϭ



ϵ͕ϱ ϭϰ͕ϱ ϭϵ͕ϭ Ϯϯ͕ϲ Ϯϲ͕ϰ Ϯϲ͕Ϯ ϮϮ͕ϯ ϭϲ͕ϵ ϭϭ͕ϱ ϴ͕ϰ ϭϲ͕Ϭ

ϮϮ͕Ϯ

Ϭ͕ϰ

EEh >

y//

ϱ͕Ϯ s//

ϲ͕ϰ s///

ϭϲ͕ϴ

Ϭ͕ϲ

y/

Ϯϳ͕ϭ

Ϭ͕ϵ

y

ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ ϳ͕ϳ ϴ͕Ϭ ϭϬ͕ϭ ϭϰ͕ϲ ϮϬ͕ϰ Ϯϱ͕Ϯ Ϯϴ͕Ϭ Ϯϳ͕ϭ ϮϮ͕ϲ ϭϳ͕ϱ ϭϮ͕Ϯ ϵ͕ϯ ϭϲ͕ϵ

Ϯϲ͕ϭ

ϭ͕ϭ

ϭϵϴϮͲϭϵϵϯ ϳ͕Ϯ ϲ͕ϵ

Ϯϴ͕Ϭ

ϭ͕ϭ

/y

ϭϵϳϬͲϭϵϴϭ ϲ͕ϵ ϴ͕ϭ ϭϬ͕ϯ ϭϰ͕ϭ ϭϵ͕Ϯ Ϯϰ͕Ϭ Ϯϲ͕ϭ Ϯϱ͕ϰ Ϯϭ͕ϴ ϭϲ͕ϳ ϭϭ͕ϵ ϴ͕ϳ ϭϲ͕ϭ

Ϯϲ͕ϰ

Ϭ͕ϳ

s///

ϵ͕ϳ ϭϰ͕Ϯ ϭϵ͕ϱ Ϯϯ͕ϵ Ϯϲ͕ϰ Ϯϲ͕ϭ ϮϮ͕Ϯ ϭϳ͕Ϯ ϭϯ͕ϭ ϵ͕ϲ ϭϲ͕ϰ

Ϯϱ͕Ϯ

Ϭ͕ϯ

s//

Ϯϯ͕ϵ

Ϭ͕ϰ Ϭ͕ϭ Ϭ͕ϱ

ϭϵϯϳͲϭϵϳϬ ϲ͕ϵ ϴ͕ϭ

ϮϬ͕ϰ

y

s/

ϭϵ͕ϱ

/y

ϭϰ͕ϲ

s///

s

ϭϰ͕Ϯ

s//

ϭϬ͕ϭ

s/

/s

ϵ͕ϳ

s

///

ϴ͕Ϭ

/s

//

ϴ͕ϭ

///

/

ϳ͕ϳ

//

WZ/K

ϲ͕ϵ

/

Table 4.1. Periodical variation of monthly and yearly mean temperature at Edremit D͘K)E<EdZ/

DEdDWZdhZ ƒ

WZ/K

EEh >

ϴ͕ϰ /

//

///

/s

s

s/

DKEd,^

/y

y

y/

D͘K)E<EdZ/

y//

802

M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

EEh >

Table 5.1. Periodical variation of monthly and yearly D͘K)E<EdZ/ mean temperature at Gönen I

II

III

IV

VIII

IX

ϭϵϯϳͲϭϵϳϬ

ͷǡͲ

͸ǡ͹

ͺǡʹ

ͳ͵ǡͲ ͳ͹ǡͶ

ʹͳǡͺ ʹ͵ǡͺ

ʹ͵ǡʹ

ͳͻǡͺ ͳͷǡͶ

ͳͳǡ͸

ϭϵϳϬͲϭϵϴϭ

ϰ͕ϵ

ϲ͕ϱ

ϴ͕ϭ

ϭϮ͕Ϯ

ϭϲ͕ϲ

Ϯϭ͕ϯ

Ϯϯ͕Ϯ

ϮϮ͕ϲ

ϭϵ͕Ϭ

ϭϰ͕ϵ

ϭϬ͕ϰ

ϭϵϴϮͲϭϵϵϯ

ϱ͕ϭ

ϰ͕ϳ

ϳ͕Ϯ

ϭϮ͕ϭ

ϭϲ͕Ϯ

ϮϬ͕ϵ

Ϯϯ͕Ϭ

Ϯϯ͕Ϭ

ϭϵ͕Ϯ

ϭϰ͕ϲ

ϵ͕ϲ

WZ/K

V

VI

VII

X

XI

XII



ͺǡ͸

EEh >

Table 6.1. Periodical variation of monthly and yearly D͘K)E<EdZ/ mean temperature at Balıkesir WZ/K

/

//

///

s

s/

s//

s///

/y

y

y/

y//

ϲ͕ϴ

ϭϯ͕ϵ

ϭϵϳϬͲϭϵϴϭ

ϰ͕ϳ

ϲ͕ϯ

ϴ͕ϳ

ϭϯ͕ϯ

ϭϳ͕ϳ

ϮϮ͕ϲ

Ϯϰ͕ϰ

Ϯϯ͕ϲ

ϮϬ͕ϭ

ϭϱ͕ϲ

ϭϬ͕ϰ

ϲ͕ϯ

ϭϰ͕ϱ

ϲ͕ϲ

ϭϯ͕ϱ

ϭϵϴϮͲϭϵϵϯ

ϰ͕ϴ

ϰ͕ϵ

ϳ͕ϵ

ϭϯ͕ϰ

ϭϳ͕ϰ

ϮϮ͕ϯ

Ϯϰ͕ϭ

Ϯϰ͕Ϯ

ϮϬ͕ϴ

ϭϱ͕ϱ

ϵ͕ϵ

ϲ͕ϯ

ϭϰ͕ϯ

ϱ͕Ϭ

ϱ͕ϵ

ϴ͕ϭ

ϭϯ͕ϭ

ϭϴ͕ϯ

Ϯϯ͕Ϭ

Ϯϱ͕ϲ

Ϯϱ͕ϭ

Ϯϭ͕Ϭ

ϭϱ͕ϵ

ϭϬ͕Ϭ

ϲ͕ϲ

ϭϰ͕ϴ

Ͳǡͳ Ͳǡͳ

Ͳǡ͵

Ͳǡ͵

Ͳǡͷ

Ͳǡͻ

ͳǡͲ

Ͳǡ͸

Ͳǡͷ

Ͳǡʹ

ͳǡͳ Ͳǡͷ

Ͳǡʹ

ϱ͕ϱ

ϲ͕Ϭ

ϴ͕Ϭ

ϭϮ͕ϰ

ϭϳ͕ϱ

ϮϮ͕Ϯ

Ϯϰ͕ϲ

Ϯϰ͕Ϭ

ϭϵ͕ϴ

ϭϱ͕ϯ

ϭϬ͕ϯ

ϳ͕ϰ

ϭϰ͕ϰ

ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ

ŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ Σ

Ϭ͕ϱ

Ϭ͕ϳ

Ϭ͕Ϯ

Ϭ͕ϲ

Ϭ͕ϭ

Ϭ͕ϰ

Ϭ͕ϴ

Ϭ͕ϴ

Ϭ͕Ϭ

Ϭ͕ϭ

ϭ͕ϯ

ϭ͕Ϯ

Ϭ͕ϭ

ŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ

͹ǡͺ ͳʹǡͺ ͳ͹ǡͺ ʹʹǡͳ ʹͶǡ͸ ʹͶǡͷ ʹͲǡͷ ͳͷǡ͹ ͳͳǡͳ ͹ǡͳ



ϭϵϯϳͲϭϵϳϬ

ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ

Ͷǡͻ ͸ǡͲ

/s

ͳͶǡͷ

ͳͶǡ͸

ƒ ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ͗ǀĂůƵĂƚĞĚďĂƐĞĚŽŶdƵƌŬŝƐŚ^ƚĂƚĞDĞƚĞŽƌŽůŽŐŝĐĂů^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ͖ϭϵϳϰĚĂƚĂ

ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ͗ǀĂůƵĂƚĞĚďĂƐĞĚŽŶdƵƌŬŝƐŚ^ƚĂƚĞDĞƚĞŽƌŽůŽŐŝĐĂů^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ͖ϭϵϳϰĚĂƚĂ

s//

s///

Ϭ͕ϭ

/y

y

Ϯϱ͕ϭ

Ϯϱ͕ϲ

Ϯϯ͕Ϭ

Ϭ͕ϲ

Ϭ͕ϱ

Ϭ͕Ϯ

s//

s///

/y

y

y/

ϭ͕Ϯ

y//

s///

/y

y

y/

y//

ŵŵ

ϳϰ͕ϱ ϭϯϮ͕Ϯ ϳϬϲ͕ϭ ϴϰ͕ϭ ϵϵ͕ϴ ϳϮϭ͕ϴ ϭϬϳ͕ϲ ϵϳ͕ϲ ϱϵϮ͕ϰ ϴϳ͕ϵ ϭϬϯ͕Ϭ ϲϳϯ͕ϴ ϭϯ͕ϰ ͲϮϵ͕Ϯ ͲϯϮ͕ϯ

Ğŵŵ

ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ͗ǀĂůƵĂƚĞĚďĂƐĞĚŽŶdƵƌŬŝƐŚ^ƚĂƚĞDĞƚĞŽƌŽůŽŐŝĐĂů^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ͖ϭϵϳϰĚĂƚĂ

WZ/K ϭϵϯϳͲϭϵϳϬ ϭϵϳϬͲϭϵϴϭ ϭϵϴϮͲϭϵϵϯ ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ

ŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ŵŵ

ϭϵϯϳͲϭϵϳϬ

ϭϯϮ͕Ϯ

ϭϬ͕Ϭ

Ϯ͕ϴ

ϯ͕ϲ

Ϭ͕Ϭ ͲϭϬ͕Ϭ

/

ͲϮϬ͕Ϭ ͲϯϬ͕Ϭ ͲϰϬ͕Ϭ

//

///

/s

Ϭ͕ϲ s

ϭϲ͕ϳ s/

ϴ͕ϳ Ͳϳ͕ϭ s//

ϭϯ͕Ϭ

ϮϬ͕Ϭ

ϭϳ͕ϱ

ϰ͕ϱ s///

ϲϰ͕Ϯ

ϳϰ͕ϱ ϭϯ͕ϰ

Ͳϯ͕Ϭ ͲϬ͕ϲ y/

y//

ͲϮϮ͕ϭ

ϳ͕ϭ Ϯϲ͕ϯ

ϳ͕ϭ Ͳϰ͕ϵ /

//

///

ϭϵ͕ϲ ϱ͕ϭ /s

s

D͘K)E<EdZ/

ϴ͕ϲ

ϲ͕ϴ

Ͳϱ͕ϳ Ͳϲ͕ϵ s/

ϱ͕Ϯ ϴ͕Ϭ Ͳϯ͕ϭ s///ͲϮ͕ϱ /y s//

ϯ͕Ϭ y

y/

y//

ͲϮϬ͕Ϭ ͲϮϮ͕ϳ

ͲϯϬ͕Ϭ ͲϮϵ͕Ϯ

DKEd,^

ϰϱ͕Ϯ

ϯϯ͕ϱ

Ϭ͕Ϭ ͲϭϬ͕Ϭ

ͲϭϮ͕ϱ

ŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ &Z<ŵŵ

ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ

ϴϭ͕ϯ

ϯϬ͕Ϭ

ϭϬ͕Ϭ

y

ŵŵ

ϴϯ͕ϯ ϰϳϳ͕ϵ ϴϭ͕ϯ ϱϲϬ͕ϱ ͲϮϮ͕ϳ Ͳϰϴ͕ϴ

ϱϯ͕Ϯ

ϰϬ͕Ϭ

ϯϲ͕ϴ

/y

y//

ϭϬϯ͕ϵ ϲϬϵ͕Ϯ ϵϲ͕ϳ ϱϵϳ͕Ϭ

ϴϬ͕ϲ

ϮϬ͕Ϭ

ϯϮ͕ϵ

ϭϳ͕ϭ

ϭϱ͕ϴ

ϯϬ͕Ϭ

ϯϯ͕ϱ

y/ ϳϮ͕Ϭ ϴϰ͕ϵ ϴϯ͕Ϯ ϴϬ͕ϲ ϴ͕ϲ

ϳϱ͕ϭ

ϱϬ͕Ϭ

Ϯϵ͕Ϯ

ϱϭ͕Ϯ

ϰϬ͕Ϭ

ϲϱ͕Ϯ

ϯϵ͕ϴ

ϱϰ͕ϴ

ϱϬ͕Ϭ

ϳϬ͕Ϭ ϲϬ͕Ϭ

ϲϰ͕ϲ

ϲϬ͕Ϭ

s// s/// /y y ϵ͕ϵ ϳ͕ϳ ϭϴ͕ϯ ϰϮ͕Ϯ ϳ͕Ϯ ϭϬ͕ϲ Ϯϳ͕ϲ ϰϰ͕ϯ ϭϯ͕Ϯ ϭ͕ϭ ϴ͕ϳ ϯϲ͕Ϭ ϲ͕ϴ ϱ͕Ϯ Ϯϲ͕ϯ ϰϱ͕Ϯ Ͳϯ͕ϭ ͲϮ͕ϱ ϴ͕Ϭ ϯ͕Ϭ

ϲϵ͕ϰ

ϲϮ͕ϯ

ϴϭ͕ϱ

ϳϰ͕ϲ

ϳϬ͕Ϭ

ϭϬϯ͕Ϭ

ϴϳ͕ϵ

ϳϳ͕ϰ

ϳϰ͕Ϯ

DEWZ/W/dd/KEŵŵ

ϴϬ͕Ϭ

ϵϬ͕Ϭ ϴϬ͕Ϭ

ϵϭ͕ϯ

ϵϬ͕Ϭ

s/ Ϯϲ͕ϱ ϭϳ͕ϵ ϭϳ͕ϵ ϭϵ͕ϲ Ͳϲ͕ϵ

ϭϬϬ͕Ϭ

DEWZ/W/dd/KEŵŵ

ϭϬϬ͕Ϭ

s ϯϵ͕Ϯ ϱϱ͕Ϯ ϯϵ͕ϴ ϯϯ͕ϱ Ͳϱ͕ϳ

ϭϵϯϳͲϭϵϳϬ

ϭϭϬ͕Ϭ

ϭϬϯ͕ϲ

ϭϭϬ͕Ϭ

/s ϰϴ͕ϭ ϱϮ͕ϭ ϱϬ͕Ϭ ϱϯ͕Ϯ ϱ͕ϭ

WZ/K/>sZ/d/KEK&DKEd,>zWZ/W/dd/KEd>/<^7Z

ϭϯϬ͕Ϭ ϭϮϬ͕Ϭ

/// ϲϮ͕ϯ ϱϱ͕ϰ ϰϯ͕ϰ ϲϵ͕ϰ ϳ͕ϭ

ϭϮϬ͕Ϭ

ŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ &Z<ŵŵ

ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ

// ϴϬ͕Ϭ ϲϰ͕ϳ ϰϱ͕ϰ ϳϱ͕ϭ Ͳϯϱ͕ϭ Ͳϰ͕ϵ

Figure 6.2.Periodical variation of monthly mean precipitation at Balıkesir

WZ/K/>sZ/d/KEK&DKEd,>zDEWZ/W/dd/KEd'PEE

ϭϰϬ͕Ϭ

/ ϵϵ͕ϯ ϴϬ͕ϲ ϱϱ͕ϵ ϲϰ͕Ϯ

ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ͗ǀĂůƵĂƚĞĚďĂƐĞĚŽŶdƵƌŬŝƐŚ^ƚĂƚĞDĞƚĞŽƌŽůŽŐŝĐĂů^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ͖ϭϵϳϰĚĂƚĂ

Figure 5.2. Periodical varıatıon of monthly mean precipitation at Gönen ϭϱϬ͕Ϭ

y//

ϳϮ͕Ϭ

s//

ϳ͕ϳ

s/

Ϯϵ͕Ϯ ϭϱ͕ϴ ϭϯ͕Ϭ ϯϵ͕ϴ ϲϱ͕Ϯ Ϯϯ͕ϯ ϭϯ͕ϴ ϭϵ͕ϲ ϰϲ͕ϳ ϳϲ͕ϲ ϯϭ͕ϴ ϭϰ͕Ϭ ϴ͕ϲ ϭϬ͕ϰ ϰϱ͕ϳ ϭϲ͕ϳ ϴ͕ϳ ϭϳ͕ϱ ϯϲ͕ϴ ϲϰ͕ϲ ͲϭϮ͕ϱ Ͳϳ͕ϭ ϰ͕ϱ Ͳϯ͕Ϭ ͲϬ͕ϲ

ϵ͕ϵ

s ϯϮ͕ϵ ϱϭ͕ϯ ϯϴ͕ϭ ϯϯ͕ϱ Ϭ͕ϲ

Ϯϲ͕ϱ

/s ϱϭ͕Ϯ ϱϱ͕ϰ ϱϵ͕ϱ ϱϰ͕ϴ ϯ͕ϲ

ϯϵ͕Ϯ

/// ϳϰ͕ϲ ϳϭ͕ϱ ϰϲ͕ϯ ϳϳ͕ϰ Ϯ͕ϴ

ϰϴ͕ϭ

// ϳϰ͕Ϯ ϳϳ͕Ϯ ϱϳ͕ϴ ϵϭ͕ϯ ϭϳ͕ϭ

Ϭ͕ϱ

EEh >

ϴϬ͕Ϭ

/

ϭϬϯ͕ϲ ϭϵϳϬͲϭϵϴϭ ϭϬϮ͕ϲ ϭϵϴϮͲϭϵϵϯ ϳϱ͕ϭ ϭϵϵϰͲϮϬϬϲ ϴϭ͕ϱ ŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐ ͲϮϮ͕ϭ

y/

Table 6.2. Periodical variation of monthly and yearly mean precipitation at Balıkesir

ϵϵ͕ϯ

WZ/K

ϭ͕ϭ

D͘K)E<EdZ/

EEh >

Table 5.2. Periodical variation of monthly and yearly mean precipitation at Gönen

ϲ͕ϲ

ϭϱ͕ϳ ϭϭ͕ϭ ϭϬ͕Ϭ

ϴ͕ϭ

ϳ͕ϴ

ϱ͕ϵ

ϲ͕Ϭ

ϱ͕Ϭ

D͘K)E<EdZ/

ϭϵϯϳͲϭϵϳϬ

ϭϱ͕ϵ

ϮϬ͕ϱ

ϮϮ͕ϭ

ϭ͕Ϭ

ϭϳ͕ϴ

ϭϴ͕ϯ

ϭ͕ϯ Ϭ͕Ϭ

ϭϬϯ͕ϵ

s/

Ϭ͕ϴ

ϰϮ͕Ϯ

s

Ϭ͕ϴ

Ϯϭ͕Ϭ

/s

Ϭ͕ϰ

ϰ͕ϵ

ϴ͕ϲ

ϳ͕ϰ

ϭϭ͕ϲ

///

Ϭ͕ϭ

ϭϴ͕ϯ

//

Ϭ͕ϲ

Ϯϰ͕ϱ

/

DKEd,^

Ϭ͕Ϯ

Ϯϰ͕ϲ

Ϭ͕ϳ

ϭϵϯϳͲ ϭϵϳϬ ϭϵϵϰͲ ϮϬϬϲ &Z<Σ ŝĨĨ͘ƒ

ϭϮ͕ϴ

ϭϬ͕ϯ

ϭϱ͕ϰ

ϭϯ͕ϭ

ϭϱ͕ϯ

ϭϵ͕ϴ

ϭϳ͕ϰ

ϭϮ͕ϰ ϭϯ͕Ϭ ϴ͕Ϭ ϱ͕Ϭ

ϲ͕ϳ

ϱ͕ϱ

ϴ͕Ϯ

ϲ͕Ϭ

DEdDWZdhZƒ

Ϭ͕ϱ

WZ//>sZ/d/KEK&DKEd,>z

Ϯϳ͕Ϭ DEdDWZdhZd>/<^7Z Ϯϲ͕Ϭ Ϯϱ͕Ϭ Ϯϰ͕Ϭ Ϯϯ͕Ϭ ϮϮ͕Ϭ Ϯϭ͕Ϭ ϮϬ͕Ϭ ϭϵ͕Ϭ ϭϴ͕Ϭ ϭϳ͕Ϭ ϭϲ͕Ϭ ϭϱ͕Ϭ ϭϰ͕Ϭ ϭϯ͕Ϭ ϭϮ͕Ϭ ϭϭ͕Ϭ ϭϬ͕Ϭ ϵ͕Ϭ ϴ͕Ϭ ϳ͕Ϭ ϲ͕Ϭ ϱ͕Ϭ ϰ͕Ϭ ϯ͕Ϭ Ϭ͕ϵ Ϯ͕Ϭ Ϭ͕ϭ Ϭ͕ϭ Ϭ͕ϯ Ϭ͕ϯ Ϭ͕ϱ ϭ͕Ϭ Ϭ͕Ϭ DKEd,^ / // /// /s s s/

DEdDWZdhZƒ

Ϯϯ͕Ϯ

Ϯϯ͕ϴ

ϮϮ͕Ϯ Ϯϭ͕ϴ

ϭϳ͕ϱ

ϭϵϯϳͲ ϭϵϳϬ ϭϵϵϰͲ ϮϬϬϲ &Z<Σ ŝĨĨ͘ƒ

ϭϵ͕ϴ

WZ/K/>sZ/d/KEK&DKEd,>z DEdDWZdhZd'PEE

Ϯϲ͕Ϭ Ϯϱ͕Ϭ Ϯϰ͕Ϭ Ϯϯ͕Ϭ ϮϮ͕Ϭ Ϯϭ͕Ϭ ϮϬ͕Ϭ ϭϵ͕Ϭ ϭϴ͕Ϭ ϭϳ͕Ϭ ϭϲ͕Ϭ ϭϱ͕Ϭ ϭϰ͕Ϭ ϭϯ͕Ϭ ϭϮ͕Ϭ ϭϭ͕Ϭ ϭϬ͕Ϭ ϵ͕Ϭ ϴ͕Ϭ ϳ͕Ϭ ϲ͕Ϭ ϱ͕Ϭ ϰ͕Ϭ ϯ͕Ϭ Ϯ͕Ϭ ϭ͕Ϭ Ϭ͕Ϭ

Ϯϰ͕Ϭ

Ϯϰ͕ϲ

Figure 5.1. Periodical variation of monthly mean temperature at Gönen Figure 6.1. Periodical variation of monthly mean temperature at Balıkesir

ͲϰϬ͕Ϭ ͲϱϬ͕Ϭ

Ͳϯϱ͕ϭ DKEd,^

D͘K)E<EdZ/

803

M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

Table 7. Sulphur content Pinus brutia needles (1, 2, 3, year-old), Quercus cerris and Arbutus andrachnea leaves at Çan, Atatürk Çeúmesi, Kalkım, Lapseki/Dumanlı Mountain- A÷ı Mountain, Çal Mountain in Biga Peninsula-Turkey >Kd/KEE ^DW>/E'W>Kd^

zZ^ DKEd,

>d/dh yWKͲ ^/d/KE

ŵ

E>^ͬ>s^ ^h>W,hZ ;^Ϳ ƉƉŵ dZ EĞĞĚůĞ ϭϵϵϲ ϭϵϵϲ ϭϵϵϳ ϭϵϵϳ ϭϵϵϴ ϭϵϵϴ ϭϵϵϵ ϭϵϵϵ '

ĂŐĞ

sͲs/

y

sͲs/

y

s/Ͳs//

y

sͲs/

ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ

y

WŝŶƵƐďƌƵƚŝĂ;,ĂƌĚƉŝŶĞͿ E

ϭϰϬ <Ͳ< ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϭͬϭϵϵϲ

ϰϰϬϬ

P͘<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳ

ddmZ<bD^7

ϮϯϬ

ϭͬϭϵϵϲ

ϯϴϬϬ

ΗΗΗ

Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ

ϯϵϬϬ

ΗΗΗ

ϯͬϭϵϵϰ

ϰϮϬϬ

ΗΗΗ

ϭͬϭϵϵϲ

ϮϮϱϬ

ΗΗΗ

Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ

ϮϲϯϬ

ΗΗΗ

ϯͬϭϵϵϰ

ϮϲϱϬ

ΗΗΗ

ϭͬϭϵϵϲ

ϱϱϬ

ΗΗΗ

Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ

ϭϵϳϬ

ΗΗΗ

ϯͬϭϵϵϰ

ϮϴϬϬ

ΗΗΗ

ϭͬϭϵϵϲ

ϭϵϰϬ

ΗΗΗ

Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ

ϮϭϬϱ

ΗΗΗ

<>
EKZd,ŽĨZD7d

>W^<7Ͳ

<

ϮϳϬ

<

ϲϬϬ

'

ϰϬϬ

<

hDE>/DKhd/E

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϭͬϭϵϵϴ

ϰϰϱϳ

D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

;ĞƚǁĞĞŶ<ĂƌĂŬƂLJͲ

Ϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ϰϱϲϭ

ΗΗΗ

<ĂŶůŦŽďĂͿ

ϯͬϭϵϵϲ

ϱϬϱϳ

ΗΗΗ

W^^ŽĨ)/DKhEd/E

ϰϱϬ

<

;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ >DKhEd/E

ϭͬϭϵϵϵ

hƉƉĞƌƉĂƌƚŽĨĂůůŦĞƔŵĞ

ϰϮϰϰ ϰϯϭϰ D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ

ϰϭϲϳ ϰϯϰϮ ϰϳϭϲ ϰϳϲϭ

ΗΗΗ

ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ϰϱϲϰ ϰϳϬϯ ϰϴϮϰ ϰϵϭϰ

ΗΗΗ

ϱϬϭϰ ϱϭϭϯ

ΗΗΗ

ϯͬϭϵϵϲ

;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ YƵĞƌĐƵƐĐĞƌƌŝƐ;ƵƉƉĞĚKĂŬͿ >DKhEd/E

ϰϱϬ

<

ϭ

D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

ϰϴϰϰ

hƉƉĞƌƉĂƌƚŽĨĂůůŦĞƔŵĞ ;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ ƌďƵƚƵƐĂŶĚƌĂĐŚŶĞĂ;^ƚƌĂǁďĞƌƌLJƚƌĞĞͿ >DKhEd/E hƉƉĞƌƉĂƌƚŽĨĂůůŦĞƔŵĞ

ϰϱϬ

<

ϭͬϭϵϵϵ

ϰϵϬϰ ϰϱϴϮ D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

Ϯͬϭϵϵϴ

ϱϰϲϰ ϱϬϭϰ

ΗΗΗ

D͘͘<EdZ/

804

M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

Table 8. Sulphur content (ppm) Pinus nigra needles (1, 2, 3, year-old) at Lapseki and ÇanE÷rikabaa÷aç Mountain - Susuz Mountain cross section in Biga Peninsula-Turkey ^ƵůƉŚƵƌ ƉƉŵ

>Kd/KEE ^DW>/E'W>Kd^ >d7dh yWK^7d7KE dZ' E>' ŵ ĂƐƚŽĨĨ>W^<7

ϱϵϬ

<

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϭϵϵϲ

ϭϵϵϲ

sͲs/

y

^ ƉƉŵ ϭϵϵϳ ϭϵϵϳ E>' ϭϵϵϴ ϭϵϵϴ ϭϵϵϵ ϭϵϵϵ sͲs/

y

s/Ͳs//

y

sͲs/

ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ

y

ϭͬϭϵϵϲ

ϮϳϬϳ

<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

hDE>/

Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ

Ϯϴϲϲ

ΗΗΗ

ΗΗΗ

ΗΗΗ

DKhEd/E

ϯͬϭϵϵϰ

ϯϯϬϬ

ΗΗΗ

ΗΗΗ

ΗΗΗ

;<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳͿ )Z7<)

ϰϯϬ

<

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϭͬϭϵϵϵ

ϰϳϱϭ ϰϯϲϭ <ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

DKhEd/E

ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ

ϱϰϱϯ ϰϲϴϰ ϱϰϲϰ ϰϳϱϲ

ΗΗΗ

;ƂŒĞŶĐŝůĞƌƺnjƺͿ

ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ϱϳϱϴ ϱϭϲϭ ϱϴϭϲ ϰϵϲϭ

ΗΗΗ

ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ

ϲϬϭϳ ϱϮϳϰ ϲϮϰϰ ϱϭϭϲ

ϭͬϭϵϵϲ

ϮϮϬϬ

Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ

ϮϰϮϬ

ΗΗΗ

ϯϱϬϬ

ΗΗΗ

ϯͬϭϵϵϰ

;<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳͿ )Z7<)

ϳϬϬ

<

ϯϬ ϭͬϭϵϵϲ

ϯϬϬϬ

Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ

ϯϴϬϬ

ϯͬϭϵϵϰ

ϴϱϬ

<

ϰϳϰϵ ϰϴϱϭ

ϯͬϭϵϵϲ

ϱϭϱϳ

<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ

;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂůͲϮϬϬϬͿ

ϯϬ

<

ϭͬϭϵϵϴ Ϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ΗΗΗ

ϭͬϭϵϵϵ

ϭͬϭϵϵϲ

ϯϳϬϬ

Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ

ϰϭϬϬ

ΗΗΗ

ϯͬϭϵϵϰ

ϰϱϬϬ

ΗΗΗ

;<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳͿ ϳϱϬͲϴϬϬ

ΗΗΗ

ϰϮϬϬ

DKhEd/E

ĞƚǁĞĞŶ

ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ

ΗΗΗ

;<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳͿ )Z7<)

ϱϱϰϵ

;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂůͲϮϬϬϬͿ

DKhEd/E ;<ƵƌƵĨŦŶĚŦŬͿ

ϰͬϭϵϵϱ

ϭͬϭϵϵϵ

ϰϳϰϳ ϰϰϭϯ <ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ

ϰϱϰϳ

ϱϭϲϭ ϰϲϭϳ

ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ϱϰϳϭ

ϱϲϭϰ ϱϭϰϳ

ϰͬϭϵϵϲ

ϲϮϯϰ

ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ

;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂůͲϮϬϬϬͿ ϭͬϭϵϵϵ

ϰϵϭϯ <ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

)Z7<)

ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ

ΗΗΗ

ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ

ϱϳϲϭ ϱϳϳϰ

ϱϲϭϱ

DKhEd/EĂŶĚ

ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ΗΗΗ

ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ϲϬϬϳ ϱϵϭϲ

ϱϴϭϳ

ΗΗΗ

^h^hDKhEd/E

ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ

ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ

ϲϰϲϲ ϲϭϰϰ

ϲϬϰϭ

ΗΗΗ

<sh7 ^h^hDKhEd/E

;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂůͲϮϬϬϬͿ ϳϱϬ

<

ϭϬϬͲϭϮϬ

ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ

ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ

ΗΗΗ

ΗΗΗ

ϰϴϳϭ

ϰϴϲϭ <ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

ĞƚǁĞĞŶ

ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ΗΗΗ

ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ϱϭϭϲ

ϰϵϳϰ

ΗΗΗ

<^dE'7)7

ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ

ΗΗΗ

ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ

ϱϯϲϭ

ϱϭϲϮ

ΗΗΗ

z<z/Z/

ϰͬϭϵϵϱ

ϰͬϭϵϵϱ

ϱϰϳϳ

ϭͬϭϵϵϴ

ϰϵϴϭ

YƵĞƌĐƵƐĐĞƌƌŝƐ

ϳϱϬ

<

ϮϱϬͲϮϲϬ

;ƵƉƉĞĚ ŽĂŬͿ

ϭͬϭϵϵϴ

ΗΗΗ ͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

;<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂůͲϮϬϬϬͿ M. DOöAN KANTARCI

4. Effect of Air Pollution on Forest Trees Northern Biga Peninsula is under the direct impact of the air pollution by Istanbul and Marmara Region as well as countries situated on the north and west of Black Sea. Meanwhile, south of the peninsula is exposed to the pollution caused by the Soma thermal plant and settlement areas (for heating purposes). Impact could be recently increased by Çan thermal plant. In this study, our results present data from pre-Çan thermal plant [9,17,1819,]. Effect of air pollution in Biga Peninsula on the forest trees has been examined from the sulfur accumulation in the leaves and needles, microscopic sections taken from needles, and from the widths of the annual circles developed in the trees. The novelty of this work is the use of “unwashed” needles for analysis of sulphur accumulation. Since this strategy provides direct and unbiased basis for assessment, the results presented in Tables and

805

M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

dĂďůĞϵ͘^ƵůƉŚƵƌĐŽŶƚĞŶƚŝŶWŝŶƵƐŶŝŐƌĂŶĞĞĚůĞƐ;ϭ͕Ϯ͕ϯũĞĂƌͲŽůĚͿŽŶŶŽƌƚŚĂŶĚƐŽƵƚŚĞdžƉŽƐƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ<ĂnjDŽƵŶƚĂŝŶĞŽƐŝŶŝŐĂWĞŶŝŶƐƵůĂĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽĞůĞǀĂƚŝŽŶĂŶĚƐĞĂƐŽŶƐ >Kd/KEE ^DW>/E'W>Kd^ >d7dh yWK^7d7KE dZ' ŵ >/h
ϱϬϬ

<

ϮϬͲϯϬ

WĂƌŵĂůŝĂĨƵƌĨƵƌĂĐĞĂ;>/,EͿ
ϳϬϬ

<

ϯϱ

WĂƌŵĂůŝĂĨƵƌĨƵƌĂĐĞĂ;>/,EͿ

^ƵůƉŚƵƌ ;ƉƉŵͿ E>' ϭͬϭϵϵϵ ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ ϭͲϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ ϭͲϮͲϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϱ ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϰ ϰͬϭϵϵϯ ;K͘^ĞǀŐŝϭϵϵϳͿ ϭͬϭϵϵϳ ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϲ ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϱ ;K͘^ĞǀŐŝϭϵϵϳͿ

ϭϵϵϲ

ϭϵϵϲ

ϭϵϵϳ

ϭϵϵϳ

ϭϵϵϴ

ϭϵϵϴ

ϭϵϵϵ

ϭϵϵϵ

sͲs/

y

sͲs/

y

s/Ͳs//

y

sͲs/

y

ϯϭϰϭ ϯϰϱϰ ϯϳϳϰ ϰϮϴϳ

ϯϯϰϭ ϯϱϲϰ ϯϴϳϳ ϰϰϳϲ

Ϯϵϱϰ ϯϱϲϳ ϯϵϰϴ ϰϮϲϬ

ϲϴϲ

ϰϵϰϱ ϱϯϱϲ ϱϳϱϰ

ϳϰϰϲ

;ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐͿ

ϰϴϲϳ ϰϳϭϰ D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ ϰϴϳϭ ϱϯϭϲ ϱϮϭϳ ΗΗΗ ϱϮϰϵ ϱϵϰϭ ϱϲϰϯ ΗΗΗ ϱϱϴϰ ϲϯϭϰ ϲϮϭϰ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ϲϳϮϰ ΗΗΗ

;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ Ϯϱϲϳ ϮϮϳϴ Ϯϲϳϱ Ϯϰϱϭ Ϯϵϳϭ

D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ

ϭϭϬϬ ;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĂƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ

,/P>mZE

ϭϬϱϬ

WĂƌŵĂůŝĂĨƵƌĨƵƌĂĐĞĂ;>/,EͿ hhEK>h< ϭϮϱϬ

WĂƌŵĂůŝĂĨƵƌĨƵƌĂĐĞĂ;>/,EͿ Z/b/ ϭϯϴϬ DKhEd/E

<

<

<

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϰϬͲϲϬ

ϮϬͲϯϬ

WĂƌŵĂůŝĂĨƵƌĨƵƌĂĐĞĂ;>/,EͿ

ϭͬϭϵϵϵ ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ ϭͲϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ ϭͲϮͲϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϱ ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϰ ϰͬϭϵϵϯ ;K͘^ĞǀŐŝϭϵϵϳͿ ϭͬϭϵϵϵ ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ ϭͲϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ ϭͲϮͲϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ ϮͲϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϱ ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϰ ϰͬϭϵϵϯ

ϭͬϭϵϵϵ ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ ϭͲϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ ϭͲϮͲϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ ϮͲϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϱ ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϰ ϰͬϭϵϵϯ ;K͘^ĞǀŐŝϭϵϵϳͿ

,7ZͲ 7ͲZD7dͿ <ZE>/<Z

ϳϱϬ

'

ϱϬͲϲϬ

ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϲ ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϱ ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϰ

ϭϰϮϬ

<

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

)

ϭϱϰϬ

<

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

^Z/
ϭϳϬϬ

^/Zd

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϰϬϬ

<

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϳϬϬ

<

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϲϱϬ

'

ϴϬͲϭϮϬ

ϭͬϭϵϵϲ Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ ϯͬϭϵϵϰ ϰͬϭϵϵϯ ϭͬϭϵϵϲ Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ ϯͬϭϵϵϰ ϭͬϭϵϵϲ Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ ϯͬϭϵϵϰ ϰͬϭϵϵϯ ϭͬϭϵϵϲ Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ ϯͬϭϵϵϰ ϭͬϭϵϵϲ Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ ϯͬϭϵϵϰ ϭͬϭϵϵϲ Ϯͬϭϵϵϱ ϯͬϭϵϵϰ

,E>7 ;ĞƚǁĞĞŶ <>7 ;ĞƚǁĞĞŶ <>
ϯϮϳϯ Ϯϯϰϭ ϭϱϱϬ Ϯϵϴϭ ϯϴϲϰ ϯϮϲϭ ϭϳϴϬ ϯϱϭϲ ϰϱϲϭ ϯϳϱϲ ϮϮϬϬ ϰϬϮϰ ϱϭϰϳ ϮϯϱϬ ϰϱϱϰ ;<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳͿ ;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ ϭϰϵϳ

ϮϲϬϭ Ϯϳϳϴ ϯϭϴϱ ϰϯϲϭ

Ϯϱϰϳ Ϯϴϱϰ ϯϮϰϲ ϲϬϳϰ

ϭϬϳϭ ϮϮϱϰ ϭϱϬϬ Ϯϳϰϭ ϭϱϳϬ ϯϭϬϰ ϭϴϲϵ ϯϴϲϳ ;<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳͿ ;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ ϭϵϳϵ ;K͘^ĞǀŐŝϭϵϵϳͿ

ϮϮϬϴ Ϯϱϱϲ Ϯϴϲϰ ϯϴϰϲ

ϮϭϬϰ ϮϳϬϭ ϯϭϬϴ ϱϱϲϰ

ϰϳϰϭ ϱϭϱϲ ϲϭϲϳ

ϰϳϭϰ ϰϴϳϭ ϱϱϲϭ ϱϴϲϰ

ϰϱϲϭ ϰϳϱϰ ϰϴϲϯ ϰϵϵϮ

ϰϲϳϭ ϰϵϭϲ ϱϴϭϳ

ϰϰϰϳ ϰϱϲϭ ϰϴϳϴ ϱϯϳϰ

ϰϱϰϰ ϱϭϭϳ ϱϲϴϯ ϲϱϰϮ

ϱϬϭϱ ϱϱϲϳ ϲϭϵϯ ϲϱϭϮ

ϰϳϱϭ ϱϬϲϰ ϱϴϭϲ ϲϮϰϰ

ϰϴϭϳ D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ ϱϭϳϭ ΗΗΗ ϱϱϭϲ ΗΗΗ ϲϮϯϬ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ ϰϱϭϰ D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ ϱϬϬϰ ΗΗΗ ϰϵϵϭ ΗΗΗ ϱϵϭϮ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ

D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ ϰϯϰϬ ϰϰϳϭ D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ ϰϴϱϭ ϰϵϭϲ ΗΗΗ ϱϯϭϲ ϱϳϳϱ ΗΗΗ ϲϬϭϰ ϲϯϰϳ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

ϭϮϬϬ ϭϵϴϰ ϭϯϬϬ Ϯϯϰϳ ϭϰϱϬ Ϯϳϲϱ ϭϱϲϬ ϯϳϲϴ ϮϬϵϬ ϲϱϰϳ ;<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳͿ ;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ ϮϮϵϬ Ϯϯϰϵ ϯϬϬϬ Ϯϴϲϰ ϯϯϱϬ ϯϬϱϲ ;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ ϭϮϬϬ ϭϯϰϬ ϭϳϬϬ ϭϲϱϬ ϭϯϮϬ ϭϲϯϱ ϭϵϴϬ ϭϬϭϳ ϭϭϱϰ ϭϬϵϵ ϭϱϱϬ ϮϮϬϬ ϮϱϬϬ ϮϳϬϬ ϮϭϬϬ ϮϮϬϬ ϮϮϱϬ ϮϮϵϬ ϯϬϬϬ ϯϯϱϬ M. DOöAN KANTARCI

D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ P͘<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ P͘<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ P͘<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ P͘<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ P͘<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ P͘<ĂƌĂƂnjͲϭϵϵϳ ΗΗΗ ΗΗΗ

806

M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

Table 10. Sulphur content (ppm) Pinus nigra needles (1, 2, 3, year-old) at Deli Mountain, Kumludüz and Dede Mountain in Biga Peninsula-Turkey E>^ͬ>s^

^h>W,hZ

;^Ϳ ƉƉŵ

>Kd/KEE ^DW>/E'W>Kd^ >d/dh yWK^/d/KE

ŵ >7DKhEd/E

ϰϬϬ

<

dZ

'ĂŶĚ

'

zZ^

ϱϬͲϲϬ

ϭͬϭϵϵϵ

ϭϵϵϲ ϭϵϵϲ ϭϵϵϳ ϭϵϵϳ ϭϵϵϴ ϭϵϵϴ ϭϵϵϵ ϭϵϵϵ sͲs/

y

sͲs/

y

s/Ͳs//

y

sͲs/

ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ

y

ϰϴϰϲ ϰϵϭϮ D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

EKZd,^/

ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ

ϰϱϰϵ ϱϬϭϰ ϰϵϳϭ ϱϭϭϲ

ΗΗΗ

;ZKŽĨ

ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ϱϭϲϰ ϱϮϰϲ ϱϭϬϳ ϱϮϰϭ

ΗΗΗ

hmͿ

ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ

ϲϭϰϲ ϱϳϲϭ ϱϱϭϲ ϱϯϳϰ

ΗΗΗ

;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĂƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ >7DKhEd/E

ϰϱϬ

'

ϱϬͲϲϬ

ϰϵϵϮ ϰϭϴϬ D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

ϭͬϭϵϵϵ

^Khd,^/

ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ

ϰϴϭϰ ϰϭϮϰ ϱϰϵϮ ϱϬϭϮ

ΗΗΗ

;ZKŽĨ

ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ϱϬϮϱ ϰϯϭϲ ϱϵϴϳ ϱϯϬϴ

ΗΗΗ

hmͿ

ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ

ϱϮϭϰ ϰϲϳϰ ϲϮϭϴ ϱϱϲϬ

ΗΗΗ

ϱϯϭϲ ϰϵϰϮ

ΗΗΗ

ϰͬϭϵϵϱ

;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ hm

ϱϱϬ

m

ϯϬ

ϱϮϭϲ ϰϴϭϳ D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦͲϮϬϬϬ

ϭͬϭϵϵϵ

ZK^^ŽĨ

ϭͲϮͬϭϵϵϴ

ϰϳϵϭ ϰϯϬϳ ϱϳϴϰ ϰϵϭϯ

ΗΗΗ

hmĂŶĚ

ϮͲϯͬϭϵϵϳ

ϰϵϲϭ ϰϱϭϲ ϲϭϭϬ ϱϭϮϰ

ΗΗΗ

&/ZZK^

ϯͲϰͬϭϵϵϲ

ϱϰϱϳ ϰϵϳϯ ϲϯϮϰ ϱϱϲϮ

ΗΗΗ

ϱϳϴϰ ϱϮϱϰ

ΗΗΗ

ϰͬϭϵϵϱ

;D͘͘<ĂŶƚĂƌĐŦĞƚĂů͘ͲϮϬϬϬͿ DKhEd/E

ϲϬϬ

<

ϲϬͲϴϬ

EKZd,^/

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807

M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

Figure 7. Changes of sulphur contents on Pinus nigra needles (Age 1,2,3,4) in Uzunoluk and Ardıçbaúı Mountain to season and years

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Figure 9a: Effects of air pollution (SO2) over needles of Pinus nighra on Kazmountains.

M.DOöAN KANTARCI

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M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

Figure 9b: Effects of air pollution (SO2) over needles of Pinus nighra on Kazmountains.

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Figure 10: Effects of air pollution (SO2) over needles of Pinus nighra on Kazmountains

M. Dog˘an Kantarcı / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 19 (2011) 797–810

809

Figures reflect a more direct representation of the “real” impact of air pollution on forest trees in the region. Having been classified, and assessed together with the results of other researches, they are shown in Tables 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and in Figures 6, 7,8, 9, 10.

5. Conclusions (1) Mountainous land of Biga Peninsula has led to the formation of unique climatic features, significantly affecting the lives of living things. Structure, balance, and interaction of natural and human eco-systems may not be examined without knowing the interrelations between the land forms and climates. (2) Warming and aridification process in parallel with the increases in CO΍ rate in the atmosphere, can be ascertained from the average temperature and downfall calculations for the period of 1970 – 2006, conducted by the 4 meteorological stations nearby Biga Peninsula. (3) While the warming process in the summer months leads to a significant aridification effect, decrease of downfalls, and increase of temperatures in the winter months are also noteworthy developments. (4) Air pollution (especially SO΍ in gaseous form) has led to significant damages in the leaves and needles of the trees, and to sulphur accumulation. (5) Needles and leaves of the trees convert SO΍ gas into H΍SOΎ, and further into H΍SOΏ through oxidation of the SO΍ gas. H΍SOΏ damages chlorophyllose cells. (6) Damage of chlorophyllose cells in the needles and leaves leads to a decrease in the annual increase in the tree rings (narrow annual circle formation), insufficiency of carbohydrate production necessary for the respiration of trees. Tree death especially observed in fire trees (Abies equitrojani), is a process resulting from the SO΍, warming and aridification (Ecological sensitivity). (7) Increases in temperatures in the summer months escalate water losses from the soils by way of evaporation, and from the leaves and needles by way transpiration (Increase in evapo-transpiration). Death among the forest trees, especially among those in the growing environments with soils of shallow and medium depths, or infestation depends on the aridity. (8) Recent SO΍ among the gases emitted to the atmosphere by Çan Thermal Power Station, not only harms the leaves and needles of trees, it is also at a level to affect the pollination of female flowers, and fruit and seed crops. For the burning of brown coal with high level of combustible sulphur at fluidized-bed burning systems, Ca/S (Calcium/Sulphur) ratio is of great importance. It is hard to attain this ratio, and Ca/S balance in the coals from Çan. (9) Effect of warming and aridification process on the species composition of forests and on other natural plant communities has not been clarified yet. It has been suggested that, vertical climate zones have ascended up to 50 – 100 m. Warming and aridification process has affected both the types and amounts of the evaporative resin compositions in the needles of Black Pines (Pinus nigra), particularly those in the slopes with southern and western exposures. Such ascension has been associated to the infestation of Thaumetopoea pityocampa caterpillar in Mediterranean Basin. (Our research studies are included in the References). In conclusion, forests of Biga Peninsula and rich species diversity are under the consistent negative effects of air pollution and warming and aridification process. At a time of escalating ecological sensitivity, unbalancing natural ecosystems will cause irreparable outcomes and damages.

References [1] Bayçu, G. 1997, Effects of Acidic Precipitation on the Coniferous Species of Kaz Mountains in Biga Peninsula. Air Quality Management at Urban, Regional and Global Scales. Environmental Research Forum Vols. 7-8,(525-529). Edit. S.øncecik, E.Ekinci, F.Yardım, A.Bayram. Trans tech Publications Switzerland [2] Kantarcı, M.D. 1997: Biga Yarımadasındaki Ekolojik Faktörler ile A÷aç Türlerinin Yayılıúı Arasındaki øliúkiler, Yerleúim ve Çevre Sorunları Çanakkale øli 9-13 Eylül 1996 [3] Çanakkale, (Yayınlayan: Filibeli, A.), øzmir Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Mühendislik Mimarlık Fakültesi Basımevi, (28), øzmir. [4] Kantarcı, M.D.- Sevgi, O. 1998, Biga Yarımadası’nda yetiúme ortamı bölgesel özellikleri ile a÷aç ve çalı türlerinin yayılıúı arasındaki iliúkiler. ø.Ü.Araútırma Fonu tarafından desteklenmiú 881/090896 nu’lı Araútırma Projesi. [5] Kantarcı, M.D., Karaöz, M.Ö. (1998), Biga Yarımadası ve Çevresinde Hava Kirlili÷inin Orman A÷açları ve Biyolojik Çeúitlili÷e Etkisi Üzerine Araútırmalar Kasnak Meúesi ve Türkiye Florası Sempozyumu, 21-23 Eylül 1998, Bahçeköy, (499-520), øst. Üni. Orman Fakültesi Orman Botani÷i Abd. yayını. Çantay Kitabevi-østanbul. [6] Kantarcı, M.D. Karaöz, Ö., (1999), Air Pollution Impacts on Forests In Turkey, 10th International Symposium on Environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region (MESAEP), 26 October, Alicante- Spain. [7] Kantarcı, M.D., Kayaöz, B., Tecimen, H.B., Sevgi, O., Tokgöz, N.,(2000), Çan Çevresindeki Da÷lık Arazide Orman A÷açlarına ve Topraklara Hava Kirlili÷inin Etkisinin Mevsimlik De÷iúimi Üzerine Araútırmalar. ø.Ü. Araútırma Fonu tarafından desteklenmiú 1065 / 031297 nu.lı Araútırma Projesi. [8] Kantarcı, M.D. 2000, Biga Yarımadası’nda Hava Kirlili÷inin Ormanlara Etkisi, 1. Ulusal Çevre Kirlili÷i ve Kontrolü Sempozyumu Kitabı, (174183), ODTÜ Çevre Mühendisli÷i Bölümü, Ekim 2000,Ankara.

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[9] Kantarcı, M. D., Kayaöz, B., Tecimen, H. B, Sevgi, O., Tokgöz, N., (2000), The Effect Air Pollution on Forest in Biga Peninsula. 3rd Internationa Conference of Balkan Environmental Association (B.EN.A) “Transboundary Pollution” Abstracts (53-54) (23- 26. November. 2000, Bükreú Romanya. [10] Kantarcı, M.D. (2001, The Effect of Air Pollution on Forests in Biga Peninsula, Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology (JEPE), ISSN 1311-5065, Vol. 4, No.2, (806-818), Sofya-Bulgaristan. [11] Kantarcı, M.D. 2007, øklim de÷iúikli÷i sürecinde Çatalca ve Kocaeli yarımadalarındaki sıcaklık artıúının øzmit øúletmesi ormanlarında çam kese böce÷i zararları ile iliúkisi üzerine araútırmalar. (Researches on the Relation of the Harms of the Thaumetopoea pityocampa in the Forests of øzm enterprise and the Increase of the Temperature in Çatalca and Kocaeli Peninsula in the Climate Change Process) [12] Kantarcı, M. D. 2009, a review of the previous studies (1983-2009) based on the effects of so2, one of the local or transboundary pollutants on th forests of Turkey T.C.østanbul Kültür Üniversitesi yayın. nu. 99 ISBN-978-605-4233-02-1 (21-38)-Golden Medya Matbaacılık ve Ticaret A.ù.østanbul [13] Kantarcı, M.D. 2011,øklim de÷iúimi ve kuraklaúma sürecinde Ergene Havzası’nda su ihtiyacının artıúı ile su kaynaklarının korunması, konusunda de÷erlendirmeler. 5th Atmospheric Science Symposium - ATMOS 2011-Istanbul Technical University – SDKM-27-29,.4.2011 [14] Karaöz, M.Ö. 1997, Kazda÷ı ormanlarındaki a÷aç türlerinde görülen kurumalar ile yapraklardaki kükürt miktarları arasındaki iliúkiler. Yerleúim v Çevre Sorunları Çanakkale øl’i Sempozyumu kitabı).9-12.9.1996, Edit. A.Filibeli, Dokuz Eylül Üni. Müh. Fak. Basımevi-øzmir. [15] Karaöz, M.Ö.1997, Sulphur concentrations of Forest Tree Leaves on Mountainous Area of Biga Peninsula in Turkey. Air Quality Management a Urban, Regional and Global Scales Environmental Research Forum vol.7-8 (530-535). Edit. S.øncecik, E.Ekinci, F.Yardım, A. Bayram. Trans Tech Publications Switzerland. [16] Sevgi, O. 1997, Sulphur amounts of Epiphytic Lichen (Parmalia furfuracea L./Ach.) on high Mountains Area in Biga Peninsula. Air Quality Management at Urban, Regional and Global Scales Environmetal Research Forum vol. 7-8 (522-524). Edit. S.øncecik, E.Ekinci, F.Yardım, A. Bayram. Trans Tech Publication Switzerland. [17] Sevgi,O. 2001, Sulphur amounts of some Eriphytic Lichens on Kazda÷ı Mountain. Proceedings of Second International Symposium on Air Quali Management at Urban, Regional and Global Scales, 25-28 September 2001 ISBN 975 561 193 2 (112-117), Istanbul-Turkey. [18] ùahin, Ö. - Kantarcı, M. D. 2010; Ankara iklimindeki ısınma / kuraklaúma sürecinde ODTÜ- Atatürk Ormanındaki a÷açların ibrelerinde ve ökse otlarının yapraklarında kükürt miktarları ile entomolojik zararlılar ve a÷açların sa÷lık durumları/geliúmeleri arasında iliúkiler. [19] Tokgöz, N. 2010, Numerical Analysis of Worldwide CO2 Emissions and Effects on Atmospheric Warming in Turkey. Energy Sources, Part A, 3 (769–783) Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, ISSN: 1556-7036. print