Wood-polymer Composites

Wood-polymer Composites

Journal of Cleaner Production 110 (2016) 194 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Cleaner Production journal homepage: www.elsevier...

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Journal of Cleaner Production 110 (2016) 194

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Cleaner Production journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro

Book review Wood-polymer Composites, Kristiina Oksman Niska, Mohini Sain. Woodhead Publishing Limited (2008). 366 pp., Price $270, ISBN 978-1-84569-272-8 The book, “Wood-polymer composites”, is one of a few books addressing almost the whole spectrum of WPCs that have recently been used in construction, furniture, and automotive sectors. The publisher of the book is Woodhead Publishing, while the book’s selling price is USD270. The book is structured into 15 significant chapters written by well-known experts in the field of WPCs from academic and industrial backgrounds. The topics may be divided into three main parts: manufacturing of WPCs, performance of WPCs, and commercial aspects. All of these topics require thorough discussion and documentation, since the industry recently has been focussing on WPCs. This scenario is generally discussed by the authors in the introduction in relation to the successful history of WPCs and its progressive industrial development in Europe, North America, and Asia. The first part of the book provides detailed information on manufacturing technologies. Embedded in Chapters 1e4, the theme focuses on raw material sources and processes. The characteristics of polymers and wood materials used are discussed in depth, e.g., molecular structures and primary properties of commercial polymers, and anatomical structure and basic features of wood. The additives used in production are documented, explaining the rheological aspect of additives and their components in controlling the entire WPC creation process. The interaction between wood and synthetic polymers, which involves interface and interphase reactions in composites, also is elaborated in detail. The second part, performance of WPCs, covers Chapters 5e13. Several essential topics, such as mechanical properties, micromechanical modelling, outdoor durability, and the processing performance of WPCs, are presented. In these chapters, some critical elements such as elastic performance, viscoelasticity and creep failure, hygroexpansion, and protection against extreme exposures, are emphasized. Within this theme, performance properties of WPCs are evaluated and enhanced for their actual uses. The basic understanding of these elements is also extended into specific construction applications by establishing building codes of WPCs as potential green products. In addition, a case study of life-cycle assessment (LCA) for WPCs by comparing the environmental impacts of WPCs with glass-fibre-reinforced polypropylene composites (in the case of car-door panel production) is included. The third part, which contains Chapters 14 and 15, concludes the book by focusing on marketing aspects and future trends (in a

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.146 0959-6526

case study from Europe) and by listing strategies for the improvement of commercialized WPCs (in a case study on WPC decking products in North America). Some of the book's authors discuss the characteristics of WPCs in the context of the environmental impacts of cleaner production. In relation to the depletion of fossil-fuel resources, the authors discuss the primary concern of reducing the use of syntheticderived material in polymer composites production. Being abundant, lightweight, biodegradable, and low cost, this natural fibre reduces the environmental impact of processing and takes more volume per unit weight, both reasons to employ this fibre in polymer composites manufacturing. As reported in this book, replacing glass fibre with wood fibre reduces air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy use in processing. The authors add that the incorporation of wood sources in polymer composites constituent influences not only good environmental practices through its processing but also the properties development and services requirement of the entire product. Moreover, the relationship between WPCs and outdoor environmental exposure are also included in the discussion. Some issues, such as the reaction of WPCs in resisting moisture and thermal effects, biological attack, weathering changes, and other environmental variations, will also attract the attention of readers. In general, this book could be considered a textbook for a WPCs topic in a university or any other higher institutional level that relates to the WPCs field of study. The simplicity and ease of presentation of this book are also considered attractive for readers less familiar with WPCs topics. Each chapter consists of understandable figures, tables, and photos. Additionally, each chapter provides a comprehensive list of references useful for more-in-depth reading. The information in this book remains up-to-date and as progressive as ever, considering the fact that it documents all basic knowledge and techniques in producing good WPCs. As a complete document, this book will be used as reference for future progress in advanced WPCs. Overall, Niska and Sain provide an attractive overview exploring the scientific and industrial aspects of the potential uses and development of WPCs. Shahril Anuar Bin Bahari €ttingen, DFG-RTG 1703 “Resource Efficiency in University of Go Interorganizational Networks”, Faculty of Forest Science and Forest Ecology, Department of Wood Biology and Wood Products, Germany E-mail addresses: [email protected], [email protected]