Vitamin Supplements for Low Grade Alfalfa Meal

Vitamin Supplements for Low Grade Alfalfa Meal

Research Notes Protein Dehydrated alfalfa meal (both 17 and 20 percent protein) occasionally produces a laxative condition among young chicks when in...

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Research Notes Protein

Dehydrated alfalfa meal (both 17 and 20 percent protein) occasionally produces a laxative condition among young chicks when incorporated in the starting mash at the rate of 10.percent of the mixture. Sun cured alfalfa when fed at the same level in tests at Kansas State College has not produced a similar condition. The fact that sun cured hay may be deficient


Vit. A RiboPotency flavin Units/# Units/#

Dehydrated Alf. Meal 17.44 98,000 Low grade sun cured Alf. Hay 13.94 12,800

Fiber Percent





The second phase of this problem was approached by using a substitute for alfalfa, having about the same percentage of crude protein, crude fiber, and the same

TABLE 1.—Ingredients wed to prepare the alfalfa meal substitute Nutrients contributed by each ingredient Ingredients Bagasse* Soy bean oil meal Vitamin A concentrate** Synthetic riboflavin Total

Amount Used (Wt.)

Pounds Crude Protein

Pounds Crude Fiber

Units , Vitamin A

Units Riboflavin

64 lbs. 27.6 8.4 464 mg. 100 lbs.

2 11.6 3.5

20 1.7 .5

4,660 9,850,000




38,400 102,000 464,000 604,400

* A sugar cane by-product used as a source of crude fiber. ** A commercial vitamin A product, with a liver soya base.

in both carotene and riboflavin suggested the advisability of supplementing this product with vitamins A and G to compare results with rations containing dehydrated alfalfa meal which ranks high as a source of both of the above vitamins. Another objective of this study was to ascertain whether alfalfa meal possessed any nutritional value lacking in the basal ration other than that of vitamins A and G. To obtain further information on the first question a representative sample of dehydrated alfalfa meal (17 percent protein) and a low grade sun cured, second cutting alfalfa hay both 1944 crops, was analyzed by the Department of Chemistry with the following results:

potency of vitamin A and riboflavin. Th° ingredients used in preparing this substitute for dehydrated alfalfa and the amount of the four nutrients being considered are given in table 1. To compare the nutritive value of the above ingredients four lots of 100 New Hampshire baby chicks each were started on four different rations November 7,1944 as given in table 2. The ration in lot 1, has been used for chickens of all ages at Kansas State College for several years. The vitamin G content is slightly lower than that usually recommended for growing chicks. The ration for lot 2, was similar to lot 1, except that vitamin G was increased to 1807 units per pound of mash feed. In lot 3,


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RESEARCH NOTES TABLE 2.—Ingredients and amount of each used in rations fed the different lots.




20 lbs. 20 lbs. 20 lbs. 12 lbs. 10 lbs.

20 lbs. 20 lbs. 20 lbs. 12 lbs. 10 lbs.

— — 5 5 5 2 1

10 gms.

17.54 6.36 1.817 .824 2.19 10,570 1,807 400

20 20 20 12

10 lbs.

— —

5 lbs. 5 lbs. 5 lbs. 2 lbs. lib. .75 1b. 20 gms. 55.1 mg. 10 gms.

20 gms. 49.5 mg. 10 gms.

lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.

20 gms.


5 lbs. 5 lbs. 5 lbs. 2 lbs. lib.

10 percent of sun cured alfalfa meal was substituted for an equal amount of dehydrated meal and both vitamins A and G were increased to the level used in lot 2. The last lot received 10 percent of the substitute for alfalfa meal, with about the same amount of vitamins A and G as used in the two previous lots. The chicks were reared under electric hovers with all other conditions and management practices uniform. They received the above mashes until 4 weeks of age after which the mashes and whole wheat were hopper fed until 12 weeks of

20 20 20 12


lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lb.

17.54 6.36 1,817 .824 2.19 10,570 1,295 400


17.19 7.02 1.817 .824 2.19 10,600 1,807 400

lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.

10 lbs. 5 lbs. 5 lbs. 5 lbs. 2 lbs. lib. .841b. 20 gms. 49.5 mg. 10 gms. 17.50 6.25 1.705 .837 2.04 10,620 1,816 400

age when the experiment was terminated. Some of the results including the weighted mean weights by 4 week periods are given in table 3. There was less mortality and slightly greater gains in lot 3 receiving the lowgrade alfalfa fortified with vitamins A and G and in lot 4 receiving the alfalfa substitute than in lots 1 and 2 receiving the dehydrated alfalfa meal. From these results it may be concluded that the fortified low-grade alfalfa and the alfalfa substitute were as efficient in supplementing the basal ration as the dehydrated alfalfa

TABLE 3.—Weights of broilers, mortality, feed consumed, costs and income above feed and chick cost. Average Wt. Lbs.


4 weeks of age 8 weeks of age 12 weeks of age Percent Mortality to 12 wks. Total feed per bird to 12 wks. Cost of fed per bird Cost of chicks Cost of feed and chicks Income per live bird at 28ff per lb. above feed & chick cost





.587 1.627 2.80 12 10.61 lbs. 27.7?! 13 40.7?!

.582 1.626 2.84 12 10.20 lbs. 26.7s* 13 39.7?!

.614 1.671 3.08 5 11.02 lbs. 30.9?! 13 43.9?!

.632 1.669 3.00 2 10.53 lbs. 30.1?! 13 43. U





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Yellow corn, ground Wheat, ground Barley, ground Wheat bran Alf. meal, dehyd, 17% P Alf. meal, sun cured Alf. meal substitute Meat & bone scraps Fish meal Soy bean oil meal Calcium Carbonate Salt Vitamin A Concentrate** (1,362,000 U/lb.) Vitamin D Concentrate (900,000 U/lb.) Synthetic Riboflavin Manganese sulphate Chemical Composition Protein Fiber Calcium Phosphorus Ca/P ratio Vit. A I. U/lb. Vit. G U/lb. Vit. D U/lb.



It is the intention to repeat these preliminary results using another vitamin A concentrate. These four rations are now being used in four lots of laying and breeding pullets. L. F. PAYNE M. J. CALDWELL J. S. HUGHES Department of Poultry Husbandry, Department of Chemistry, Kansas State College, Manhattan, Kansas Received for publication, March 1, 1945.

A NOTE ON THE VALUE OF STICKWATER MEAL AS A RIBOFLAVIN SUPPLEMENT IN POULTRY RATIONS In the manufacture of fishmeals by the wet-process method, a great deal of the valuable water-soluble fraction of the meal is usually lost in the effluent, and generally discarded (Beall, 1933). Since this fraction would be expected to be rich in the water-soluble vitamins as well as the soluble proteins, it seemed to value to investigate the possibility of using the extractives as supplements to the poultry ration. Stickwater is the name applied to the effluent remaining when the oil has been separated from the liquid pressed from the cooked fish during the process of manufacture of fishmeal by the wet-method. Until 1940, this liquid was largely a wasteproduct, because during the process of conversion to a meal, the water-soluble proteins contained in the liquid tended to cake on the hot surface of the drier to form a hard, tough, insulating coating that prevented complete dehydration. However, under a method developed and patented by Lassen (1940), this material can now be converted into a meal suitable for incorporation into mashes. During the summer of 1940, as part of a larger study of the nutritive value of pro-

tein supplements, an experiment was designed to test the biological value of stickwater meal (prepared under laboratory conditions), with growing chicks. In order to make valid comparisons of this meal with other fish products, two other meals were included in the trial: the first, TABLE 1.—Composition of basal ration Fish Oil (100D-1000A) Salt Limestone, Bone flour Middlings Bran.... Ground oats Corn meal Ground wheat Soybean meal

'.. ,

1.0 1.0 1.5 .5 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 36.0 20.0 lOO'.O

a meal prepared from whole fish (herring meal, used extensively in poultry feeding in British Columbia); and the other, a sample prepared from the waste of the edible portion of the fish (salmon meal, prepared from cannery trimmings). The experimental rations were compared with a control ration containing soybean meal as the protein supplement, to which synthetic riboflavin was added

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meal. The nutrients common to those three supplements were vitamins A and G. From this it may be concluded that the principle value of dehydrated alfalfa in this ration was its vitamin A and G content. The. vitamin. A concentrate which constituted 0.75% of the mash in lot 3 and 0.84% of mash in lot 4 contained an unknown amount of liver preparation. This small amount of liver may have been responsible for some of the beneficial results obtained in these lots.