Wear analysis of ultra-fine grain coated carbide tools in hard turning of AISI 420C stainless steel

Wear analysis of ultra-fine grain coated carbide tools in hard turning of AISI 420C stainless steel

Wear 376-377 (2017) 172–177 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Wear journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/wear Case Study Wear analysis...

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Wear 376-377 (2017) 172–177

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Wear journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/wear

Case Study

Wear analysis of ultra-fine grain coated carbide tools in hard turning of AISI 420C stainless steel Guilherme C. Rosa, André J. Souza, Elizeu V. Possamai, Heraldo J. Amorim, Patric D. Neis n Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Machining Automation Laboratory, Brazil

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history: Received 3 September 2016 Received in revised form 17 January 2017 Accepted 23 January 2017

Hardened AISI 420C stainless steel is a material used in surgical and dental tools due to its mechanical properties, allied with corrosion resistance. However, despite its advantages, this material presents poor machinability. Also, practitioners have often found difficulties using this material due to the lack of information concerning its behavior in machining processes, especially after heat treatment. The present paper investigates tool wear and wear mechanisms involved in hard turning of AISI 420C stainless steel with TiAlN coated ultra-fine grain carbide tool under different cutting conditions. Tool life tests were carried out using different feed rate and cutting speed levels. Machining tests were periodically interrupted in order to evaluate flank wear. The surface finish of the machined parts were evaluated throughout tool life, and the tools were analyzed through both optical and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM/EDS). Test results indicate influence of both cutting speed and feed rate over tool life. After reaching the tool life criterion of 0.2 mm flank wear, SEM microscopy evidenced abrasive wear for all tested conditions. Delamination of tool coating and crater wear were observed in some specific tested conditions. EDS analysis revealed significant amounts of iron and chrome adhered on all tools and oxygen at the highest cutting speed, indicating oxidation wear mechanism. The observation of built up edge in some tested conditions along with extensive adhesion suggests the occurrence of attrition wear mechanism over tool life. & 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Tool wear analysis Hardened AISI 420C stainless steel TiAlN coated carbide tool

1. Introduction Stainless steels are among the leading materials utilized in manufacturing of critical parts for chemical and power plants, due to the combination of good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance [1]. Martensitic stainless steels were the first class of stainless steels to be discovered, which occurred almost simultaneously in England and Germany. These materials differentiate from the other stainless groups due to their chromium content higher than 12%, which allows virtually 100% martensitic microstructure at any cooling rate, and are specified for applications where good tensile strength, creep and fatigue resistance are desired with moderate corrosion resistance at temperatures up to 650° [2]. High carbon martensitic stainless steels such as AISI 420C and AISI 440C are used in order to improve mechanical properties from AISI 420 and AISI 440, which occurs at the expense of corrosion resistance. High carbon stainless steels such as AISI 420C are usually employed for manufacturing components to operate at moderate temperatures with good mechanical properties allied with corrosion resistance [3]. n

Corresponding author.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2017.01.088 0043-1648/& 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

AISI 420C is a high carbon martensitic stainless steel reported to be ideal for manufacturing precision components such as cutlery utensils, spindles, pump and valve parts, plastic molds and glass industry [4,5]. Due to its good machinability, AISI 420C steel is also commonly employed in surgical instruments [6]. Hardened martensitic stainless steels are usually processed through grinding or turning. While the former is the most common finishing process for hard materials, extensive research is being developed aiming to substitute hard turning for grinding, thus allowing manufacturing of more complex parts, with higher removal rate and lower energy waste [7]. Since carbides are more abrasive than martensite, steels with large amounts of carbides are prone to increase tool wear [8]. Due to the high Cr in their composition, martensitic stainless steels have low carbide content, resulting in better machinability, justifying the recommendation of some tool manufacturers to use cutting conditions similar to low alloy steels [9]. However, machining of stainless steels is usually related to irregular wear and built up edge (BUE), leading both to flank and crater wear [10]. Despite its desirable mechanical properties and relatively good machinability, the research concerning hard turning of AISI 420C and other materials from the same class is incipient, and focus mainly on CBN hard turning [11–13]. However, CBN tool

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performances are not always superior to carbide and cermet tools. Tests comparing the performance of PCBN-H and carbide tools in turning of W320 steel resulted in better tool lives to carbide tools at cutting speeds up to 120 m min-1, while PCBN-H tools showed superior tool lives at higher cutting speeds, up to 200 m  min-1. The authors concluded that CBN tools are susceptible to high wear at low speeds due to chipping [14]. Process parameters have strong influence over the active wear mechanisms during machining. Turning of 245 and 330 HRB AISI 1045 and AISI 5140 with TiN coated carbide tool indicated adhesion and micro-chipping, with unstable BUE formation, as the main wear mechanisms at low cutting speeds (10–50 m min-1), while diffusion wear and thermal fatigue became more severe with the increase of cutting speeds (100–250 m min-1), even with a decrease in cutting force [15]. This often leads to premature tool failure, which explains the limited application of carbide tools in hard turning [16]. In this paper, an investigation is carried out concerning the wear mechanisms involved in hard turning of AISI 420C martensitic stainless steel with ultra-fine TiAlN coated carbide tools. Additionally, tool life and surface finishing of machined parts are evaluated, aiming the clarification of the active wear mechanisms in this process.

2. Experimental procedures The experiments were carried out in quenched-tempered AISI 420C martensitic stainless steel workpieces with (53 72) HRC hardness. Table 1 shows material composition, evaluated through mass spectrometry in a SpectroLab LVFA 18B mass spectrometer. All tests were performed using Mazak Quick Turn Nexus 100-II CNC lathe. Preliminary tests with PCBN tools resulted in premature tool failure at low cutting speeds, with chipping observed in turning with cutting speeds below 100 m min-1. Due to the unusual combination of hardness and work hardening rate of AISI 420C, a TiAlN-PVD coated carbide tool, with higher toughness than usual for hard machining of steels was selected in order to avoid microchipping. Similar tool was used by Noordin et al. [17], for mild hard turning of stainless steel. This insert belong to class “S”, recommended for rough or finishing external turning of heat resistant alloys based on Fe, Ni, Co and Ti, and is composed by hard ultra-fine grained substrate of tungsten carbide (WC) with HN substrate. The unique thin PVD (TiAlN) coating provides high hot hardness, wear resistance and reduced friction. This coating also acts as a diffusion barrier. The insert designation is TNMG 160404SF 1105. A DTJNL 2020K16 tool holder was used throughout the study. The experiment consisted on external cylindrical turning tool life tests. Depth of cut was kept constant at 0.4 mm in all tests. Both cutting speed (vc) and feed rate (f) were evaluated at three levels with the former varying from 50 to 70 m min-1 and the latter from 0.08 to 0.12 mm rev-1. Each test used a new insert, with nine different cutting conditions evaluated. During tool life tests, machining was periodically interrupted for the evaluation of flank wear (VB) with a USB Dino-Lite AM-413ZT microscope and surface finish of machined part with a Mitutoyo SJ-201 surface roughness tester. The investigation of tool wear mechanisms was performed Table 1 Chemical Composition of AISI 420C Stainless Steel. %Fe

%C

%Cr

%Ni

%Mn

%Si

%Mo

%P

%S

85

0.35

13

1.00

1.00

0.98

0.98

0.04

0.03

173

through scanning electronic microscopy and Energy Dispersive System (SEM/EDS) with an EVO MA10 SEM.

3. Results and discussion Tool life is influenced by workpiece material, cutting and lubrication conditions, and its determination is based on a tool life criterion usually based on predetermined surface damage [18]. According to Benlahmidi et al. [19], flank wear, crater wear, excessive chipping and tool fracture are the tool-end criteria in hard turning. In this work, tool life (T) was limited by a VB ¼ 0.2 mm. Fig. 1 presents tool wear versus cutting time for the tested conditions. As expected, the increase of cutting speed resulted in faster wear rate (and smaller tool lives) for all tested feed rates. Similar effect was observed with feed rate (f), with reduction of tool lives related to the increase of f. Variance analysis (ANOVA) results (Fig. 2) indicates significant influence of both tested parameters on tool life. Cutting speed showed stronger influence over tool life than feed rate. Fig. 3 presents tools used with f¼ 0.10 mm rev-1 and cutting speeds of 50 (a) and 70 m min-1 (b) after achieving VB ¼0.2 mm. Abrasive wear is implied by the grooves in tool flank. The increase of cutting speed and feed rate to the highest evaluated levels results in accelerated wear and thus smaller tool life. This condition makes temperature to rise, triggering different wear mechanisms [19]. Inspection of tool rake face after tool life testing with f¼ 0.10 mm rev-1 and vc ¼70 m min-1 shows geometrical irregularities, indicating cratering, possibly related to diffusion and abrasion mechanisms, and notch wear. Crater wear was identified in all tests performed with f ¼ 0.12 mm rev-1. It occurred in the vicinities of the tool edge, starting from tool nose, with measured areas of 0.01 and 0.02 mm2 for tests performed with vc ¼50 and 60 m min-1. Accurate measurement of crater area was not possible in tests performed at 70 m min-1 due to the occurrence of extensive notch wear in the crater path and the extensive end clearance wear, which partially eliminated the region where cratering was supposed to occur. Coating delamination was observed on rake face after all tests performed with vc ¼60 m min-1 and for tests performed with vc ¼ 70 m min-1 and feed rates of 0.10 and 0.12 mm rev-1. This effect was already reported for the machining of martensitic stainless steel with coated carbide tools and associated with attrition wear mechanism [20,21]. Extensive end clearance wear was also identified in the tests performed with vc ¼70 m min-1 for the higher feed rates, surpasses flank wear and reaching 0.33 mm and 0.29 mm for f ¼0.10 and 0.12 mm rev-1, respectively.SEM analysis (Fig. 4) also allows identification of wear grooves. Probable explanations for the formation of these grooves are the abrasive action of martensitic matrix [22] and the removal of tool binder by hard carbides from workpiece material [23]. EDS analysis was performed in different points over tool flank, revealing high Fe and Cr content at all tested conditions and thus indicating material transfer from workpiece to tool. Fig. 4(b) shows adhered Fe layers after machining with f ¼0.10 mm rev-1 and vc ¼70 m min-1. These adhered layers can lead the occurrence of attrition mechanism, were adhered material is periodically removed, extracting particles of tool material. The lack of Ti and Al and the presence of W in several points over tool flank indicate the removal of coating, possibly through attrition and abrasion. Fig. 5 shows SEM of tool flank after machining with f ¼0.08 mm rev-1. Adhered material was also identified in tools after machining with these conditions. The composition in tool flank was measured in different points through EDS, and the elements identified in amounts above 10 wt% are listed from highest to lowest. BUE was observed in several conditions. Significant

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50 m/min

50 m/min

60 m/min

60 m/min

60 m/min

70 m/min

70 m/min

0.2

0.1

0

0.3

VB [mm]

VB [mm]

0.3

0.4

0.4

50 m/min

0.2

100

200

300

Cutting Time[min]

(a)

400

0

0.2

0.1

0.1

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70 m/min

0.3 VB [mm]

0.4

0

100

200 300 Cutting Time[min]

400

(b)

0

0

100

200

300

Cutting Time[min]

(c)

Fig. 1. Flank wear (VB) versus cutting time for the tested conditions: (a) f ¼0.08 mm rev-1; (b) f¼ 0.10 mm rev-1 and (c) f¼ 0.12 mm rev-1.

Fig. 2. ANOVA for cutting time (T): (a) main effects; (b) interactions.

Fig. 3. Images of flank face, tool nose and rake face of tools machined with f¼ 0.10 mm rev-1: (a) vc ¼50 m min-1; (b) vc ¼70 m min-1.

400

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175

Fig. 4. SEM of tool flank wear for f ¼0.10 mm rev-1: (a) vc ¼ 50 m min-1 and (b) vc ¼ 70 m min-1.

Fig. 5. SEM of tool flank wear for f¼ 0.08 mm rev-1: (a) vc ¼ 50 m min-1, (b) vc ¼ 60 m min-1, (c) vc ¼ 70 m min-1.

amounts of oxygen were observed in tool flank after machining with vc ¼70 m min-1, indicating influence of the oxidation wear mechanism and contributing to the growth of notch wear (highlighted region of Fig. 5c). Fig. 6 shows BUE after tests performed with two machining conditions (vc ¼ 60 m  min-1 with f ¼0.10 mm rev-1 and vc ¼70 m min-1 with f¼ 0.12 mm rev-1). SEM/EDS analysis of tools (Fig. 7) indicates high Fe content in both tools, with the formation of thick adhered layers. Despite the fact that BUE was not clearly identified in other tested conditions, occurrence of intermittent BUE cannot be discarded. The formation of BU layers is an important phenomenon involved in the attrition wear mechanism. However, adhering material often completely conceals the worn surface, which can make the evaluation of worn surface misleading [24]. According to Diniz et al. [25], attrition is an important wear mechanism in continuous cutting of steels before quenching and tempering (i.e., in soft and ductile condition), being caused by extrusion of workpiece material between tool and workpiece, with consequent adhesion on the flank face. The authors point that this process may be

accompanied by abrasion which, after removal of coating layers, increases the friction coefficient, thus favoring material adhesion and attrition. The high amount of elements from the workpiece in flank face of the worn tools after machining with all tested conditions indicates adhesion, which can lead to attrition. This wear mechanism is mostly observed during machining with low cutting speeds [20,24], and was found to have strong influence in tool lives in machining of martensitic stainless steels [21,24,26–28]. Thus, attrition wear mechanism should not be discarded as one of the wear mechanisms involved in hard turning of AISI 420C steel with carbide tool in the evaluated conditions. Average (Ra) and total (Rt) roughness were evaluated in order to clarify the influence of process parameters and flank wear on surface finish of machined workpieces. Fig. 8 presents the main effects for both roughness parameters (Ra and Rt). Results indicate strong influence of flank wear on roughness parameters, with both increasing as flank wear progresses. The increase of feed rate leads to an increase in average roughness Ra. However, the same parameter showed no significant influence over Rt. Variance analysis (95% confidence interval) indicated no

Fig. 6. BUE: (a) vc ¼60 m min-1 and f¼ 0.10 mm rev-1; (b) vc ¼70 m min-1 and f ¼0.12 mm rev-1.

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Fig. 7. SEM of tool flank: (a) vc ¼ 60 m  min-1 and f¼ 0.10 mm rev-1; (b) vc ¼70 m min-1 and f ¼0.12 mm rev-1.

Fig. 8. Main effects plot for surface roughness: (a) average roughness Ra; (b) total roughness Rt.

significant influence of cutting speed over the surface finish parameters. Fig. 9 shows average surface roughness (Ra) versus flank wear (VB) for all tested conditions. The influence of VB over Ra on surface leads to the increase average roughness in all tests, with the test carried out with vc ¼ 70 m min-1 with f ¼0.12 mm rev-1, were a decrease of average roughness from VB ¼0.1 mm towards tool life is observed, as the only exception. A possible cause for this behavior is the increase of effective tool nose radius caused by end clearance wear. The largest increase of average roughness was observed with vc ¼ 70 m min-1 and f ¼0.10 mm rev-1, resulting in an increase of 185% along tool life.

4. Conclusions The results allowed to verify the performance of class S TiAlN coated ultra-fine grained carbide tool in hard turning of quenchedtempered AISI 420C martensitic stainless steel with (537 2) HRC and the effect of process parameters over tool life. Moreover, analysis of flank face of worn tools contributed to clarify the acting wear mechanisms in this process. Cutting speed showed strong influence over tool life, with its increase causing the decline of tool life. Weaker influence was observed for feed rate, with increasing feed rates reducing tool lives. Highest tool lives were observed for tests performed with vc ¼50 m min-1. However, tests performed at this cutting speed

2.4

2.4

1.6

1.6

1.6

Ra [µm]

Ra [µm]

Ra [µm]

2.4

0

0.8

0.8

0.8

0

0.1 Flank Wear [mm]

(a)

50 m/min

50 m/min

50 m/min

60 m/min

60 m/min

60 m/min

70 m/min

70 m/min

0.2

0

0

0.1

70 m/min

0

0.2

0

Flank Wear [mm]

0.1 Tool Flank Wear [mm]

(b)

(c) -1

-1

Fig. 9. Average surface roughness variation with tool flank wear. (a) f¼ 0.08 mm rev ; (b) f ¼0.10 mm rev ; (c) f¼ 0.12 mm rev-1.

0.2

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showed extensive adhesion of machined material on the tool flank. SEM/EDS analysis revealed significant amounts of Fe and Cr in the flank face of the tools for all tested conditions. Regardless of cutting speed, higher amounts of adhered material were found on the flank face after machining with f¼ 0.08 mm rev-1. This could make this feed rate unsuitable for hard turning of AISI 420C with the selected tool. However, both tool life and surface finish indicate the opposite, since this condition allowed high tool life with no impairment of surface finish. The adopted tool life criterion for the tests was based on flank wear, and this was the main type of wear observed in most tested conditions. Crater wear was identified in tests performed with f ¼0.12 mm rev-1. Coating delamination occurred in rake face after machining with the highest cutting speed for all feed rates except 0.08 mm rev-1. Extensive end-clearance wear was also observed in these conditions. The high amount of adhered material indicates attrition and abrasion as active tool wear mechanisms in hard turning of AISI 420C steel for all tested conditions. SEM showed abrasive wear and detachment of fragments in all evaluated conditions. However, clear identification of attrition wear was not possible due to the extensive amount of adhered material. Significant amount of oxygen and iron were found in tool flank after machining using vc ¼70 m min-1 with f ¼0.08 and 0.12 mm rev-1, which indicate the occurrence of oxidation wear mechanism. Despite no significant amount of oxygen was found after machining with this cutting speed and f ¼0.10 mm rev-1, the occurrence of notch wear also suggests oxidation in this condition. Average and total roughness parameters are important to verify the tool life based on the surface quality, since the roughness profiles are affected as tool wear progresses. Different behaviors were observed for the surface finish parameters related to the tested conditions. A decrease of average roughness was identified from VB ¼0.1 mm to the adopted tool life criterion after machining with vc ¼ 70 m min-1 and f¼ 0.12 mm rev-1, whose probable explanation is the increase of tool nose radius due to the extensive clearance wear. No significant influence was found between cutting speed and the surface finish parameters.

[5]

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[21]

Acknowledgements [22]

The authors thank to Sandvik Coromant for the donation of cutting tools and to CAPES for the Ph.D. scholarship.

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