Wood Sugar Molasses as a Feedstuff for Chicks*

Wood Sugar Molasses as a Feedstuff for Chicks*

Wood Sugar Molasses as a Feedstuff for Chicks* JAMES MCGINNIS, H. I. MACGREGOR, AND J. S. CARVER Washington Agricultural Experiment Station, Pullman,...

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Wood Sugar Molasses as a Feedstuff for Chicks* JAMES MCGINNIS, H. I. MACGREGOR, AND J. S. CARVER

Washington Agricultural Experiment Station, Pullman, Washington (Received for publication December 9, 1947)

EXPERIMENTAL

OLASSES produced as a by-product of the cane and beet sugar refining industries has been used extensively as a feed ingredient in different types of poultry rations. Ott, Boucher, and Knandel (1942a) reviewed the literature dealing with the feeding of cane molasses to poultry. Upp (1937) showed that a diet for chicks containing 15 per cent of cane molasses in place of an equal amount of corn was too laxative for most chicks. His recommendation was that not more than five to seven percent molassses be used in all-mash chick rations. Ott, Boucher, and Knandel (1942a) showed that six percent of molasses in a diet for growing chicks was not too laxative. Similar results were reported by Ott, Boucher and Knandel (1942b) using adult hens.

A supply of wood sugar molasses produced by hydrolyzing Douglas-fir sawmill, waste was supplied by the Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, in the summer of 1947. The wood molasses contained approximately 45 percent fermentable sugars, and 60 percent total solids. This sample of molasses was added to the chick starting diet at the expense of corn and wheat with adjustments in the soybean oil meal to maintain the protein level. The highest level of molasses used was 20 percent. The composition of the different rations fed in this experiment is given in Table 1. Unsexed New Hampshire chicks which had been fed a standard chick ration during the first week of life were sorted at random and distributed into ten groups of 12 chicks each. Duplicate groups of chicks were fed each experimental diet. The chicks were housed in electrically heated battery brooders with wire floors. At the end of each week they were weighed and a record of feed consumption made. The experiment was terminated when the chicks were four weeks of age. Observations were made from time to time on the condition of the droppings to determine whether or not the high levels of wood molasses had a laxative effect.

M

Beet molasses has been used in stock feeds but not to the extent of cane molasses because of the limitation due to higher mineral content. The laxative effect of both cane and beet molasses has been attributed to the high mineral content. Because of the scarcity of cane and beet molasses for animal feeding, and the relatively high price of these ingredients, it was of interest to determine whether chicks could utilize molasses produced by hydrolyzing wood and to determine the tolerance of chicks for such molasses. * Published as Scientific Paper No. 752, College of Agriculture and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, State College of Washington, Pullman, Washington.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The average body weights are given in Table 2. Even though there was a tendency for the highest level of wood molasses 459

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INTRODUCTION

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JAMES MCGINNIS, H. I. MACGREGOR AND J. S. CARVER TABLE 1.—Composition of experimental diets Diet numbers Lot numbers Ingredients

2 2&7

3 3&8

4 4&9

5 5&10

%

%

%

%

%

8.00

6.00 5.00 30.00 30.00 1.55 2.20 19.00 5.00 5.15 3.00 0.53 0.50 0.10 0.02

4.00 10.00 28.10 28.00 1.60 2.20 19.80 5.00 5.15 3.00 0.53 0.50 0.10 0.02

2.00 15.00 26.15 26.10 1.65 2.20 20.60 5.00 5.15 3.00 0.53 0.50 0.10 0.02

20.00 24.20 24.10 1.70 2.20 21.50 5.00 5.15 3.00 0.53 0.50 0.10 0.02



32.00 32.00 1.50 2.20 18.00 5.00 5.15 3.00 0.53 0.50 0.10 0.02

to depress growth, none of the differences in body weight were statistically significant. No mortality occurred during the experimental period. From the observations on the condition of the chick droppings, it was apparent that no laxative effects were encountered even in the chicks fed 20 percent of wood molasses. The droppings from the chicks fed the high level of wood molasses were, however, a very dark color. In view of the results which were obtained in this experiment on the use of wood molasses as a substitute for grains, and the anticipated low cost of producing wood molasses, it appears that this material might have a very important place in the manufacture of poultry feeds. This is especially true since the chick can tolerate high levels of this ingredient in the feed. However, in the use of high levels of wood molasses, it should be understood that additional protein must be provided from either soybean oil meal or other protein concentrates, since wood molasses contains little or none of this nutrient. Because of the high calcium content of wood molasses it may be possible that a decreased amount of calcium supplements could be used in the manufacture of

TABLE 2.—Average weights of chicks fed graded levels of wood molasses

Lot •vr~

" w_ o o /

°-

ws

to*™*

% 0

grams 224 226 225*

0 0

2 7

5

229 225

227

0 0

0

3 8

10

202 233

217

0 0

0

4 9

15

215 214

215

0 0

0

5 10

20

196 216

206

0 0

0

N

1 6

^

\

weight at

Mortality

% 0

* Average of duplicate groups.

poultry feeds, when high levels of wood molasses are added. SUMMARY

In an experiment in which wood molasses was used as a substitute for corn and wheat, it was found under the conditions of the experiment that: 1. Wood molasses may be used satisfactorily as a substitute for cereal grains when additional protein is added to the diet by soybean oil meal.

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Water Wood molasses (60% solids) Ground yellow corn Ground wheat Dicalcium phosphate Ground oyster shell Soybean oil meal Dehydrated alfalfa meal Fish meal Dried brewers' yeast Iodized salt B-Y riboflavin cone. Vitamin A-D oil (5,000A/1,000D) Manganese sulphate

1 1&6

WOOD SUGAR MOLASSES AS A FEEDSTUFF FOR CHICKS

2. Levels of wood molasses up to 20 percent did not have a laxative effect. 3. Even though there was a tendency for the higher levels of wood sugar molasses to depress chick growth, the chicks were not significantly smaller than those receiving no molasses. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

and Dr. E. G. Locke, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, Oregon, are gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES

Ott, Walther H., R. V. Boucher, and H. C. Knandel, 1942a. Feeding-cane molasses as a constituent of poultry rations. I. Molasses for growing chickens. Poultry Sci. 21:340-345. , 1942b. Feeding-cane molasses as a constituent of poultry rations. II. Molasses for adult chickens. Poultry Sci. 21: 536-539. Upp, C. W., 1937. Cane molasses in poultry rations. Louisiana Ag. Exp. Sta. Bull. 289.

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The assistance and suggestions of Dr. E. E. Harris, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, Dr. I. V. Anderson, Rocky Mountain Forest Experiment Station, Missoula, Montana,

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