Zeaxanthin as a Broiler Pigmenter

Zeaxanthin as a Broiler Pigmenter

Zeaxanthin as a Broiler Pigmenter W . L . MARUSICH, E . F . OGRINZ, N . CAMERLENGO, J. MCCAMBLEY AND M. MITROVIC Animal Health Research Department, H...

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Zeaxanthin as a Broiler Pigmenter W . L . MARUSICH, E . F . OGRINZ, N . CAMERLENGO, J. MCCAMBLEY AND M. MITROVIC

Animal Health Research Department, Hoffmann-La

Roche Inc., Nutley, New Jersey 07110

(Received for publication December ! 1, 1975)

POULTRY SCIENCE 55: 1486-1494, 1976

INTRODUCTION

L

UTEIN (3,3'-dihydroxy-a-carotene) and zeaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-p-carotene) are the two major pigmenting oxycarotenoids in yellow corn (Quackenbush et al., 1961; Rubin and Shillinger, 1973) and corn gluten meal (Livingston et al., 1969). Zeaxanthin has been shown to be effective as a broiler pigmenter in a few limited trials (Williams et al., 1963; Quackenbush et al., 1965; and Marusich et al., 1974). Thus it was of interest to further evaluate zeaxanthin as a broiler pigmenter in stabilized gelatin beadlet form comparing it to both commercial pigmenters (Trial 1) and to selected feed ingredients high in mixed oxycarotenoids (Trial 2). EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Experiment 1. Day-old sexed broiler-type chicks (White Mountain female x Vantress male) from a commercial hatchery were assembled into uniform groups of 10 birds each (5 females and 5 males) based on weight. They were housed in electrically heated, thermostatically-controlled units with raised wire floors for the first 4 weeks and then transferred to grower units without auxiliary

heat for the last 3 weeks. They were reared in air-conditioned, thermostatically-controlled rooms with 15 hours of light provided by automatic timers. Feed and tap water were provided ad libitum with feed intake recorded throughout. A low oxycarotenoid basal broiler starter ration was fed for the first 4 weeks followed by a low-oxycarotenoid broiler grower ration for the last 3 weeks (Table 1). Pure zeaxanthin in stabilized gelatin beadlet form was compared to P-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester (APO-EE), dried marigold petal meal and to a concentrated extract of marigold petal meal. The APO-EE is also in stabilized gelatin beadlet form and is the Animal Nutrition Research Council (A.N.R.C.) Broiler Pigmentation Standard (Marusich, 1969, 1970). The 2 marigold petal meal products contain primarily lutein (Quackenbush and Miller, 1972). All supplements were added to the low-pigment broiler starter feed based on the appropriate chemical assay. The stabilized beadlets of zeaxanthin and APO-EE were analyzed by a modification of the method of Osadca et al. (1966). Zeaxanthin was read in hexane:acetone (80:20) at 474 mjx. and potency

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ABSTRACT Zeaxanthin in a stabilized gelatin beadlet formulation was evaluated as a broiler pigmenter in 2 trials. In the first experiment, low oxycarotenoid basal broiler starter and grower rations were fed continuously for 7 weeks with zeaxanthin added to both of the rations at concentrations of 11, 22 and 33 mg./kg. Zeaxanthin was compared to three other pigmentation sources: (3-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester, marigold petal meal and a concentrated extract from marigold petal meal. In the second experiment, zeaxanthin was added at a concentration of 2.75 to 11 mg./kg. to broiler grower rations containing <1.0, 5.5, 11, 16.5, or 22 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg. from feed ingredients and fed from the 29th through the 49th day. The birds from both experiments were processed under simulated commercial conditions. Shank color was visually scored by 3 or 4 persons using the Roche Yolk Color Fan and breast feather tract pigmentation was measured using the Purina Skin Pigmentation Guide. Zeaxanthin was shown to be a very effective broiler pigmenter producing a highly acceptable yellow to yellow-orange color in both the shanks and breast skin.

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ZEAXANTHIN AS A BROILER PIGMENTER

TABLE 1.—Composition of low pigment broiler starter and grower rations (Experiment 1)*

% Ingredients

"Rations assayed less than 1.0 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg.

calculated with an E|^m of 2360. The APOEE was read in petroleum ether at 446-450 mix. and potency calculated with an EJ^m of 2500. The marigold petal meal and the concentrated extract from the marigold petal meal were assayed by the Quackenbush and Miller (1972) procedure. Concentrations of 11, 22, and 33 mg. of oxycarotenoids per kg. of feed (10, 20 and 30 g./ton) from each pigmentation source were fed from day 1 through 7 weeks to duplicate treatment groups. Chemical analysis of all the feeds confirmed the presence of the oxycarotenoids at the stated concentrations at both the start and finish of the trial using the A.O.A.C. (1975) method. All birds were individually weighed at 7 weeks. Feed intake and total oxycarotenoid intake were determined. The birds were exsanguinated, scalded at 53° C , mechanically defeathered and placed in chill tanks with

cracked ice and water. They were coded and scored without identification of prior treatment for shank color, using the Roche Yolk Color Fan, Ed. 1965 (Vuilleumier, 1969). Breast feather tract pigmentation was measured using the Purina Skin Pigmentation Guide (fan). Visual scoring was performed independently by three individuals experienced in the evaluation of broiler pigmentation. Experiment 2. Day-old chicks (same source and type as used in Experiment 1) were assembled into uniform groups of 10 birds each (5 females and 5 males). One of 5 basal starter rations with oxycarotenoid contents of
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Milo Soybean meal (49% protein) Stabilized animal fat Fish meal (60% protein) Defluorinated phosphate Sodium chloride Ethoxyquin Vitamin premix(1) Trace mineral mix(2) (1) Vitamin premix provides per kg.: 6600 I.U. A 13.2 I.U. E 1650 I.C.U. D3 3.5 mg. B, 5.6 mg. B2 5.6 mg. B6 Biotin 175.0 meg. Folic acid 1.1 mg. 11.0 meg. B12 2.0 mg. K (MSBC) 18.0 mg. Ca pantothenate 50.0 mg. Niacin 1.2 gm. Choline chloride

%

Starter Grower 54.50 60.50 34.00 28.10 6.00 6.00 3.00 3.00 1.80 1.70 0.40 0.40 0.0125 0.0125 0.25 0.25 0.025 0.025 (2) Trace mineral mix provides per kg.: Manganese 60 mg. Zinc 45 mg. Iron 20 mg. Copper 2.5 mg. Iodine 1.2 mg. Cobalt 0.5 mg.

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MARUSICH, OGRINZ, CAMERLENGO, MCCAMBLEY AND MITROVIC

TABLE 2.—Composition of five broiler rations with varying oxycarotenoid content from feed ingredients (Experiment 2) Ingredient

<1

Oxycarotenoid content of ration (mg./kg.) 5.5 11.0 16.5

22.0

,

IK.

and a concentrated extract of marigold meal as detailed in Table 2. Zeaxanthin in stabilized beadlet form was added to the 5 basal rations at concentrations ranging from 2.75 to 11.0 mg./kg. (2.5 to 10.0 g./ton). The basal ration containing 22.0 mg./kg. was also supplemented with 11.0 mg./kg. from the concentrated extract of marigold meal (total 33.0 mg. oxycarotenoid/kg.). These supplements were fed for the last 3 weeks prior to marketing. The yellow corn, corn gluten meal and dehydrated alfalfa meal were assayed for oxycarotenoid content by the A.O.A.C. (1975) method as were samples of the finished feeds. The chemical analysis confirmed the presence of the oxycarotenoids at the stated concentrations in the feeds. The concentrated

extract from marigold petal meal and the zeaxanthin stabilized beadlets were analyzed by the procedures previously cited under Experiment 1. The other experimental conditions were the same as in Experiment 1 except that 4 persons visually scored the shanks and breast feather tracts. In addition, the foot pads were scored using the Roche Yolk Color Fan. RESULTS The growth, feed conversion, oxycarotenoid intake, shank and breast feather tract visual scores and calculated pigmenting potencies relative to the A.N.R.C. Broiler Pigmentation Standard (APO-EE) are presented in Table 3 for Experiment 1. The 7 week

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12.43 12.42 Milo 14.36 14.36 54.36 32.41 32.00 29.87 32.00 Soybean meal (49% protein) 32.41 Stabilized animal fat 5.25 5.25 5.25 5.25 5.25 3.00 3.00 Menhaden fish meal (60% protein) 3.00 3.00 3.00 Defluorinated phosphate 1.78 1.81 1.78 1.81 1.80 Cellulose 1.61 0.08 1.64 0.10 2.15 Limestone 0.75 0.67 0.75 0.67 0.77 Salt 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 DL-Methionine (98%) 0.16 0.12 0.16 0.15 0.11 Vitamin premixa) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 Trace mineral mix<2) 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 Ethoxyquin 0.0125 0.0125 0.0125 0.0125 0.0125 Yellow corn<3) 40.00 40.00 40.00 40.00 — Corn gluten meal (60% protein)<4) 2.00 2.00 2.00 — — Dehydrated alfalfa meal (17% protein) <» 1.90 1.90 — — — Cone, extract from marigold meal<6) 0.01065 — — — — (1) See Table 1, footnote 1. (2) See Table 1, footnote 2. (3) Yellow corn contained 13.8 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg. and provided 5.5 mg. oxycarotenoid/kg. of finished feed. (4) Corn gluten meal contained 275 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg. and provided 5.5 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg. of finished feed. (5) Dehydrated alfalfa meal contained 290 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg. and provided 5.5 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg. of finished feed. (6) Concentrated extract from marigold meal contained 51.63 g. oxycarotenoids/kg. and provided 5.5 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg. of finished feed.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

<1.0 11 22 33 11 22 33 11 22 33 11 22 33

Feed intake (g.) 2864 2846 2898 2902 2927 2856 2872 2850 3011 2952 3047 2922 2821

Weight gain

(g-) 1404 1395 1407 1402 1428 1421 1394 1425 1427 1399 1451 1405 1432 2.04 2.04 2.06 2.07 2.05 2.01 2.06 2.00 2.11 2.11 2.10 2.08 1.97

Feed conversion <2.9 31.3 63.8 95.8 32.2 62.8 94.8 31.4 66.2 97.4 33.5 64.3 93.1

Oxycarotenoid intake (mg./ bird) <1 2.4 6.3 8.6 8.4 11.4 11.8 2.2 4.6 5.9 1.9 4.0 6.6

Shank <« <1 3.7 7.4 8.8 10.0 12.1 12.2 3.8 6.8 8.8 3.8 6.3 9.5

Breast feather tract <7>

Visual scores <5)

Contained 84.0 mg. APO-EE/g. beadlets. Contained 10.5 mg. zeaxanthin/g. beadlets. Contained 5.4 mg. oxycarotenoids/g. Contained 47.4 mg. oxycarotenoids/g. Average values for 20 broilers scored by 3 people. Roche Yolk Color Fan, Ed. 1965 (1-15); the higher the number, the deeper the color. Purina Skin Pigmentation Guide (0-13); the higher the number, the deeper the color.

Concentrated extract of marigold meal |4)

Dehydrated marigold petal meal«>

Zeaxanthin stabilized beadlets' 2 '

None (low-pigment) P-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester stabilized beadlets"'

Oxycarotenoid source

Level mg./kg. of feed

Seven-week data

0.64

0.62

1.85

1.00

Relat poten

TABLE 3.—Growth, feed conversion, oxycarotenoid intake, shank and breast feather tract visual score sources fed to broiler chickens for seven weeks (Experimen

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MARUSICH, OGRINZ, CAMERLENGO, MCCAMBLEY AND MITROVIC

enoids increased ( < 1 , 5.5, 11.0, 16.5, 22.0 and 33.0 mg./kg.) and as the dietary concentration of zeaxanthin increased (0, 2.75, 5.5, or 11.0 mg./kg.) with each of the 5 basal rations. These data are presented in Table 4 and are also shown graphically (Figure 1). The visual score data were statistically analyzed to obtain the potency for zeaxanthin relative to the feed ingredient oxycarotenoids over the <1 to 22.0 mg./kg. concentrations. Zeaxanthin potencies ranged from 1.343 to 3.000 for shanks with an average of 2.090; from 1.187 to 2.377 for foot pads with an average of 1.832 and from 1.273 to 2.323 for breast feather tract skin with an average of 1.738. These average potencies for shank and breast skin pigmentation are in close agreement with the values shown in Table 3 from Experiment 1.

DISCUSSION In Experiment 1 (Table 3) the stabilized beadlets of (3-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester (APO-EE) served well as the A.N.R.C. Broiler Pigmentation Standard. These results confirmed previous findings with the A.N.R.C. Standard (Harms et al, 1971; Herrick et al, 1972; Hinton et al, 1973; Garlich et al, 1974; and Halloran, 1974). The data from Table 3 show zeaxanthin to have almost twice the pigmenting potency of APO-EE, which had been shown to be an effective pigmenter (Rauch, 1965; Marusich, 1969, 1970; Marusich and Bauernfeind, 1970). The superior performance of zeaxanthin as a poultry pigmenter has been attributed to the deep color it produces in the respective tissues (Scott et al, 1968; Livingston et al, 1971; and Halloran, 1974). The marigold petal meal and the concentrated extract from marigold petal meal performed similarly and both were less effective than zeaxanthin. In Experiment 2, zeaxanthin was fed for the last 3 weeks and added to rations containing from <1 to 22.0 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg.

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weight gain and feed conversion data are comparable for the 4 oxycarotenoid sources. The shank and breast skin visual scores of the broilers fed zeaxanthin are markedly higher than those of birds fed APO-EE and the marigold petal meal products over the entire 11 to 33 mg./kg. feeding range. The birds fed APO-EE exhibited more intense shank pigmentation than the birds fed the marigold meal products, however, breast feather tract visual scores were comparable. The 2 marigold petal meal products performed similarly based on both shank and breast skin visual scores. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Slope ratio assays were performed to obtain the relative potencies of the 3 pigmentation sources compared to the beadlets of APO-EE. Good linear fits were obtained by relating the respective responses to the actual dosages (mg. of oxycarotenoids/kg. of feed). The relative potencies and approximate 95% confidence intervals of these potencies are also given in Table 3. Zeaxanthin in stabilized beadlet form was about twice as effective as the A.N.R.C. Standard. In turn, the two marigold petal meal products were only a third to a half as effective as zeaxanthin based on the shank and breast skin visual scores, respectively. The weight gain, feed conversion, oxycarotenoid intake from feed ingredients, zeaxanthin intake, visual scores and calculated relative potencies are shown in Table 4 for Experiment 2. The ingredient substitutions and changes, as listed in Table 2 for the 5 basal rations, had no effect on growth rate or feed conversion. The oxycarotenoid intake has been broken down in Table 4 to cover the first 4 weeks when only the feed ingredient oxycarotenoids were fed and for the last 3 weeks when zeaxanthin was added to the same 5 rations. The average visual scores for the shank, foot pad and breast skin all increased as the dietary level of feed ingredient oxycarot-

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

0 2.75 5.5 11.0

0 2.75 5.5 11.0 0 2.75 5.5 11.0

0 5.5 11.0

0 5.5 11.0 0

5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0

16.5 16.5 16.5

22.0 22.0 22.0 33.01"

Zeaxanthin

<1 <1 <1 <1

Feed ingred.

Oxycarotenoid content (mg./kg. of feed)

1444 1532 1519 1521

1438 1524 1498

1563 1436 1531 1549 1524 1482 1496 1478

1490 1501 1456 1506

Weight gain (g.)

2960 3064 2992 2996

2991 3018 2951

3110 3073 3001 3052 3185 3008 3082 3030

2965 3002 2999 3102

Feed intake (g.)

2.05 2.00 1.97 1.97

2.08 1.98 1.97

1.99 2.14 1.96 1.97 2.09 2.03 2.06 2.05

1.99 2.00 2.06 2.06

Feed conversion

Seve n-week data

24.5 25.8 24.8 25.1

19.0 18.8 19.5

6.5 6.4 6.3 6.5 12.9 12.4 12.8 12.2

<1.2 <1.2 <1.1 <1.2

Feed ingred.

1-28 days

40.6 41.6 41.0 61.2

30.4 31.0 29.2

10.6 10.5 10.2 10.3 22.1 20.7 21.1 21.1

<1.8 <1.8 <1.9 <1.9

Feed ingred.

0 10.4 20.5 0

0 10.3 21.4

0 5.2 10.2 20.6 0 5.2 10.5 21.1

0 5.0 10.2 20.7

Zeaxanthin

29- 49 days

Oxycarotenoid intake (mg.)

5.2 6.4 8.6 6.7

4.8 5.8 7.8

2.0 3.0 4.2 6.0 3.2 5.0 5.7 7.3

<1 1.0 1.7 5.2

Shank' 7 ' p

Visua

Yellow corn contained 13.8 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg. and provided 5.5 mg./kg. of finished feed. Corn gluten meal contained 275 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg. and provided 5.5 mg./kg. of finished feed. Dehydrated alfalfa meal contained 290 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg. and provided 5.5 mg./kg. of finished feed. Concentrated extract from marigold meal contained 51.63 g. bxycarotenoids/kg. and provided 5.5 mg./kg. of f 22.0 mg./kg. fed for first 4 weeks, then 11.0 mg./kg. from the concentrated extract of marigold meal fed for l Average values for 20 broilers scored by 4 people. Roche Yolk Color Fan, Ed. 1965 (1-15); the higher the number, the deeper the color. Purina Skin Pigmentation Guide (0-13); the higher the number, the deeper the color.

YC + Corn gluten meal (CGM)<2> YC + CGM + Alfalfa meal (AM)"' YC + CGM + AM + Cone. extract from marigold meal<">

Low-pigment milo basal ration Yellow corn (YC)' 1 '

Basal ration modifications feed ingredients

TABLE 4.—Growth, feed conversion, oxycarotenoid intake, shank, foot pad, and breast feather tract v rations for seven weeks and supplemented with zeaxanthin for three week

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MARUSICH, OGRINZ, CAMERLENGO, MCCAMBLEY AND MITROVIC

11.5

Breost

Feather Tract

—+

10

—o

o-Feed Ingredient Oxycarotenoids: 0,5.5, 11.0, 16.5, 22.0, a 33.0mg/kg x - O m g / kg

0 - 5 . 5 mg / kg — Zeaxanthin Added

T -I6.5mg /kg + -22.0mg/kg I

J

9

Foot

I

Pad ..>

UJ

7 -

rr o o

to

4 -

—*ILJ 10

1

1

1

1—

1

Shank

+ 7

4 y

1

x'

i

2.75 5.5

I

1

1

1

1

11.0

16.5

22.0

27.5

33.0

M6 OF TOTAL OXYCAROTENOIDS / KG OF FEED FIG. 1. Visual pigmentation scores of broilers fed graded concentrations of feed ingredient oxycarotenoids for 7 weeks and zeaxanthin for only the last 3 weeks (Experiment 2).

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A - l I.Omg/kg

ZEAXANTHIN AS A BROILER PIGMENTER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors wish to acknowledge the technical assistance of Mrs. T. Vicente and Mr. M. Osadca of the Food and Agricultural Product Development Department for the oxycarotenoid analysis of the various pigmentation sources and the finished feeds and to Dr. S. Givens of the Research Statistics Department for the Statistical analysis of the data.

REFERENCES Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1975. Official Methods of Analysis, 12th ed., pp. 822-823, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C. Garlich, J. D., D. M. Bryant, H. M. Covington, D. S. Chamblee and A. E. Purcell, 1974. Egg yolk and broiler skin pigmentation with sweet potato vine meal. Poultry Sci. 53: 692-699. Halloran, H. R., 1974. Evaluating xanthophyll sources for broilers. Proc. XVth World's Poultry Congress: 241-244. Harms, R. H., E. H. Ahmed and J. L. Fry, 1971. Broiler pigmentation—factors affecting it and problems in its measurement. Proc. Maryland Nutr. Conf.: 81-86. Herrick, G. ML, J. L. Fry and R. H. Harms, 1972. The use of beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester as a standard for determination of xanthophyll utilization from natural sources by broilers. Poultry Sci. 51:428-435. Hinton, C. F., J. L. Fry and R. H. Harms, 1973. Subjective and colorimetric evaluation of the xanthophyll utilization of natural and synthetic pigments in broiler diets. Poultry Sci. 52: 2169-2180. Livingston, A. L., D. D. Kuzmicky, R. E. Knowles and G. O. Kohler, 1969. The nature and deposition of the carotenoids from alfalfa and corn gluten meal in chicken skin. Poultry Sci. 48: 1678-1683. Livingston, A. L., D. D. Kuzmicky, G. O. Kohler and R. E. Knowles, 1971. Correlation of chemical methods and biological assay for xanthophyll. Proc. 11th Tech. Alfalfa Conf.: 84-92. Marusich, W. L., 1969. Feasibility of broiler pigmentation standard. Feedstuffs, 41(3): 26. Marusich, W. L., 1970. Collaborative ANRC broiler pigmentation standard study—final report. Feedstuffs, 42(10): 30-31. Marusich, W. L., and J. C. Bauernfeind, 1970. Oxycarotenoids in poultry pigmentation 2. Broiler studies. Poultry Sci. 49: 1566-1579. Marusich, W. L., E. F. Ogrinz, N. Camerlengo, J. McCambley and M. Mitrovic, 1974. Zeaxanthin as an egg yolk and broiler pigmenter. Proc. XVth World's Poultry Congress: 310-312. Osadca, M., E. De Ritter and R. H. Bunnell, 1966. Assay of apocarotenal and canthaxanthin in foods. J. Assoc. Off. Agr. Chem. 49: 1078-1083. Quackenbush, F. W., J. G. Firch, W. J. Rabourn, M. McQuistan, E. N. Petzold and T. E. Kargl, 1961. Analysis of carotenoids in corn grain. J. Agr. Food Chem. 9: 132-135. Quackenbush, F. W., S. Kvakovszky, T. Hoover and J. C. Rogler, 1965. Deposition of individual carot-

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from yellow corn, corn gluten meal, dehydrated alfalfa meal and a concentrated extract from marigold petal meal. Zeaxanthin proved to be a highly effective broiler pigmenter based on the visual scores from the shank, foot pad and breast feather tract skin. The data suggest that one gram of zeaxanthin can replace an average of up to 2 grams of mixed oxycarotenoids from feed ingredients. The deep yellow to yellow-orange color associated with zeaxanthin as contrasted with the light yellow of lutein, which is the predominant oxycarotenoid of feed ingredients and the marigold meal products, accounts for its greater potency. The superiority of zeaxanthin over the concentrated extract from marigold petal meal is apparent when specific visual scores are compared (Table 4). Zeaxanthin at 11 mg./kg. resulted in visual score increases of 1.9 for shank, 1.4 for foot pad, and 1.3 for breast skin above those obtained with 11 mg. oxycarotenoids/kg. from the marigold meal extract when both are added to the basal ration already containing 22 mg. of oxycarotenoids/kg. These data support the previous findings that zeaxanthin in stabilized beadlet form is a highly effective broiler skin pigmenter. It imparts a very desirable color over a wide range of feeding concentrations when added to rations also varying widely in oxycarotenoid content. It is efficacious when fed continuously or for only the last several weeks prior to marketing.

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enoids in avian skin. J. Assoc. Off. Agr. Chem. 48: 1241-1244. Quackenbush, F. W., and S. L. Miller, 1972. Composition and analysis of the carotenoids in marigold petals. J. Assoc. Off. Agr. Chem. 55: 617621. Rauch, W., 1965. An objective measuring technique for measuring the shank color of hens and the effect on shank color of carotenoids in feeds. Arch. f. Geflugelk. 29: 1-26. Rubin M., and J. A. Shillinger, 1973. Corn II. Varietal

differences of the xanthophyll content. Proc. Maryland Nutr. Conf.: 110-116. Scott, M. L., I. Ascarelli and G. Olson, 1968. Studies of egg yolk pigmentation. Poultry Sci. 47: 863-872. Vuilleumier, J. P., 1969. The 'Roche Yolk Colour Fan'—an instrument for measuring yolk colour. Poultry Sci. 48: 767-779. Williams, W. P., Davies, R. E. and J. R. Couch, 1963. The utilization of carotenoids by the hen and chick. Poultry Sci. 42: 691-699.

J. L. OBLINGER,2 D. M. JANKY3 AND J. A. KOBURGER2

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (Received for publication December 12, 1975)

ABSTRACT Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of salt brining time, water soaking, and cooking procedures on the tenderness of broilers. In all experiments there were no significant differences in shear values of meat from birds that were either smoked or oven-roasted. Meat from birds that were soaked in salt brine 16 or 32 hours before either smoking or oven-roasting had significantly lower shear force values than meat from unbrined birds. There were no significant differences in shear values between light and dark meat from birds brined for either 16 or 32 hours while shear values for light meat were significantly higher than dark meat from unbrined birds. When broilers were either unbrined or soaked for 32 hours in brine or tap water, the meat from water soaked birds had numerically higher shear force values than meat from unbrined birds. Meat from both water soaked and unbrined birds had significantly higher shear force values than meat from brined birds. Microbiological examination of broilers after smoking showed low levels of total aerobes and an absence of coliforms. POULTRY SCIENCE 55: 1494-1497, 1976

INTRODUCTION

P

purpose of this work was to determine the

REVIOUS work (Janky et al., 1975a, b) has shown that the use of a salt brining

process prior to smoking Cornish hens significantly affected the tenderness of both light and dark meat in the finished product. Much of the pertinent literature on this subject was reviewed

in these

articles

as

well.

effect of two salt brining exposure times on the tenderness of broilers; and further, to determine if both salt brining and

water

soaking for extended periods of time have the desired tenderization effect on broiler meat.

The EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Experiment

1. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Journal Series No. 7015. 2. Food Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611. 3. Poultry Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

1.

One-hundred

forty-four

Cobb color-sexed broilers were grown on a commercial-type broiler feed. At eight weeks of age, the birds were slaughtered, subscalded (60° C ) , mechanically picked,

eviscerated

and chilled overnight in an unagitated ice

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The Effect of Water Soaking, Brining and Cooking Procedure on Tenderness of Broilers1