Webster's medical dictionary

Webster's medical dictionary

206 J. Dent. 1989; 17: No. 4 Transitional years-6 to 12’ and ‘Adolescence’, a pattern adopted on the basis that each age group has its own specific...

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206

J. Dent. 1989;

17: No. 4

Transitional years-6 to 12’ and ‘Adolescence’, a pattern adopted on the basis that each age group has its own specific problems. They point out, for instance, that until recently the dental needs of the infant and very small child have been largely neglected and they therefore include a section to encourage dentists to start preventive programmes for them. Each section opens with a chapter entitled ‘The Dynamics of Change’ and goes on to discuss the aspects of patient assessment prevention, restorative dentistry, space management and management of the developing dentition. Subjects such as the treatment of injuries and pulp therapy are covered in the most appropriate section. The result is authoritative and comprehensive. Because of the unusual layout it is sometimes necessary to refer to different chapters to cover some of the subjects dealt with. The authors recognize this and give a list of themes together with their locations within the book to enable rapid reference. Nor would it have been surprising, given the format, if there had been no repetition, but this is minimal and never obtrusive. Use is made of tables and diagrams to summarize the information given in the narrative. These are clear and will be helpful for the revising student In discussing the most vexing subject of fissure caries, not enough emphasis is placed on assessment of patient susceptibility to caries; instead the criteria for deciding whether to seal a fissure, or carry out a preventive resin, or amalgam restoration tend to be ‘tooth based’. Many would also question the use of a probe to examine fissures in young teeth. The occasional use of unfamiliar terminology, particularly the names of drugs, is a common problem in American textbooks and it is unfortunate to find the term ‘AIDS’ is still used rather than HIV in relation to haemophilia. With such an unusual approach, a good index is essential and this book deserves a special mention for its accuracy and comprehensiveness, a feature which makes its use as a reference book particularly valuable. The bibliography and references, on the other hand, were a little patchy. ‘Paediatric Dentistry’ is probably the most comprehensive textbook available at present, and is suitable both for advanced students, particularly those undertaking postgraduate study, and those practitioners who wish to extend their knowledge and understanding of whole-patient care for children. B. Scheer Partial Removable Prosthodontics. F. J. Kratochvil. Pp. 207. 1988. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders. Softback, f 19.95. The publishers describe this as one of their ‘core’ textbooks in dentistry. It certainly contains much valuable advice and stimulating comment, but as the author states in his preface, it is an individual approach and is not intended as a reference textbook for evaluating and describing other philosophies. The first section of the book is concerned with the basic principles of treatment, many of which are discussed well, notably the design and positioning of rest seats, guiding surfaces and direct retainers. The junctional area between teeth and soft tissue rightly receives emphasis, although to meet the design requirements expounded, extensive alteration of tooth contour might be required. Also highlighted is the need to position components so that the artificial teeth can be aesthetically positioned, a fact often forgotten unless the teeth are tried in on a temporary baseplate before the metal framework is waxed up and cast. There are, however, some very brief

expositions which could be amplified to advantage, notably the principles and objectives in removable partial denture treatment in which oral hygiene is not mentioned once. The second section of the book applying the principles to diagnosis, treatment planning, clinical and laboratory procedures and patient considerations is also very readable. The emphasis on establishing the optimum relationship with the patient is welcome, but the paragraphs on examination of the mouth and oral tissue cannot be considered as definitive. The recommendation to undertake a prophylaxis prior to impression taking is a timely reminder of its importance. The advice to plan for the extraction of any teeth with doubtful prognosis of their future addition to the prosthesis is worth noting, as is that advocating the mounting of study casts on an articulator so that the optimum positioning of denture components can be ascertained and interference with occlusion avoided. The chapter on communication with the laboratory rightly emphasizes the dentist’s responsibility for precise control over the design and construction of the appliance. The description of the impression procedure for the altered cast technique to increase mucosal support for a free-end saddle is good. Whether intercuspal position can always be made coincident with retruded contact position is more controversial; however, the chapter on developing occlusion and aesthetics contains much sound advice. The emphasis on patient preparation to receive the prosthesis throughout the treatment procedures and the aftercare required by both patient and surgeon is to be welcomed, although any incompatibility between appliance and cleansers is not considered. The book is profusely illustrated which adds greatly to its usefulness. Some of the illustrations are, however, superfluous and a few of the colour illustrations of poor quality. The inclusion of more recent references would also be valuable. Despite these reservations, the book deserves to be on the shelf of every dental library. J. R. Heath Heinemann Dental Dictionary, 3rd edition. J. E. H. Fairpo and C. G. Fairpo. Pp. 31 1. 1987. Heinemann Medical. Softback, f8.95. Webstefs Medical Dictionary. Edited by Roger W. Pease. Pp. 790. 1986. Chapman and Hall. Hardback, f 23.50.

London,

London,

The Original Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases. New Edition prepared by Betty Kirkpatrick. Pp. 1252. 1987. Harlow, Longmans. Hardback, f 11.95. If your secretary’s copy of the Fairpo’s dictionary is, like mine, disintegrating, then this new edition is timely. Still intended primarily for dental students but also for dental auxiliaries and technicians, it has been reset to meet the needs of the age of information technology and is printed directly from disc. The material selected is well displayed and while, at one end of the spectrum, it has been thoroughly updated, it also remains, as an aid to those reading the early literature, a fund of fascinating archaisms: but how far back will a student have to ferret to discover that he has been causing a patient odontohaemodia with an odontoglyph? There are a few errors and omissions; the lengthy definition of Fordyce’s spots fails to state that they are sebaceous glands. The publishers boldly state the virtues of the new edition on the cover and, for once, their claims are justified.

Book Reviews

Webster’s Medical Dictionary is more of a disappointment, not helped by the use of rather coarse paper. The editor claims it is something entirely novel, a language rather than a medical reference book. While this may mean there is more space for the entries, over 55000, many of these are no more than lists of sodium, potassium and calcium salts and of doubtful value. Despite access to Webster’s considerable lexical resources, the book is not without errors: acantholysis is not atrophy of the prickle cell layer. The choice of eponyms, as indeed the compilation as a whole, is based on the current literature but this does not justify including Watson and Crick when Albright is omitted, and if AlbersSchonberg was the first to describe the X-ray grid, as well as osteopetrosis, who then were Drs Bucky and Potter? Dr Peter Mark Roget was already a distinguished retired physician and inventor of the log-log scale when, in 1852, at the age of 7 1, he first published his Thesaurus, and it remains today an enduring monument to the best kind of (early) Victorian values. His plan of classification of the English language into six classes with subsequent, tree-like subdivisions has withstood the test of time and the present edition updates it for the Eighties. Dentate appears under notch, its architectural connotation, and dentist and orthodontist under doctor, a list that also includes leech and quack. P. N. Hirschmann Dentine and Dentine Reactions in the Oral Cavity. Edited by A. Thylstrup, S. A. Leach and V. Qvist. Pp. 270. 1987. Oxford, IRL Press. Softback, f35.00. Both new and established information on the biology of dentine, dentine reactions, dentine and root canes and adhesion to dentine was presented in the course of 24 papers by more than 50 contributors at a Workshop in February 1987 sponsored by the Council of Europe. It opened with a stimulating proposal of criteria for deciding whether to restore or try reversal of caries, which sets the scene for a good review of the biology of dentine. By contrast that on reaction patterns in dentine is short and disappointing. The last paper on scanning microscopy of dentine surfaces gives interesting observations on dentine structure, mineralization and its resorption by osteoclasts, but interpreting the unlabelled photographs and printed stereo pictures which lack instructions is a problem. Dentine microhardness features in the title but not in the text. ‘Dentine Reactions’ discusses first the optical properties of dentine. The authors of a study on the fall in dentine solubility after its exposure to saliva found no plaquemediated increase of fluoride uptake in dentine slabs. A histochemical study of odontoblast function during the secondary dentine reaction to caries precedes a wellbalanced review on the microbiology of dentine caries, which asks whether it is safe to leave microorganisms deep in dentine under restorations. Root caries is shown to be similar to coronal caries. The informative quantitation of the demineralization in dentine and enamel in vitro is confirmed in the next paper using a different in vitro model for dentine caries. Other papers in this section consider the histology of root caries, carious degradation of dentine matrix, odontoblast sulphate metabolism in fluorosis, and clinically ‘active’ versus ‘inactive’ root caries, and it ends with two papers from Oslo which show that calcium fluoride is present as insoluble particles on dentine (or enamel) surfaces for several days after a single exposure to metal fluoride solutions, and thus revive the earlier controversy about

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the desirability of forming calcium fluoride in topical fluoride treatment. The final section gives an overview of dentine bonding materials, but the methods for testing bond strengths seemed out of place here. A trio of papers on adhesion of bacteria to dentine starts from theoretical predictions to progress through their laboratory and in vivo testing with some surprises in store. Camera-ready publications of this type often contain a range of typefaces, styles and errors, but the editors have kept these down to a minimum and compiled a wealth of recent information on dentine, with only the odd omission, such as dentine permeability. There is however no index limiting its usefulness for the postgraduate or research worker who would benefit most by consulting it. A. Tatevossian Appearance and Aesthetics in Denture Practice. Dental Practitioner Handbook 37. D. J. Lamb. Pp. 1 10. 1987. Guildford, Wright. Softback, f 1 1.95. This recent addition to the series of Dental Practitioner Handbooks offers a very reasonably priced introduction to a difficult and demanding area of dentistry. The greater wealth and leisure of the middle-aged and elderly in recent years has led to increased expectations of dentures in maintaining, or even improving, personal appearance and masticatory efficiency. As the author himself states, the Denture Conciliation Committees often provide witness to dentists’ ‘heroic failures’ to satisfy patients’ demands. The first four chapters deal with the problems that may be posed by tooth loss, the general effects of ageing on appearance, clinical assessment of patients and, in some detail, the management of complete denture cases. The final two chapters deal rather more briefly with the problems posed by partial and immediate dentures. Appendices on denture cleansing, clinical photography and a useful bibliography conclude the volume. The book opens somewhat surprisingly with a photograph of the author as an ‘ideal face’ but closer examination would probably show that his tongue is in his cheek! As the book develops, his clinical expertise and experience are everywhere apparent. Although there is little that is new to the experienced prosthetist, the fundamental principles are refreshingly well explained with a clear understanding of the compromises that may have to be made. Students and the recently qualified will learn a lot from reading it and should feel much more confident in choosing and positioning teeth as a result. The budget price of this handbook has precluded the use of colour illustrations and the quality of the many black and white illustrations is variable (Figures 4*8a and 4.8b are printed in the wrong order). None the less this text can be warmly recommended to all concerned with aesthetics in denture construction as a very clear distillation of the guiding principles involved in achieving that harmonious, if sometimes elusive, combination of appearance and function. A R. Ogden A Colour Atlas of Endodontics. J. J. Messing and C. R. Stock. Pp. 273. 1988. London, Wolfe Medical Publications. Hardback f 60.00. This is the latest in the series of atlases which, the publishers claim, is now probably the largest published collection of diagnostic colour photographs. The quality here is first class, with excellent colour balance and sharp